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Republic of the Philippines

CENTRAL LUZON STATE UNIVERSITY


Science City of Munoz Nueva Ecija

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

AENGR 410
LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 3

Submitted by:
CHRIST RUSSELL SUAN
JERIC UMIPIG

RYAN DUYAG

Submitted to:
DR. VITALIANA MALAMUG
INTRODUCTION

The conditions of the atmosphere at a certain time and place are called weather. Is
weather important in your life? It affects what clothes you wear and your choices of activities. It
may even affect your mood. The weather of an area is due to four factors. They are heat energy,
air pressure, winds, and moisture. Changes in these factors determine the kind of weather an area
will have. We base decisions on what to wear, where to go, and what to do on the weather
forecast.

To make weather maps and forecast weather, weather data must be collected from Earth's
surface and atmosphere. Scientists analyze the weather maps and the data in them to forecast the
weather. These data are collected in many ways. Data comes from a Latin word meaning
"something given." It is the plural form of the word "datum." Today, we often use it as both
singular (meaning information) and plural (meaning facts or pieces of information).

Data are collected at weather stations on the ground. More than four hundred national
weather stations in the United States measure weather conditions many times every day. Each
station measures weather conditions such as temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and
direction, amount of cloud cover, and precipitation. The National Weather Service uses the data
to make weather maps.

OBJECTIVES

After performing the exercise, the students should be able to:

1. Make weather observations for the assigned period


2. Reduce/summarize the gathered weather data
MATERIALS/EQUIPMENT

Weather records from the PAGASA Agromet Station, papers, pens, etc.

PROCEDURE

1. The students examined the weather records of the station and obtained the extreme events
of the following weather elements/variable:
a. Rainfall - Greatest total amount (day, month, annual) and corresponding dates of
occurrences
b. Evaporation - Greatest total amount (day, month, annual) and corresponding dates
of occurrences
c. Air temperature – Highest, lowest and mean values (day, month) and their
respective dates of occurrences
d. Relative humidity – Highest and lowest values (day, month) and dates of
occurrences
e. Tropical cyclones – Greatest number (month, year)
2. One group of the Hydrometeorology laboratory class B was assigned to obtain the daily
values of evaporation. The group used the collected data to get the mean monthly values
and then placed the data in a table using the format presented in the given laboratory
exercise paper. The group also summarized results in a graph and discussed the graph.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1.) After examining the weather records from CLSU-PAGASA, the group obtained the extreme
events of the following weather elements:

A.Rainfall

The greatest amount of evaporation occurred on June 8,2011 with 265 mm.

B. Evaporation

The greatest amount of evaporation happened on April 13, 2003 with 11.9 mm

C.Air temperature

For the year 2013.

Highest value (37.4oC) May 7

Lowest value (19.2oC) Jan 24


For the year 1994-2013
Highest value (39.5oC) May 16, 1998
Lowest value (16.2oC) Dec 29, 1996

D.Relative humidity

The highest relative humidity recorded happened on dates May 28,2003 and June 30, 2004 with
99%.

E.Tropical cyclones

The greatest number of cyclones is 6 that occurred twice on the month of July 1994 and July
2011.
2.) The group was assigned to obtain the daily values of evaporation. The group used the
collected data to get the mean monthly values and then placed the data in a table using the format
presented in the given laboratory exercise paper. The group also summarized results in a graph
and discussed the graph.

Daily Records of Evaporation at the CLSU-PAGASA Agromet Station for the Year 2013

DAY JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
1 5.9 5.2 7.3 7.6 6.8 8.1 4 2.4 1.2 2.9 3.7 3.1
2 6.6 5.9 4.1 6.2 3.9 5.7 5.3 4.2 6.6 6.7 2.8 6
3 3.7 5.1 3.2 9.4 5.1 6.5 3.9 5 3.8 2.5 1.6 5.8
4 4 4.9 5.9 5.7 6.8 6.2 5.9 5.5 1.8 5 2.6 6.8
5 5.9 5.7 7.1 9.8 8 10 4.6 3.6 5.8 4.2 4.9 6.9
6 3.6 7.7 5.5 8.4 8.1 6.8 5 1.4 3.5 1.9 6.9 4.9
7 5.5 6.5 7.7 4.5 6.8 10.8 4.8 6.5 6.7 2.3 5 5.4
8 4.6 5.5 6.6 8.4 9.3 3.4 6.2 0.6 2.3 4.3 4.4 4.9
9 7.5 3.3 3 5 7.1 7.1 5.5 4.9 3 5.4 1.7 4.2
10 7.1 5.1 2.9 8.8 6.8 4.7 0.9 5.7 3.7 3.3 5.7 4.3
11 2.8 6.7 6.6 6.7 2.5 4.4 6 0.4 6.8 0.2 6.6 5.8
12 1 4.8 6.4 6.3 4.6 2.1 3.1 1.3 2.5 2.8 5.1 6.1
13 3.6 7.3 5.4 6.9 3.1 7.2 2.6 2.2 3.3 3.6 3.1 4.1
14 5.6 6.3 3.4 4.4 7.1 4.9 2.9 2.9 2 4.1 4.3 4.3
15 7 6.6 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.1 3.4 5.1 0.2 4.3 5 1.2
16 7.9 8.8 4.9 7.1 6.5 4.1 1.8 3.2 3 6.1 5.8 3.9
17 4.8 5.5 4.9 9.1 4.8 1.8 7.1 1.1 4.2 6.9 3.9 3.9
18 6.7 4.8 5.9 6.7 5.5 6.1 6.5 0.8 5.1 4.1 4.4 2.3
19 6.6 6.1 6.1 6.4 4.5 2.2 4.6 3.7 4.8 2.9 6.8 4.7
20 5 7.2 8.4 5.5 4 5.4 2.1 0.6 3.4 5.4 3 4.5
21 7.5 4.9 7.6 8.3 5.6 5.3 5.2 4.9 2 4.4 9.1 6.8
22 4.9 2.4 3.5 6.9 6.9 3.9 2.1 1.7 1.2 5 4.2 5.7
23 5.3 4 5.3 8 9.7 1.8 5.5 2.4 1.5 4.5 2.5 4.3
24 4.2 7.5 4.5 7.9 6.5 5.1 6.8 1.5 4.4 4.4 4.2 3.4
25 6.3 4.4 6.3 5.7 4.9 5.4 2 2.8 5.1 4 4.4 5.1
26 3.5 4.7 6.3 8.5 4.9 8.4 7.4 0.9 2.9 4.2 5.4 5.3
27 5.6 8.9 7 9.5 5.7 5.9 0.3 1.1 4 4.3 5 3.8
28 7.8 6.6 7.4 2.2 7 6 1.7 3 1.5 7.3 5.3 4.8
29 5 6.8 7.7 9.1 4.8 3.3 4.7 1.3 6.6 6.8 4.3
30 9.7 7.8 8.5 5 4.8 1.8 4.9 4.9 4 5.2 4.7
31 9.3 4.4 3.9 5.3 3 2.8 2.4
TOTAL 174.5 162.4 180.1 212.7 190.9 164.6 127.6 92 102.5 130.4 139.4 148.7
MEAN 5.6 5.8 5.8 7.1 6.2 5.5 4.1 3.1 3.4 4.2 4.6 4.8
The tables shown above are daily records of evaporation at the CLSU-PAGASA
Agrometeorological Station from 1994 to 2013. The daily records of evaporation from the year
1995-2000 are not included above as the data from these years were not able to make available
by the CLSU-PAGASA for the group assigned in evaporation.

The daily records of evaporation are expressed in terms of millimetres (mm). It also
includes the total evaporation happened in every month as the daily data were added from the
start of the month until the end of the month. The daily records of evaporation also show the
mean of every month of the year where the total evaporation happened in every month was
divided by the number of days in every month. The highest evaporation occurred on April 13,
2003 with 11.9 mm and it only happened once

Monthly Record of Evaporation at the CLSU-PAGASA Agromet Station from year 1994 to 2013

MONTH 1994 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
JAN 5.1 5.2 5.2 4.9 4.4 4.7 4.5 5.7 4.8 5.8 5.4 4.3 5.1 5.6
FEB 5.5 4.9 5.6 5.4 5 5.3 5.7 6.2 4.7 5.6 5.4 4.6 5.1 5.8
MAR 6.6 5.8 6.2 6.2 7.7 6.2 5.8 6.1 5.4 5.6 6.3 5.8 6 5.8
APR 6.7 6.1 6.7 6.9 6 6.7 7.2 7.2 6 5.8 7.3 6.6 7 7.1
MAY 5.7 4.6 5.8 5.6 5.6 6 6.5 6.8 4.1 4.9 6.9 5 5.5 6.2
JUN 5.2 4.5 4.7 4 3.6 4.2 5.4 5.8 4.9 4.2 4.7 3.9 3.6 5.5
JUL 3.8 4 3.1 6.3 3.8 4.4 3.9 5.6 4.4 4.5 4.3 3.9 3.9 4.1
AUG 4.7 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.7 2.5 3.5 3.1
SEP 4.2 3.7 4.3 4.2 3.7 3.2 4.7 4.2 3.6 3.4 4 3.3 3.6 3.4
OCT 6.1 3.5 4.6 4.5 4.5 4 4 4 4.3 3.4 4.5 3.9 4.1 4.2
NOV 5.5 4.6 4 2.1 4.3 3.9 4.7 3.7 4 4.8 3.9 39 5 4.6
DEC 6 4.8 4.5 4.6 4 4.1 5.4 4.5 5.3 5.1 4.5 4.6 4.8 4.8
TOTAL 65.1 55.4 58.2 58.1 56.1 56.1 61.2 63.3 54.8 56.5 60.9 87.4 57.2 60.2
MEAN 5.4 4.6 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.7 5.1 5.3 4.6 4.7 5.1 7.3 4.8 5

The table above shows the monthly records of evaporation at the CLSU-PAGASA
Agrometeorological Station from 1994-2013. The monthly records of evaporation from the year
group assigned in evaporation.

The monthly records of evaporation are expressed in terms of millimetres (mm). The
values inside the table are the means of every month in the daily record of evaporation. The table
also shows the total of monthly mean of evaporation in every year. It also includes the mean of
the monthly mean of evaporation. The greatest total amount of evaporation happened in the year
2011 with 87.4 mm
GRAPH

Evaporation
8

0
1994 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

The graph shows the annual mean of evaporation from 1994-2013. Years from 1995 to
2000 are not included in the graph as the daily records of evaporation were not provided by the
CLSU-PAGASA. The greatest evaporation occurred in the year 2011 with a mean of 7.3 while
the lowest among the fourteen years occur twice, in the year 2001 and year 2008 with a mean
4.6.

CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATION

Based on the gathered data, it shows that in the daily records of evaporation the highest
evaporation occurred on April 13, 2003 with 11.9 mm and it only happened once. On the other
hand, the graph of evaporation appears to be annually changing from a higher mean to lower and
then back to higher. The greatest annual evaporation mean occurred in the year 2011 with a
mean of 7.3 while the lowest among the fourteen years occur twice, in the year 2001 and year
2008 with a mean 4.6.

REFERENCE

http://edhelper.com/ReadingComprehension_54_43.html