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Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology

Beijing, China

Email:bfhrp@163.com

Abstract—In this paper, a fabric defect detection method extract the basic texture features of defect-free fabric image

based on Gabor filter masks is proposed. In this method, one and whose parameters are determined by the optimization

even symmetric Gabor filter mask and one odd symmetric techniques called the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. In the

Gabor filter mask derived from the impulse response of the method proposed in this paper, only one optimal Gabor filter

optimal Gabor filter are used. The optimal Gabor filter is that matches with the texture features of defect-free fabric

designed to match with the texture features of defect-free image is used for fabric defect detection. Parameters of the

fabric image, whose parameters are obtained by using the optimal Gabor filter are obtained by genetic algorithm(GA).

genetic algorithm. The performance of the proposed method is As a result, two filter masks derived from the optimal Gabor

evaluated off-line by using a group of fabric sample images filter are used for defect detection, one of which is even

containing many kinds of fabric defects. The experimental symmetric Gabor filter mask, the other is odd symmetric

results exhibit its accurate defect detection with low false one. The remaining sections of this paper are organized as

alarms. And the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed follows: Section Ⅱ gives a brief description of Gabor filter.

method are confirmed.

Section Ⅲ introduces defect detection scheme. Section Ⅳ

Keywords-fabric defect detection; Gabor filter; convolution describes how to applying GA to acquire parameters of the

mask; GA optimal Gabor filter in detail. Section Ⅴ gives the defect

detection experimental results. Section Ⅵ gives the

I. INTRODUCTION conclusions from this work.

Fabric defect detection has been of great importance to II. GABOR FILTER

the quality control of textile. Researches on fabric defect

Gabor filter used in this fabric defect detection method is

detection have been conducted over the past decades.

a Gaussian that is modulated by a complex sinusoid. Its

Although certain achievements have been obtained, it is still

impulse response is expressed as follows.

a challenging problem to be researched because fabric

defects are various in sort, shape and size. 1 1 ⎛ x2 y 2 ⎞

h( x, y ) = exp[− ⋅ ⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟] ⋅ exp ( 2π ju0 x ) (1)

References [1-6] summarized that Gabor filter is 2πσ xσ y 2 ⎜⎝ σ x σ y ⎟⎠

especially effective for fabric defect detection. Gabor filter is In (1), σ x and σ y define the Gaussian envelope along the

essentially a band-pass filter. In the spatial domain, its

impulse response, Gabor function, is the product of a x and y axes. If σ x = σ y , the Gabor filter is circularly

complex exponential function and a Gaussian function. symmetric; otherwise, it is asymmetric. u0 represents the

Gabor filter has high resolution capability both in spatial Gabor filter’s radial center frequency and determines its

domain and in frequency domain. When using Gabor filter location in the frequency domain. The real part and

bank for defect detection, the problems we meet are that the imaginary part of Gabor filter are expressed respectively as

more filters in filter bank, the longer it needs to realize defect (2) and (3).

segmentation, and some filter in filter bank may be bad for

1 1 ⎛ x2 y2 ⎞

the final defect detection result. Using more Gabor filters for he ( x, y ) = exp[ − ⋅ ⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟⎟] ⋅ cos ( 2π u0 x ) (2)

2πσ xσ y 2 ⎜⎝ σ x σ y ⎠

fabric defect detection can generate extensive data for

processing, which makes it difficult to satisfy the real-time 1 1 ⎛ x2 y2 ⎞

demand of some systems. How to find the most suitable ho ( x, y ) = exp[ − ⋅ ⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟] ⋅ sin ( 2π u0 x ) (3)

2πσ xσ y 2 ⎜⎝ σ x σ y ⎟⎠

Gabor filters on the basis of the defect-free fabric image to

enhance the real-time performance, adaptability and The real part of Gabor filter, he ( x, y ) , is an even

precision of detection method is an increasingly important function, called even symmetric Gabor filter, while the

research issue when using the Gabor filters for fabric defect imaginary part, ho ( x, y ) , is an odd function, called odd

detection.

symmetric Gabor filter. The difference of phase between

D.F. Dunn [3] and A.Kumar et al. [4] used several Gabor

them is 90°.

filters to detect fabric defects, which brings that the detection

We can get the Gabor filter (see (4)) with frequency

time increases undoubtedly, and some Gabor filter may be

bad for defect detection. K.L.Mak and P.Peng [5] used one u0 and orientation θ by coordinate rotation.

Gaussian low pass filter and one Gabor filter which can

DOI 10.1109/GCIS.2009.356

1 ⎧⎪ 1 ⎡ ( x ' )2 ( y ' )2 ⎤ ⎫⎪ imaginary part of impulse response of the optimal Gabor

h′( x, y) = exp ⎨− ⋅ ⎢ 2 + 2 ⎥ ⎬ ⋅ exp(2π u0 x ') (4) filter.

2πσ xσ y ⎪⎩ 2 ⎢⎣ σ x σ y ⎥⎦ ⎪

⎭ A fabric sample image which may contain defects and its

Where x′ = x ⋅ cos θ + y ⋅ sin θ , y′ = − x ⋅ sin θ + y ⋅ cos θ , θ corresponding defect-free fabric image are filtered by using

represents rotation angle. x and y represent initial this two filter masks respectively in order to obtain two

ordinates, while x′ and y ′ represent ordinates after rotation. filtered sample images and two filtered defect-free fabric

images, and then we can get two binary images by

In this method, we use Gabor filter with σ x = σ y = σ , conducting binarization operation on two filtered sample

therefore, odd symmetric Gabor filter with frequency u0 and images respectively, in which the threshold values are

orientation θ is expressed as follows. obtained on the basis of the filtered defect-free fabric image.

The final segmentation result, binary output image, can be

1 1 ⎛ x2 + y 2 ⎞

ho′ ( x, y ) = exp[− ⋅ ⎜ ⎟] ⋅ sin(2π u0 x ') (5) acquired by fusing the two binary images. The flow chart of

2πσ 2

2 ⎝ σ2 ⎠ the defect detection scheme proposed in this paper is shown

as Fig.1.

III. DEFECT DETECTION SCHEME

A.Selection of Optimal Gabor Filters

Many researchers applied Gabor filter to fabric defect

detection because it has good performances both in spatial A.Kumar and G.Pang [6] pointed out that the odd

domain and in frequency domain. In general, an even symmetric Gabor can be tuned to extract the texture features

symmetric Gabor filter is good at detecting blob-shaped of defect-free fabric image. In the method proposed in this

fabric defects including knot, burl, et al., while an odd paper, the imaginary part of the optimal Gabor filter is tuned

symmetric one performs well in detecting edge-shaped fabric to roughly describe the texture features of defect-free fabric

defects including mispick, overshot, et al.. In this method, image by minimizing the objective function that is given by

even symmetric and odd symmetric Gabor filter masks are (8).

used for better defect detection. Assume that g ( x, y ) represents the defect-free fabric

As shown in Fig.1, a defect-free fabric image is used to

design the optimal Gabor filter whose parameters image. The difference between h0′ ( x, y ) (see (5)) and g ( x, y )

optimization process is conducted by GA. After parameters at pixel point ( x, y ) is large. In order to make parameters

optimization process, the optimal Gabor filter that can match optimization process more efficient, the value of h0′ ( x, y ) is

with the texture features of defect-free fabric image is

determined. Then, even symmetric and odd symmetric Gabor transformed to (-1,1) by multiplying it with the coefficient

filter masks are derived respectively from the real and 2πσ 2 , that is, h0′ ( x, y ) is transformed to h0′′ ( x, y ) which is

defined by (6). Obviously, the coefficient 1 / ( 2πσ 2 ) does

not influence the shape of odd symmetric Gabor filter, and it

only adjusts amplitude, therefore, the transformation does

not alter the basic characteristics of Gabor filter.

1 ⎛ x2 + y2 ⎞

ho′′( x, y) = exp[− ⋅ ⎜ ⎟] ⋅ sin(2π u0 x ') (6)

2 ⎝ σ2 ⎠

Accordingly, the value of g ( x, y ) is transformed to (-1,1)

based on (7), and f ( x, y ) is formed.

2 ⋅ g ( x, y ) − max g ( x, y ) − min g ( x, y )

f ( x, y ) = (7)

max g ( x, y ) − min g ( x, y )

The optimal Gabor filter can be determined based on (8).

2

E = min f ( x, y ) − ho′′ ( x, y ) (8)

2

In this method, the key point is to find out a group of

parameters {θ , σ ,u0 } of the optimal Gabor filter by

minimizing the objective function given in (8).

B.Gabor Filter’s Parameters Optimization

In the research, two methods are selected for obtaining

optimal Gabor filter’s parameters {θ , σ ,u0 } . One is to use

fmincon function in MATLAB toolbox, the other is to use

GA. Both of them use the same objective function given by

Fig.1 Flow chart of the defect detection scheme (8) for parameters optimization. When using fmincon

function to optimize parameters, the defect detection results

185

are unsatisfactory if we select improper initial values of ⎪⎧ 1, g d ( x , y ) ≥ t max or g d ( x , y ) ≤ t min

Gabor filter’s parameters. This method is sensitive to the Ga ( x, y ) = ⎨ (11)

⎪⎩ 0, t min < g d ( x , y ) < t max

initial values of parameters, and it is proved to be time-

consuming. Therefore we use GA instead. GA hardly E.Image Fusion

demands auxiliary information or knowledge. It can get Considering that for a sample image, defect detection

exact or approximate solutions to optimization or searching result obtained by using odd symmetric Gabor filter mask is

problems by objective function which influences the not identical with the one obtained by using even symmetric

direction of searching. Its advantage lies in its robustness, Gabor filter mask, in order to maintain the high probability

global optimality and extensive applicability. Section Ⅳ of detection of defects, two binary images from two masks

will summarily discuss the genetic algorithm used for need to be fused. As shown in (12), the final detection result,

optimizing Gabor filter’s parameters. also called defects segmented or binary output image shown

C.Filtering with Convolution Masks in Fig.1 is obtained by fusing two binary images.

G ( x , y ) = GR ( x , y ) + GI ( x , y ) (12)

The real part mask and the imaginary part mask of the

optimal Gabor filter, that is, even symmetric Gabor filter IV. OPTIMIZING GABOR FILTER PARAMETERS USING GA

mask and odd symmetric Gabor filter mask (the size of

mask is 7 × 7 in this method) can be easily obtained by A genetic algorithm is a searching technique used in

sampling the real part and the imaginary part of impulse computing to find exact or approximate solutions to

response of the optimal Gabor filter in spatial domain. optimization and searching problems. Genetic algorithms

Filtering a sample image and its corresponding defect-free are a particular class of evolutionary algorithms that use

fabric image can be implemented by using (9). techniques inspired by evolutionary biology such as

inheritance, selection, crossover and mutation.

⎧ g s = g so ⋅ a _ M

⎨ a is R or I (9) The purpose of optimizing Gabor filter’s parameters

⎩ g d = g do ⋅ a _ M using GA on the basis of defect-free fabric image is to

In (9), R_M and I_M represent an even symmetric Gabor determine optimal Gabor filter’s parameters. In order to

filter mask and an odd symmetric Gabor filter mask solve this parameters optimization problem, a genetic

respectively. gdo represents a sample image, while gso algorithm is developed. In this genetic algorithm, binary

represents its corresponding defect-free fabric image. When encoding is used. The length of binary string is determined

a is R or I in (9), filtering mask is an even symmetric Gabor by the precision of parameters for solving problems.

filter mask or an odd symmetric Gabor filter mask. gs and gd Parameters involved in this algorithm are accurate to the

are obtained by filtering the defect-free fabric image and the fourth decimal place. Based on binary encoding, the genetic

sample image respectively. operation is composed of roulette wheel selection operator,

single-point crossover operator, improved mutation operator.

D.Binarization Reinsertion operation is used for keeping population size.

In view of (10), the threshold value tmax and tmin of the The operational parameters of this genetic algorithm are

binarization step can be determined from the image gs selected as follows: the size of population is 40, the

obtained by filtering a defect-free fabric image using Gabor maximum evolutional generation is 500, the objective

filter mask. W is sub-window centered at the image gs, the function is given by (8), generation gap is 0.9, and crossover

size of which should be suitably chosen to contain rate is 0.6. In this genetic algorithm, an improved mutation

information of pixel gray value as much as possible and operator [7] is used to prevent premature convergence,

avoid distortion caused by the edges of the image, tmax and which is mentioned in the following paragraph.

tmin are the maximum value and minimum value of the gray Mutation operation changes randomly the encoding

value of the image pixel in the sub-window. string of the new offspring. It is an auxiliary method to

⎧tmax = max g s ( x, y ) produce new individuals. There are two reasons for applying

⎪ x , y∈W

mutation operator to GA. One is to improve local searching

⎨ (10)

⎪⎩ tmin = xmin g s ( x, y ) capability, and the other is to prevent all solutions in

, y∈W

population falling into a local optimum by increasing the

Hence, the operation of the binarization step is shown as

diversity of population [8]. In this genetic algorithm, we

(11). As for a defect-free fabric image, its pixel’s gray value

adopt the improved mutation operator to increase the

varies in a certain range, if the gray value of a pixel in

diversity of population.

sample image exceeds the range, this pixel is determined as

Assume that current population is X, which contains N

a defect pixel. When a is R, GR is the binary image obtained

individuals, the length of chromosome is M. X is expressed

by using even symmetric Gabor filter mask. Similarly, GI is

by (13).

the binary image obtained by using odd symmetric Gabor

filter mask.

186

⎡ x11 x12 " x1k " x1M ⎤

⎢ ⎥

x x " x2 k " x2 M ⎥

X = [ X 1 , X 2 ," , X N ] = ⎢ 21 22

T

(13)

⎢""""""" ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎣ xN 1 xN 2 " xNk " xNM ⎦

For the kth gene bit, if the number of 1 is n, p=n/N , and

Fig.2 Defect detection results

p is called gene frequency. The diversity of gene in the kth

gene bit is expressed as (14).

1 1

D ( p) = exp[− ( p − 0.5 ) ] ( 0 ≤ p ≤ 1)

2

(14)

2π 2

The diversity D(p) obeys a normal distribution. When p

is equal to 0.5, gene diversity becomes maximum, and small

mutation rate is needed, while p is equal to 0 or 1, all of Fig.3 Knot defect detection results

genes in the kth gene bit are 0 or 1, in this case, GA should

increase the diversity of population by increasing mutation

rate to restore omitted and useful genes. The diversity is in

inverse proportion to mutation rate, so the mutation rate pm

can be obtained by normalizing the reciprocal of D(p),

which is expressed as (15).

1 1

−

D ( p ) D ( 0.5 ) ⎧ ⎡1 2⎤ ⎫

pm ( p ) = = 7.51 ⋅ ⎨exp ⎢ ⋅ ( p − 0.5 ) ⎥ − 1⎬ (15)

1 1 ⎩ ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎭

−

D (1) D ( 0.5 )

Mutation operation is local random searching. It can

improve local searching capability of GA and increase

diversity of population. However, when mutation rate is too

large, GA will degenerate into random searching. From (15),

mutation operation can not be performed when p =0.5, so pm

needs to be revised. In this genetic algorithm used for Gabor

filter’s parameters optimization, the mutation rate for

mutation operation is given by (16).

⎧ ⎡1 2⎤ ⎫

pm′ ( p ) = 0.0001 + 0.1× 7.51 ⋅ ⎨exp ⎢ ⋅ ( p − 0.5 ) ⎥ − 1⎬ (16)

⎩ ⎣2 ⎦ ⎭

Fig.2 gives defect detection results using the method

proposed in this paper. A sample image is shown in Fig.2(a), Fig.4 Defect detection results of some sample images

detection results (binary images) from even symmetric

Gabor filter mask and odd symmetric Gabor filter mask are TABLEⅠ EVEN SYMMETRIC GABOR FILTER MASK

shown in Fig.2(b) and Fig.2(c) respectively. Defect

0.914 0.915 0.915 0.916 0.915 0.915 0.914

detection results given in Fig.2 demonstrate that even 0.960 0.961 0.961 0.962 0.961 0.961 0.960

symmetric Gabor filter is good at detecting blob-shaped 0.988 0.990 0.990 0.990 0.990 0.989 0.988

fabric defects and odd symmetric Gabor filter performs well 0.998 0.999 0.999 1 0.999 0.999 0.998

in detecting edge-shaped fabric defects. Fig.2(d) shows the 0.988 0.989 0.990 0.990 0.990 0.989 0.988

final segmented defect in the binary output image. 0.960 0.961 0.961 0.962 0.961 0.961 0.960

0.914 0.915 0.915 0.916 0.915 0.915 0.914

Fig.3 shows the detection results of the sample image

containing a knot defect. Parameters of the optimal Gabor TABLE Ⅱ ODD SYMMETRIC GABOR FILTER MASK

obtained by GA are u0 = 0.0010, σ = 10.0000,θ = 2.9944.

0.020 0.019 0.018 0.017 0.016 0.015 0.015

Table 1 and Table 2 give its corresponding even symmetric 0.015 0.014 0.013 0.012 0.011 0.010 0.009

Gabor filter mask (multiplied by 2πσ 2 ) and odd symmetric 0.009 0.008 0.007 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.003

Gabor filter mask (multiplied by 2πσ 2 ). Defect detection 0.003 0.002 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003

-0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007 -0.008 -0.009

results of some other sample images are shown in Fig.4. -0.009 -0.010 -0.011 -0.012 -0.013 -0.014 -0.015

-0.015 -0.015 -0.016 -0.017 -0.018 -0.019 -0.020

187

The performance evaluations of this detection method are The performance of the detection method has been

made by visually comparing defects appearing in sample evaluated by the detection results obtained from a set of 42

images with their segmented results. We use several sample images that have different background texture and

statistical criteria such as true detection(TD), false contain different types, sizes, and shapes of defects. The

alarm(FA), misdetection(MD), overall detection(OD) for statistical data on the performance evaluations of this

performance evaluations. TD is recorded when (1) the white proposed method show that the method performs well in

areas of the binary output image only overlap the areas of the detecting fabric defects. The detection results obtained

corresponding defects in the sample image, and (2) no white confirm the effectiveness, efficiency and adaptability of the

area appears in the binary output image if the sample image method. In addition, further research on Gabor filter’s

contains no defect. FA is recorded when the white areas of parameters optimization should be conducted in order to

the binary output image do not only overlap the areas of the acquire the most suitable Gabor filter.

corresponding defects in the sample image, but also appear

in some other areas significantly distant from the defective ACKNOWLEDGMENT

areas, or when white areas appear in the binary output image This research has been supported by the Hubei Digital

even though the sample image contains no defect. OD is the Textile Equipment Key Laboratory Open Subject (No.

sum of TD and FA. MD means that no white area appears in DTL200707).

the binary output image even though the sample image

contains a defect. REFERENCES

In this research, we use a set of 42 sample images of

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[3] D.F.Dunn, “Designing Gabor filters for texture

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VI. CONCLUSIONS pp.3176-3190.

[5] K.L.Mak and P.Peng, “An automated inspection system for

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[8] Wenjie Huo,Shanwen Zhang, xuwu Li, and chuangming

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filters. A genetic algorithm is developed to determine the application,” Publishing House of Electronics Industry,

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188

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