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Single and Dual Well Hydraulic

Pumping Units

INSTALLATION AND OPERATING


MANUAL
Contents
INSTALLATION AND OPERATIONS MANUAL ................................................................................................................................. 1
ACRONYM DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................................................................................. 4
Section 1: System Overview........................................................................................................................................................................... 6
1.1 System Basics..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Section 2: The Hydraulic Power Unit: .............................................................................................................................................................. 7
Section 3: The Hydraulic Cylinders ............................................................................................................................................................... 12
3.1 Cylinder Types .................................................................................................................................................................................. 12
Figure 5. Subsurface Cylinder ......................................................................................................................................................... 12
Figure 6. Above Ground Cylinder ................................................................................................................................................... 12
............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12
3.4 Cylinder Handling and Care ................................................................................................................................................................ 13
3.5 Production Tees and Well Heads ........................................................................................................................................................ 13
3.6 Rod Blow-Out Preventers (BOP’s) ....................................................................................................................................................... 13
3.7 Subsurface Production Tubing String Crossovers ................................................................................................................................. 14
3.8 Above Ground Production Tubing Crossovers ...................................................................................................................................... 14
3.9 Lifting Tools for Subsurface Cylinders .................................................................................................................................................. 14
3.10 Installation of Cylinders .................................................................................................................................................................... 14
3.11 Subsurface Cylinder Installation ........................................................................................................................................................ 14
3.12 Above Ground Cylinder Installation .................................................................................................................................................... 16
3.13 Bottomhole Pumps ........................................................................................................................................................................... 16
3.14 Removal of Cylinders*** ................................................................................................................................................................... 17
3.15 Collapsing the Cylinder ..................................................................................................................................................................... 18
3.16 Subsurface Cylinder Porting.............................................................................................................................................................. 18
Section 4: Operating Guide ...................................................................................................................................................................... 19
4.1 PLC Computer System ....................................................................................................................................................................... 19
PumpReports – Live .................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Power Unit Live Data ................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
HRPI Wells Data ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Well Notes ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 23
Edit Well Data ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 24
Setting Parameters ............................................................................................................................................................................... 25
Settable values: ................................................................................................................................................................................ 25
Data Collection Performance Graph .................................................................................................................................................... 27
Register Logs ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 28
Local Devices ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 29
PumpReports System Info ................................................................................................................................................................... 29
4.2 Combination Motor Starter Panel ........................................................................................................................................................ 30
4.3 Software Overview............................................................................................................................................................................. 31
4.3.1 The Pumpreporter ....................................................................................................................................................................... 31
4.3.2 Operator Interface Panel (OIP) ..................................................................................................................................................... 31
4.4 Communication Transmission Mediums ............................................................................................................................................... 31
4.5 Operating Mode (Cycle / Idle): ............................................................................................................................................................ 33
4.6 Selecting Wells To Be Stroked: ........................................................................................................................................................... 33
4.7 Stroke Timers and Ratio Sequencing: .................................................................................................................................................. 34
4.8 Shift Delay: ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 36
4.9 Clearing Faults .................................................................................................................................................................................. 36
4.10 High Oil Temperature Shut Down ...................................................................................................................................................... 36
4.11 Low or High Oil Level Shut Down ...................................................................................................................................................... 36
4.12 High Pressure Shut Down ................................................................................................................................................................. 37
4.14 High Pressure “Max Trip” Stroke Interruption ...................................................................................................................................... 38
4.15 Testing Control Panel Indicator Lights ................................................................................................................................................ 38
Section 5: Hydraulic System Operation, Adjustments & Fine Tuning ................................................................................................................ 39
5.1 Initial Startup ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 40
5.2 Initial Start Up Unit Settings ................................................................................................................................................................ 41
5.3 Pressure Relief Valve Adjustment ....................................................................................................................................................... 42
5.4 Soft Shift Valve .................................................................................................................................................................................. 45
Section 6: Hydraulic System Maintenance, Repair & Troubleshooting .............................................................................................................. 46
6.1 Hydraulic Fluid Cleanliness, Temperature & Viscosity ........................................................................................................................... 46
6.2 Preventative Maintenance Intervals: .................................................................................................................................................... 46
Appendixes ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 48
Appendix A: Basic Trouble Shooting ............................................................................................................................................................. 49
Appendix B: Cylinder Spacing Example ......................................................................................................................................................... 51
Appendix C: Above Ground Spacing Example ............................................................................................................................................... 53
Appendix D: System Design and Information Card ......................................................................................................................................... 55
Appendix E: PLC Indicator Lights Legend ...................................................................................................................................................... 56
Appendix F: Hydraulic Circuit Diagram.................................................................................................................................................. 57
Actuation Circuit .................................................................................................................................................................................. 58
Single And Dual Well Operating Modes ............................................................................................................................................. 58
Single Well Mode ................................................................................................................................................................................ 60
Dual Well Mode ................................................................................................................................................................................... 61
CONVENTIONS USED IN THIS MANUAL
ACRONYM DEFINITIONS:
GPM – Gallon Per Minute
LPM – Liters Per Minute
HP – Horse Power
PLC – Programmable Logic Controller (on-board computer)
BOP – Blow Out Preventer
SPM – Strokes per minute
OIP – Operator Interface Panel
SYMBOL DEFINITIONS

!! CAUTION !!
Proceed ONLY after having read this
entire manual and have carefully
reviewed its contents, as well as the
procedure you are about to carry out.

DANGEROUS ELECTRICAL HAZARD

Only qualified, trained electrical


technicians should perform work on or
around these areas.

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IMPORTANT
Take careful note to fully understand
and follow the instructions.

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Section 1: System Overview
1.1 System Basics
A hydraulic oil power unit provides fluid power to a hydraulic oil lowering the rod string and bottomhole pump plunger. A PLC
cylinder, which is connected to the sucker rod string and is controls the operation and timing of the power unit. The
mounted directly to the wellhead. The hydraulic power is system maintains the frequency and duration of the strokes,
applied to a piston (in the cylinder), which in turn lifts the rod and also monitors the hydraulic power unit system pressures,
string. On the return or downstroke, the hydraulic oil pressure temperatures, and general functions for safety and trend
is released at a controlled rate and the cylinder extends, analysis.

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Bypass block ValveStack
Sensor Enclosure #2 Return Filter Assembly

Cooling System
Electric Fan Sensor Enclosure #1
Motor

Electric Pump Motor

Pump
Motor Starter Adapter
Enclosure

Hydraulic Pump

Oil Cooler / Heat Exchanger


Assembly with fan & Venturi

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Section 2: The Hydraulic Power Unit:

Power Unit Components

A. Float level sensor. Monitors tank level and reports G.


information to the PLC H. Main electrical enclosure. This enclosure contains the
PLC the motor contactor circuit and the operator
B. Number 1 sensor enclosure. Contains pressure interface panel.
transmitters. I. Fan motor. Air over oil cooling system fan motor.
J. Venturi. The fan motor and heat exchanger are mounted
C. Number 2 sensor enclosure pressure measurements and to the venturi and the ventur houses a fan blade.
contains the temperature probe. K. Electric motor. The electric motor is the primary
mover of the HRPI system.
D. Filter housing. Contains the return filter assembly and a L. Bell housing. The bell housing is used to mount the c-
integral relief mechanism. face of the electric motor to the hydraulic pump. It
contains the motor/pump coupling.
E. By-pass Manifold. This block directs the flow of M. Hydraulic pump. The rotary vain hydraulic pump is
hydraulic oil from the sub-plate to the cooling circuit or driven by the electric motor and provides hydraulic fluid
tank, with a bypass directly to the filter. to the system.

F. Valve stack assembly. See section Illustration 3 for a


more detailed breakdown of the valve stack assembly

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Illustration 2. Power
unit from the front.

M. Heat exchanger. Hydraulic oil is circulated through and R. Sight glass assembly. Represents the hydraulic oil level
cooled by passing air over the heat exchanger. inside of the reservoir.
N. Fan blade. The fan blade is driven by the fan motor and S. Suction tube. The suction tube passes oil from the
pushes air over the heat exchanger. suction hose to the hydraulic pump intake.
O. Well A pressure gauge (PSIG). This pressure gauge T. Suction hose. The suction hose passes hydraulic oil
represents the current pressure of the hydraulic circuit from the reservoir to the suction tube.
connected to well A. U. Tank drain valve. The tank drain valve allows the
P. Well B pressure gauge (PSIG). This pressure gauge hydraulic oil reservoir to be drained easily from its
represents the current pressure of the hydraulic circuit lowest point.
connected to well B. V. Pump discharge hose. This hose passes high pressure
Q. Return filter pressure gauge (PSIG). This pressure hydraulic oil from the pump discharge port to the sub-
gauge represents the current pressure inside the filter plate.
housing

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Illustration 3 Valve
stack assembly
exploded view

Valve Stack Components

A. Sub-plate. The sub plate acts as a pass through between the G. Relief valve. The relief valve controls the maximum amount of
4-way valve and the exterior hose connections. The sub plate hydraulic pressure that can be directed to the cylinders.
also contains the relief valve. (G) H. Well B flow control cartridge. This flow control cartridge
B. Flow control valve body. The flow control can be used to controls the speed at which oil returns from the well B cylinder
adjust the speed at with the cylinder falls during the down (downstroke).
stroke. I. Well A flow control cartridge. This flow control cartridge
C. 4-Way directional control valve. The 4-way valve controls the controls the speed at which oil returns from the well A cylinder
flow of hydraulic oil from the pump to the tanks or cylinders. (downstroke).
D. Soft shift Body. Spacer plate body which contains the flow J. Well A soft shift cartridge. Slows the shift of well B and helps
control cartridges. reduce amount of shock caused by the shift.
E. Spacer plate. Creates proper space for mounting of the pilot K. Well B soft shift cartridge. Slows the shift of well A and helps
valve to the soft shift body. reduce amount of shock caused by the shift.
F. Nema-7 solenoid operated pilot valve. The pilot Controls the
shifting of the 4-way valve.

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Illustration 3 Valve
stack assembly
Sub-plate passages
exploded view (pg 8)

a. Well A pressure port. The A port on Well A will be d. Return line port. Either or both cylinder B ports will
connected to this passage. connect to this passage.
b. Well B pressure port. The A port on Well B will be e. Bypass port. When the relief valve opens hydraulic oil
connected to this passage. returns to tank through this passage.
c. Pump discharge port. The discharge from the hydraulic
pump will be connected to this passage.

Well solenoids

f. Well A solenoid. When this solenoid is energized the 4- g. Well B solenoid. When this solenoid is energized the 4-
way valve shifts to pressurize (lift) Well A cylinder. way valve shifts to pressurize (lift) Well B cylinder.

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Section 3: The Hydraulic Cylinders

3.1 Cylinder Types


There are two different types of hydraulic cylinders available, subsurface and above ground. The subsurface style is designed to fit
inside the well bore (below the wellhead). The above ground style is designed to stand above the wellhead. Both types of cylinders
eliminate the need for standard stuffing boxes, as the cylinders include integrated polished rods and polished rod seals. Both types of
cylinders have the same lifting capabilities.

Figure 5. Subsurface Cylinder Figure 6. Above Ground Cylinder

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3.2 Cylinder Handling and Care

Special care should be taken while handling or storing the cylinders:

1. The spray metal (and/or chrome) polished rod should never come in contact with pipe wrenches or any objects that may damage
the polished rod surface finish. Special friction wrenches are available to prevent damaging the polished rod. Please contact
HRPI for more details.

2. The weight of the cylinder should never be rested on the polished rod at any angle other than vertically. A polished rod protector
tube is available from HRPI to help protect the rod when the cylinder is being handled.

3. Water, dirt, sand, grease or any other foreign materials should never be allowed to enter the cylinder head ports, hydraulic hoses,
hydraulic fittings or pipes connected to them. All new and used cylinders are shipped with steel sealing type plugs, which will
prevent any contamination during shipping. These plugs should be used at all times except when installing or removing the
cylinder from the well. Removing the cylinder plugs is necessary prior to installing or removing the cylinder to prevent pressure
from being trapped inside the cylinder due to its extension or retraction during installation or removal. A hose should be connected
to the “A” port of the cylinder during install or to the “B” port during removal. This procedure will allow any residual hydraulic oil that
may have become trapped inside of the hydraulic cylinder to be captured in a well cellar or bucket.

4. While raising or lowering the cylinder into or out of the well bore, care must be taken to prevent the rod from contacting the landing
flange or any part of the wellhead. Centering the rig over the well properly will usually prevent any damage, although angular well
bores and other circumstances may affect these characteristics. It is recommended to centralize the cylinder over the well bore
while removing and installing the cylinder.

3.3 Production Tees and Well Heads


Installation of either cylinder on most wellheads requires the use of custom adapters. These adapters provide outlets for the produced
fluids and a mounting support for the cylinder (which carries the combined weight of the rod and fluid load). Upper cylinder heads on
subsurface cylinders do not require the use of production tees because the cylinder head itself acts as the production tee, with the
produced fluids exiting out the top of the cylinder head. This model cylinder head still requires the use of an adapter flange to land the
cylinder head on the tubing string wellhead.

3.4 Rod Blow-Out Preventers (BOP’s)


Above ground style cylinders are typically compatible with most BOP’s, providing the cylinder loads are not excessive (>30,000 lbs
13,600 kg), and the BOP manufacturer has rated the BOP’s suitable for such loads. Please contact HRPI for a list of tested BOP’s, or
for more details on proper installation and use of rod BOP’s.

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3.5 Subsurface Production Tubing String Crossovers
The subsurface cylinder requires the use of a support tube (casing joint) longer than and larger in diameter than the subsurface
cylinder assembly. The larger size allows enough room for the cylinder to hang inside the production tubing string with clearance for
produced fluids to flow through. Most commonly, standard API casing is used for the subsurface production tube. The bottom of this
casing joint requires a special crossover to adapt the casing down to the well’s
production tubing string. For close-tolerance installations, a custom, internally threaded casing joint is mated to a custom, matched
flush joint crossover, thereby reducing the outside diameter of the support tube (casing joint).

3.6 Above Ground Production Tubing Crossovers


The above ground cylinder requires only simple crossovers to adapt the cylinder to the production tee/landing flange.

3.7 Lifting Tools for Subsurface Cylinders

To lift the tubing string and Support tube, the use of a crossover or a bell-swage adapter is required. Most commonly, a 7” (177.8 mm),
6-5/8” or 5 1/2” 8R casing thread by 2 7/8-8R crossover is used. The same adapter used to crossover the oversized production tubing
at the bottom of the joint is typically used. Above ground cylinders have a standard 2-7/8” threaded male pin on top, allowing the use of
a standard tubing pup-joint. This pup joint is typically left in place after installation to facilitate safer cylinder removal at a later time.

3.8 Installation of Cylinders


To install subsurface type cylinders from the well bore, insert type pumps must be unseated prior to attaching to the rod string and
landing the cylinder. The plunger must be pulled above the barrel for tubing style pumps prior to attaching to the rod string and landing
the cylinder. Above ground cylinders do not require either the unseating of insert type pumps or pulling plungers above the barrel for
installation.

Both types of cylinders require accurate pump spacing, due to the rod string being sealed and inaccessible inside the tubing after
installation. Spacing the bottomhole pump is achieved through the use of pony rods or sucker rod subs, and must be done as to
prevent plunger tap down, as well as pulling the plunger out of the barrel or unseating/topping out insert type pumps.
Re-spacing the pump after installation requires the use of either a work over rig or a heavy tonnage crane.

3.9 Subsurface Cylinder Installation


The well must be spaced by following the procedure outlined below.

1. With the bottomhole pump seated or plunger in the barrel, fill the tubing to ensure there are no tubing string leaks, and the tubing is
preliminarily stretched.

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2. Stack out the rod string and place a mark on the rods where the bottom of the cylinder flange will come to rest (slightly above the tubing
head flange).
3. When possible, locate the pump tap down point by stroking with a rig.
4. Place a mark on the rods where the bottom of the cylinder flange will come to rest (slightly above the tubing head flange).
5. Refer to Appendix B and locate the cylinder’s “extended length”. The extended length of the cylinder, along with enough rod string to
accommodate future rod stretch, plus an additional margin to prevent pump tap-down will have to be removed from the rod string prior
to installing the cylinder. The length of rods standing above the tubing head flange must also be removed from the rod string.
6. Remove and lay down the excess calculated rod string (see the example below - typically 2 or 3 rods).
7. Remove and lay down one additional rod, which will allow the addition of pony rods for pump spacing, as well as the excess sucker rod
that was standing above the tubing head flange. Accurately measure this last section, using the lowest mark (tap down point, if
available) when laid down on the ground if necessary.

Example:
10' (3.048 m) of rods standing above the tubing head flange.
2' (0.6096 m) of estimated rod stretch
44' (13.4112 m) of extended cylinder length

10' (18.288 m) (above flange)


2' (0.6096 m) (rod stretch)
+44' (13.4112 m) (subsurface cylinder extended length)
56' (17.0688 m) (total to be removed from tap-down/stack-out point)

After the two rods are removed (totaling 60’), the missing 4' (1.2192 m) (60’ – 56’) needs to be replaced with pony rods.

Final step: Land the cylinder, fill the tubing, and stroke with the rig to ensure proper bottomhole pump operation prior to landing the
cylinder. When an insert type bottomhole pump is being used be sure not to unseat the pump while test stroking the well.

Note: It may become necessary to lower the cylinder into the casing joint below the normal hang-on point, to ensure stabbing an insert
pump into the bottomhole pump shoe. This is more common or likely on highly directional wells, or when the plunger is spaced high
side

See appendix B for a more specific cylinder spacing sheet.

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3.10 Above Ground Cylinder Installation

The installation procedure is nearly identical to the subsurface cylinder. The difference is the length of the extended polished rod alone
(see table) is substituted for the length of the subsurface cylinder and extended polished rod.

See appendix C for a cylinder spacing sheet.

3.11 Bottomhole Pumps

Standard hydraulic cylinder stroke lengths are 240" (6 m), 288” (7.3 m) and 336” (8.5 m). We recommend using a bottomhole pump
assembly capable of supporting the selected surface stroke length, plus a minimum of 36”(914.4 mm) additional barrel/stroke length.
This allows the plunger to be spaced with at least 1.5 ft (457.2 mm) above and 1.5 ft below the plunger, to prevent accidental unseating
or tapping down. If plungers are larger than the tubing ID on tubing type pumps, or if scale and/or sand are present and/or expected,
the use of an on/off release tool is strongly recommended for all subsurface cylinder installations.

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3.12 Removal of Cylinders***

System Bleed-Down: The cylinders should extend (downstroke) fully after the power unit is turned off. This expels most of the oil
underneath the piston, which also creates a vacuum between the external check valve and cylinder’s piston. This vacuum is created by
the check valve and the piston, when the piston is up stroked all the way, any fluid that may work its way above the piston is expelled
through the check valve and into the return line (B-port). In the event the check valve is not holding or not installed, the recommended
procedure is to stroke the cylinder with the low-pressure return line hose removed from the pipe and directed to a bucket or container of
some sort. The unit must be turned off before removing the B-port return line hose and the B-port return line hose must be
isolated or reconnected before turning the unit on again. This will expel any fluid that might have collected above the piston,
reducing the likelihood of a mess when the cylinder is collapsed before it is laid down.

Note: This might make a mess, unless a hose is used to direct and/or capture the oil being expelled from the piston upper end. Both
hoses can be removed from the cylinder after the cylinder’s piston has stopped downstroking.

***WARNING***
Removal of the hoses while the cylinder is still in motion or with the power unit still running may cause serious injury or death!
Take precautions to prevent working on "live" hydraulic lines. We recommend shutting the power unit OFF, locking out the electric
power source and waiting at least 5 minutes before attempting any work. This should allow ample time for complete system bleed-down,
and help reduce the risk of injury. In addition, proper lockout / tag-out procedures should be followed to prevent unauthorized restarting
of the power unit.
To safely remove the cylinder from the wellhead, a special polished rod retaining tool needs to be used to prevent the polished rod
from extending (falling) out of the cylinder when the cylinder assembly is lifted off of the rod string/wellhead. (Contact HRPI for details).

***CAUTION***
Injury or death could result from failure to properly secure the polished rod PRIOR to lifting and/or removing the
cylinder assembly from the wellhead.

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3.13 Collapsing the Cylinder
The cylinder must be fully collapsed before it is removed from the rod string to prevent accidental damage to the integral polished rod.
Care should be taken to do this very slowly to prevent the polished rod from bending. In addition, all fittings that pose a potential
blockage must be removed from the cylinder, prior to collapsing the cylinder. Both ports should be open to the atmosphere, this allows
air and oil to escape and air to re-fill the cylinder’s internal cavities. The cylinder WILL NOT properly collapse if the cylinder head ports
are plugged. If the passages are blocked the polish rod may bend and subsequently need to be replaced. If you need to prevent oil
from being expelled on the ground while collapsing the cylinder, attach a hose to the low-pressure “B” port to capture or direct the oil.

3.14 Subsurface Cylinder Porting


Port Locations:

Two identical hydraulic female (1.25" SAE O-Ring) fittings are a permanent part of the cylinder's top head. The port configurations are
as follows:

Port A: High-pressure Actuation Port. This is connected to the cavity underneath the piston (the rod side), which lifts the piston and rod
string when hydraulic pressure is applied.

Port B: Low-pressure return port. This is connected to the cavity above the piston, and must be connected to power unit to allow piston
ring leakage to return to power unit reservoir, unrestricted.

(Photograph: Sub surface cylinder upper head A port.)Section 4: PLC Computer Control System

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Section 4: Operating Guide
Insert pic of the new electrical panel

(Photograph: Nema-7 PLC enclosure)

4.1 PLC Computer System

A PLC is located on each power unit and is used to manage the task of single-well and dual-well timing and sequencing, monitoring
hydraulic oil pressures, temperatures and levels for safe operation. The PLC communicates with the operator via indicator lights on the
PLC panel, an operator interface panel, or via web interface. Historical data for trending and analysis can be viewed at
www.pumpreports.com

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PumpReports – Live

As an HRPI Customer you will have access to the PumpReports Live management console (Figure 1) to view and manage your
equipment and well performance in real time. The PumpReports Live interface is an easy to use, graphical interface that allows you to
view and set critical power unit and cylinder operating conditions and parameters. The system is designed to be fully self-contained and
operable in a stand-alone environment. In most cases the Pumpreporter comes factory pre-configured for your application and should
require no modifications.
All operator changeable unit dynamics can be set or monitored using the Pumpreporter web interface. The Pumpreporter provides near
real-time hydraulic dynamometers. The Pumpreporter takes a snapshot of the units operating condition including the dynamometer
card at predetermined intervals. . Once collected, This data can prove invaluable when diagnosing downhole equipment failures, as
well as fluctuating well conditions (fluid level, pumped-off conditions, etc.)

Power Unit Live Data

The live data tab (Figure 3) displays the operating conditions of the hydraulic power unit. This includes:
 The current hydraulic oil temperature (With current fan on and max temp set points displayed in graph)
 The current hydraulic oil level (With low oil and high oil set points displayed in graph)
 The status of the unit (Running or Idle)
 An indicator if the High Temperature value has been exceeded
 The current status of the motor (Running or Idle)
 The current status of the cooling fan (Running or Idle)
 An alarm indicator if the temperature has exceeded maximum allowed value
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 An alarm indicator if the oil level has gone below the minimum allowed value
 The maximum PSI Delay Allowed value
 The maximum amps the motor draws under load (fixed value)
 The maximum volts the motor draws under load (fixed value)
 The maximum Delta PSI of the well for measuring flow rate coming back into the reservoir
 The temperature value the fan will turn on
 The shutdown threshold temperature for the power unit
 The current minimum, maximum, and average hydraulic oil temperature register values
 The current low hydraulic oil level value
 The current high hydraulic oil level value
 The current minimum, maximum, and average hydraulic oil level register values

HRPI Wells Data

The HRPI Wells tab (Figure 4) displays in real time the hydraulic cycle, per cylinder, allowing you to tune and optimize the pumping
stroke. The system displays for each well (A and B) critical parameters such as:
 The PSI history for the last or current stroke (Monitoring the PSI can reveal well conditions such as pump offs)
 The current time
 The last stroke time of completion
 The current PSI
 A stroke timer showing the current stroke or idle phase (Green bar indicates current upstroke, Gray bar indicates downstroke,
and orange indicates a skipped stroke)
 The current Stokes Per Minute (SPM)
 The current upstroke timer value, and the actual last upstroke value
 The total time of the last downstroke, and the maximum downstroke time encountered
 The cumulative time of the current upstroke, and the cumulative time of the current downstroke
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 The average upstroke time and the average downstroke time
 The Maximum allowed PSI
 The Minimum allowed PSI
 The trip delay and the initial skip delay
 An indicator for which wells are active
 An indicator light for the currently active well
 An icon representing the state of the well (Upstroke, downstroke, Idle)
 The current stroke ration (Stroke ratios are mathematically computed based on user-supplied SPM settings for each well
(when applicable) and are a numerical derivative of the two desired SPM’s. For example, if “Well A” has a desired SPM of 2.0
and “Well B” has a desired SPM of 3.0, the mathematical ratio is 2:3)
 The current Shift Delay
 The current round trip, or full cycle time
 A graph representing the time for each well and the shift delay in a full cycle
 The current maximum strokes per minute
 The Theoretical maximum strokes per minute

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Well Notes
The Well Notes tab (Figure 5) contains historical information regarding changes made to the well configuration. In addition to
automatically logging system events such as updates, the system allows the user to record notes about their changes for historical
review.

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Edit Well Data
The Edit Well Data tab (Figure 6) allows you change certain fixed parameters including:
 The unit name
 The name of Well A
 The name of Well B
 The optimum production gross to expect
 The optimal oil production target
 The GPS Latitude of the Unit
 The GPS Longitude of the unit

In addition the edit well data tab allows you to stop the unit, start the unit, or reset the status. The Highlight Updateable Fields link
highlights and shows the fields that can be changed in the Unit and Well tabs. Setting the parameters is covered in the next section.
Selecting to highlight the updateable fields requires a second set of login credentials provided by HRPI

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Setting Parameters
In order to set or change system parameters, the user must present the Well administrator login and password provided you by HRPI
(See Figure 7).

Once you have entered the administrator credentials the application highlights all editable parameters.ou do not have a complete
understanding of the parameters, please do not make any changes.

Review the operations chapter 4 of this manual for detailed information about setting and changing system values prior to making any
changes to your unit settings. Changing certain values can cause your equipment to operate in an inefficient or dangerous manner. To
change an editable value, simple click on the field and input the new run time value.

Settable values:
(See figure 8)
 Max PSI - If at any time, either well pressure transmitter exceeds this set point for more than the Max PSI Delay, the system
will shut down immediately
 Unit Serial Number – A unique number preset by HRPI
 Max PSI Delay – The amount of time the system may exceed the Max PSI before forcing a shutdown.
 Fan on Temperature – The temperature at which the cooling fan is engaged
 Shutdown Temperature – The maximum temperature the unit may reach before a forced shutdown
 Low Oil Level - The level at which the Low Oil Level indicator will be tripped and the unit shutdown
 High Oil Level – The level at which the High Oil Level indicator will be tripped and the unit shutdown
 Well Strokes per Minute (SPM) (See Section 4.7 for more detail about setting the SPM)
o Stroke ratios are mathematically computed based on user-supplied SPM settings for each well (when applicable) and
are a numerical derivative of the two desired SPM’s. For example, if “Well A” has a desired SPM of 2.0 and “Well
B” has a desired SPM of 3.0, the mathematical ratio is 2:3.
 Upstroke time – The total amount of time to allow the cylinder to upstroke
 Max Well PSI – The Maximum Unit PSI allowed for a given well
 Min Well PSI – The Minimum Unit PSI allowed for a given well
 Trip Delay - a delayed-response timer that helps to reduce falsely triggered stroke interruptions. The duration of a pressure
“spike” must exceed this timer to trigger a stroke interruption
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 Initial PSI Exceed Time - a nullified-response timer that causes each respective transmitter to be ignored for a set amount of
time at the beginning of the upstroke. This timer allows the required lifting pressure to temporarily rise above the set point to
help overcome the reduced piston surface area caused by the cylinder’s piston resting in the lower-head dashpot

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Data Collection Performance Graph
The communications performance graph tab (Figure 9) tracks and displays information regarding your unit’s telemetry data collection
and the communication of that data. The information is used to verify the unit is collecting register values and transmitting the
information correctly.

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Register Logs
The Register Logs tab (Figure 10) allows you to view the current PLC register values. The register values are used by HRPI to assist
in trouble shooting your unit’s performance.

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Local Devices
The Local Devices tab (Figure 11) is used if you are sharing one network communication module (Cellular, Wi-Fi, Satellite) for
multiple power units, the enrolled devices (Units) would be listed here with their network address information for HRPI to assist in
trouble shooting a communications error.

PumpReports System Info


The System Information tab (figure 12) display information about the Pumpreporter module and the

The PLC control circuit consists of the following components:

1. PLC assembly
a. GE Versamax CPU
b. Discrete Input card
c. Discrete Output card
d. Two Analog input cards

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2. Circuit breakers (qty 3)
3. UPS (back up battery)
4. Well A & B Stroke Indicator Lights (ON when each respective cylinder is upstroking).
5. High/Low Oil Level Indicator Light
6. High Oil Temperature Light
7. Reset Pushbutton (clears fatal and non-fatal faults)
8. Well A & B Selector Switch
4.2 Combination Motor Starter Panel

Each power unit includes a self-contained combination motor starter panel, which includes the following components:

 Main disconnect switch / motor circuit breaker


 Three pole, motor contactor (pump motor and fan motor)
 Three pole, motor thermal overload protector (pump motor and fan motor)
 Control Power Transformer
 Fused fan motor branch circuit
 Fused protection on the control power transformer
 Fail-safe mechanical manually reset control relays
 Three-position, “Test-Off-Run” switch
 Pushbutton “Reset” switch

The panel is typically equipped to accept 480VAC 3-phase power, and requires no other outside inputs, or power sources.

When initially energized, the combination motor starter panel will not allow either of the motors to start until after the reset button is
pushed, with the circuit breaker power turned on. In addition, each subsequent power loss (such as shutting off the disconnect switch)
requires that the manual reset pushbutton be pressed to engage the fail-safe relays. This feature is designed to prevent an accidental
automatic restart, in the event of remote power restoration after a power failure. This feature can be bypassed, but we strongly
recommend not doing so for safety reasons. Please contact HRPI for more details regarding this feature.

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4.3 Software Overview

The PLC only manages the task of stroke timing and sequencing, as well as monitoring analog sensors (transmitters) for safe
operation. The PLC’s adjustable set points (SPM, timers, sensor limit values, etc.) and operating data are accessible through two
devices.

4.3.1 The Pumpreporter


All operator changeable unit dynamics can be set or monitored using the Pumpreporter web interface. The Pumpreporter provides near
real-time hydraulic dynamometers. www.pumpreports.com. Pumpreports.com provides a historical trend analysis tool, which allows the
overlaying of historical dynamometer cards for graphical side-by-side comparison.
4.3.2 Operator Interface Panel (OIP)
All operator changeable dynamics can be set or monitored using the OIP. The OIP touch screen is mounted to each unit. The OIP
provides a simple interface at the unit allowing operators quick access to pertinent data.

4.4 Communication Transmission Mediums

Internet access to the Pumpreporter is recommended, but not required. The system is designed to be fully self-contained and operable
in a stand-alone environment. In most cases the Pumpreporter comes factory pre-configured for your application and should require no

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modification to the communication stack. If you do require minor changes such as IP address adjustments, it is highly recommended
you consult one of our technicians first.

The basic Pumpreporter configuration includes an Ethernet connection and a wireless access point (802.11 a/b/g/n). Depending on
your requirements, a weatherproof Ethernet connector may or may be installed. Virtually all Pumpreporter devices contain a wireless
access point as the primary local connection. Additional connection options include a mesh network radio, cellular data, additional
Ethernet connections, and an optional PoE (802.3 power over Ethernet) port.

 Wi-Fi connection:
The Pumpreporter implements a basic 802.11 a/b/g/n Wi-Fi access point. When in range, you may connect to the Pumpreporter in the
same way you would connect to your home router / access point. The default address for accessing the Pumpreporter interface is
http://local.pumpreports.com or http://192.168.8.1 (please note these addresses are subject to change in future versions)

 Ethernet connection:
The preferred method of connecting the Pumpreporter to the internet is through a standard Ethernet connection. The network address
is configurable as static or can be obtained from a DHCP server. For simplified accessibility on the local network, a static address is
preferred. Please consult your IT department for proper network provisioning.

An optional PoE (802.3 power over Ethernet) port is available as a factory installed option. This can simplify installation by providing a
single cable install. This is not generally required for most cases, but is useful for base-station type installs (typically as the internet
enabled node on a mesh network).

Two additional Ethernet ports can be installed on the Pumpreporter to provide network access to other devices. For example, IP
enabled cameras, tank level sensors, etc. When on a mesh network or cellular environment, bandwidth and throughput may limit the
functionality of such devices.

 Wireless mesh network:


The Pumpreporter can be equipped with an optional mesh network radio operating in the 900MHz band for unlicensed operation in
compliance with FCC part 15. This is a factory configured option and we suggest a site assessment for optimal layout. Professional
installation may be required in accordance with FCC part 15 to ensure proper antenna sizing and placement.

The mesh network is a distributed, self-configuring, decentralized network of nodes. It is self-contained in that an internet connection is
not required to access the nodes in the network. Internet access is however suggested, and can be distributed to the network if at least
one node has a route-able internet connection. In the absence of an internet connection, the mesh network is still accessible locally
when in range of any of the nodes (via the 802.11 access point or an Ethernet connection).

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Additional nodes maybe added to the mesh network at any time. The additional Pumpreporter nodes will be factory configured to
seamlessly integrate with the existing Pumpreporter nodes in the mesh network, requiring little to no in-the-field configuration.

Because each node in the mesh network may be used in routing requests to other nodes, it is suggested that power be applied to the
Pumpreporter in such a way as to remain on, even if the well is turned off. If the network of nodes is sufficiently dense, the network will
route around dead nodes. If however the network is sparse, it is possible for a single failed node to split the network. A proper site
survey will identify such scenarios and suggest the placement of additional nodes.

 Cellular data connection.


The Pumpreporter can be optionally equipped with either a CDMA or GSM data card. A site assessment is suggested to determine
optimal coverage and service. According monthly service charges apply. An integrated antenna is standard with this option. An external
antenna option maybe provided, but is subject to carrier approval and FCC professional installation requirements. In most cases where
the type of cellular coverage is known and accordingly factory configured, this option is virtually "plug and play".

This option can be used in conjunction with the wireless mesh network to provide access to a group of remote wells. Please note that
cellular coverage may not be available in all areas and is not always a stable/reliable method of communication.

4.5 Operating Mode (Cycle / Idle):

There are two modes of operation: idle and cycle. The unit is considered to be in idle when neither well is engaged (lifting). When the
“A/B” selector switch is in the OFF position, the unit is in idle mode. When the “A/B” selector switch is moved from the OFF position to
A, B or A&B, the electric motor is engaged, the unit will remain in neutral mode. The unit will enter the cycle mode automatically after a
15 second startup time delay. This allows the motor to start under a no-load condition and the hydraulic system to stabilize before
loading the motor and building hydraulic pressure. This timer restarts from zero each time the power unit (PLC) is turned off. The unit
will stop cycling if it any of the integrated safe operation sensors find an error or if the unit is turned off.

4.6 Selecting Wells To Be Stroked:

A four-position selector switch is located on the PLC Control Panel and is used to turn each individual well on and off. The four
available positions are: OFF, A, A&B, and B. When the switch is in the OFF position, neither well is selected and the power unit is
turned off. In A, A&B or B position, the power unit is turned on, and the selected well or wells will stroke. The well A and B indicator
lights will illuminate only when the associated well is stroking.

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4.7 Stroke Timers and Ratio Sequencing:

The PLC makes use of adjustable timers and counters to carry out complex stroke timing and ratio sequences.

The stroke timers govern the duration of the upstroke (retraction phase) of each individual cylinder with one-tenth of a second
accuracy. The amount of time required to complete a full upstroke is derived from a combination of cylinder size, pump output (GPM),
and system efficiency.

Stroke ratios are mathematically computed based on user-supplied SPM settings for each well (when applicable) and are a numerical
derivative of the two desired SPM’s. For example, if “Well A” has a desired SPM of 2.0 and “Well B” has a desired SPM of 3.0, the
mathematical ratio is 2:3. More Stroke Ratio examples (Table 1):

SPM - Well A SPM - Well B Ratio (A:B)


3.2 1.6 2:1
1.5 2.5 3:5
2.0 2.0 1:1
1.5 2.4 5:8
Table 1. Stroke ratio examples

The above stroke ratios correlate to a numerical sequence of strokes for each well, which provide the ability of the PLC to run both
wells at time-weighted average SPM’s while keeping both cylinders out of phase with each other. For example, using the ratio and
SPM’s from the first entry in the table above, the faster of the two wells (Well A) will stroke at a frequency of 3.2 SPM’s. This faster well
strokes continuously, without any interruption. The slower well (Well B) will stroke one half as often as the faster well, due to the 2:1
ratio relationship. The slower well will only stroke every other stroke. Only one cylinder will upstroke at any given time. If both SPM’s
are equal the stroke ratio will be 1:1. While one cylinder downstrokes the other cylinder will upstroke, keeping
the cylinders out of phase with respect to each other. When ratios are unequal (i.e. 2:1), the slower well’s cylinder will rest at the
bottom of the downstroke, waiting for its next upstroke while the companion cylinder (well) continues to stroke. In the 2:1 ratio example
above, the sequence would be carried out as followed:

Event Companion Well State Ratio Count (cumulative)


Well A upstrokes A=1
Well B upstrokes Well A downstrokes B=1
Well A upstrokes Well B downstrokes A=2
Well B rests at bottom Well A downstrokes B= (1 skipped)

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Cycle Repeats
Table 2. Stroke ratio explained

The stroke counter value for each well cumulates up to the higher ratio value and then both reset back to zero, restarting the ratio
stroke count sequence. The slower well skips its stroke when the ratio counter value equals (or exceeds) its individual stroke ratio
count value. This methodology allows for a time-weighted average SPM for both wells, regardless of the individual SPM setting for
each well.

Pressure transmitters are monitored on each cylinder at all times and are utilized as process interruptions or watch points. The first
process possible interruption is during the upstroke portion of the stroke cycle. The second possible process interruption may occur
when the PLC compares the real-time measured pressure against the preset pressure level set points. The PLC will interrupt
(disengage) the upstroke in the event hydraulic oil pressure rises above the preset set points.

The adjustable parameters that pertain to stroke timing and ratio sequences include:

1. Strokes Per Minute (each well)


2. Upstroke Timer (each well)
3. “Max Trip”, upstroke high-pressure limit set point (each well)
4. “Max Trip Delay”, a delayed-response timer that helps to reduce falsely triggered stroke interruptions. The duration of a pressure
“spike” must exceed this timer to trigger a stroke interruption. (each well)
5. “Max Trip Initial Delay”, a nullified-response timer that causes each respective transmitter to be ignored for a set amount of time at the
beginning of the upstroke. This timer allows the required lifting pressure to temporarily rise above the set point to help overcome the
reduced piston surface area caused by the cylinder’s piston resting in the lower-head dashpot. (each well)

Between each upstroke on each well, the PLC uses a "shift delay" to allow pressures to stabilize before energizing the other solenoid.
This shift delay can also be used in combination with soft-shift valves, to help reduce shifting chatter and reversal shock loads on the
hydraulic lines.

The PLC will re-calculate the appropriate shift delay and stroke ratios each time a value is adjusted, to ensure accurate timing and
sequencing. For dual well operation, entering dissimilar SPM rates tells the PLC to find the closest mathematically available stroke
ratio.

The PLC controls the stroke cycles by energizing and de-energizing two solenoids (one for each well) on the power unit valve stack.
When a solenoid is energized, the power unit will begin to upstroke the respective well (A or B). When the PLC recognizes a pressure
spike (from the pressure transmitter) above the adjustable set point that lasts longer than the associated timer allows, the PLC de-
energizes that solenoid and allows that well to begin the downstroke.

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4.8 Shift Delay:

The PLC automatically calculates and adjusts the shift delay (dwell) time based on the operator-supplied SPM and stroke timer values.
The shift time delay occurs at the end of each upstroke timer (when the PLC de-energizes each solenoid). The shift delay will never
fall below one-tenth of a second, which means the maximum SPM available for any one well is limited to the both combined upstroke
timers and two shift delays, divided into 60 seconds.

4.9 Clearing Faults

Faults such as high/low oil level, high oil temperature and high pressure shutdowns can be cleared by pressing the RESET button on
the PLC panel on the power unit. A word of caution: If the unit has automatically shut down, steps should be taken to find out the
exact cause BEFORE clearing the fault and restarting the unit. If no indicator lights are visibly illuminated, you may refer to the PLC
output card’s embedded indicator lights located inside the PLC control panel. Please refer to appendix E for more information.

4.10 High Oil Temperature Shut Down

The high temperature shutdown is a two-stage sequence. The first stage begins when the oil temperature rises above the high oil
temperature set point and remains above this level for 5 continuous minutes. This condition will start the “HI TEMP” light flashing on
the PLC control panel and will also initiate an idle / cool-down mode. The second stage is a fatal fault causing the power unit to shut
down and will occur if the oil temperature fails to cool down within a 15- minute time limit. If the oil temperature drops below the set
point before the 15 minute time limit expires, the power unit will return to cycling (stroking) mode however, the high temperature light
will remain flashing to maintain a memory retentive indication that the oil temperature had produced a non-fatal fault at some time in the
recent past. Pressing the RESET button will clear the blinking light, unless the high temperature condition still exists. If the unit shuts
down due to high oil temperature, the high oil temperature light will remain on in a solid (continuous) state.

4.11 Low or High Oil Level Shut Down

The continuous oil level sensor measures oil level, as relative to the top of the tank. There are two oil level shut down set points, high
and low. Both of these set points are monitored on a constant basis. An anti-falsing time-delay is incorporated with these individual set
points, which requires a fault (low or high level) condition for 5 continuous seconds before shutting the unit down. If either set point is
violated for 5 continuous seconds, the unit will shut down and the oil level light will remain on continuously. Pressing the RESET button
on the PLC control panel will clear the fault and re-start the unit, providing the oil level is in the normal operating range.

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If the fault clears and the unit restarts but then shuts down with an oil level fault shortly after the restart, the oil level in the tank is most
likely getting low and the oil that is required to upstroke a cylinder is drawing the tank level down and causing the fault to occur. Adding
oil, and clearing the fault can correct this condition. The oil level can be monitored using the OIP or the Pumpreporter. The normal
operating range falls between 3.5” (low level) and 11.5” (high level).
If using the unit sight glass, with the unit off fill the oil to approximately ¾ full in the sight glass. That is to say ¼ from the top of the
visible level in the glass tube. There should always be some oil visible in the site glass if not add oil.

4.12 High Pressure Shut Down

Both wells (if applicable) are monitored via independent pressure transmitters at all times and compared to a maximum system
pressure shutdown set point. If at any time, either pressure transmitter exceeds this set point for more than .2 seconds, the system will
shut down immediately. All four indicator lights will flash at the same time, in a one-half second interval. To clear the fault and restart
the unit, press the reset pushbutton on the PLC control panel.

If the fault condition reoccurs, it is an indication of one of several problems, a downhole problem, a power unit adjustment/tuning
problem or, a closed hydraulic valve. Contact service personal if the problem continues. It may require only a slight adjustment to the
relief valve, or to the pressure set point in the PLC via software.

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(Photograph: Pad style drill site with above ground cylinders)

4.14 High Pressure “Max Trip” Stroke Interruption

Each well is independently monitored via a separate pressure transmitter. If during the upstroke the PSI climbs above the safety
maximum set in the system parameters, the unit will shift to neutral. The PSI must be sustained for a set period before it shifts to
neutral allowing for natural spikes in the pressure while upstroking.

4.15 Testing Control Panel Indicator Lights

A simple test should be performed at regular intervals to ensure that none of the control panel light bulbs are burned
out. All lights on the PLC control panel will illuminate when the reset button is pressed and held. This test may be performed at any
time when the unit is running however; pressing the reset button will reset the stroke timers, which may cause a pressure spike due to
excessive stroke time. This can be avoided or minimized by performing this test with the “A/B” Selector switch in the OFF position.

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Photograph: Subsuface cylinders in a crowded well cellar

Section 5: Hydraulic System Operation, Adjustments & Fine Tuning

We highly recommend reading through this section at least once, as well as participating in an orientation training session with an
authorized HRPI service representative, prior to attempting to make this adjustment.

CAUTION:

The startup, operation and adjustment procedures described herein assume that you are familiar with all of the components, as well as the operating
principals and guidelines described herein. If you are either unfamiliar with any of the system’s components, or are unfamiliar with high-pressure
hydraulic equipment, you must stop and go back to re-read or review this entire manual before attempting to start the equipment.

Personal injury and/or death could result from improperly starting, operating and/or making adjustments to the equipment. Always wear
proper personal protective equipment.

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5.1 Initial Startup

Pre-Startup Checklist:

 The power unit’s reservoir must be nearly full of hydraulic oil (¾ full sight glass).
 The power unit must be connected to at least one hydraulic cylinder.
 The four-position “OFF-A-A&B-B” switch is in the “OFF” position.
 The three-position “TEST-OFF-RUN” switch on the motor starter panel is in the “OFF” position (straight up and down).
 The main circuit breaker on the power unit is in the “OFF” position.
 Open up both flow control valves all the way (counterclockwise).
 Open up the relief valve all the way (counterclockwise).
 Open up both soft shift valves all the way (counterclockwise).
 The hydraulic pump intake ball valve must be open all the way (3/4” square tube located under the valve stack turned counter
clockwise)
 Hydraulic ball valves are open.
 The electrical power has been safely connected to the power unit and is now energized.

Motor Rotation Testing Procedure:

The purpose of this test is to ensure that both of the motors are capable of operating and that electrical power is energized at
the power unit.

Caution: Before performing a motor rotation test for the first time, follow the “Pre-Startup checklist above.

Note: These steps must be performed in proper sequence. Failure to follow the sequence as described below will
produce unpredictable and/or undesirable results.

If either motor fails to run during this test, stop and correct the problem before continuing. Failure to correct any problems may
cause personal injury, or damage to the equipment.

1. Turn the main circuit breaker on the motor starter panel to the “ON” position.
2. Press the “RESET” button.
3. Turn the three-position “TEST-OFF-RUN” on the motor starter panel to the “TEST” to start both the fan and the pump motors.

 Both motors should now be running.

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 Proper motor rotation (direction) must be verified if this is the initial startup test, or if the electrical power supply has been
disconnected from the equipment.
 Pump Motor Rotation Direction: Clockwise, as viewed from the rear of the motor (motor shaft pointing away from you).
 Fan Motor Rotation Direction: Varies. Ensure the fan is drawing air from the rear (motor end) of the housing, and pushing air
over the heat exchanger/oil cooler.

5.2 Initial Start Up Unit Settings

The HRPI pumping system is an engineered solution. A design was created based on customer provided well specific data. Each
HRPI unit is delivered with a system design and unit information card. This card list the theoretical values for setting the pumping unit
to run as designed. Information listed on the design card should be used to set the units initial start up settings. For a sample of this
card see Appendix D

A flow control valve controls the downstroke traveling speed of each cylinder. Each well has its own flow control valve, so each well is
adjusted independently. This flow control valve is mounted to the sub plate at the bottom of the valve stack. There are three factors to
consider when making adjustments to the flow control valve.

1. Maximum allowable time to complete a downstroke.


2. Current SPM stroke ratios for both wells (if applicable).
3. Upstroke time for both wells.

Note: If the cylinder to be stroked is not waiting at the bottom of the stroke when the PLC attempts to start a new upstroke, the PLC will
not wait for the cylinder to return to the bottom of stroke before beginning another upstroke. It is the operator's responsibility to adjust
the flow control valve to ensure that each cylinder is at the bottom of the stroke when the PLC begins to upstroke each well.

To simplify the process of adjustment flow control valves for each well, it is easiest to set the downstroke speed (and resultant time
duration of the downstroke) slightly faster (shorter in time) than the companion wells upstroke timer. This will ensure that each cylinder
completes its downstroke before the companion well completes a full upstroke.

Note: Care must be taken to prevent wells from downstroking faster than necessary, as this can cause premature wear or failures to
the downhole equipment, such as rod parts and holes in production tubing strings.

Periodic adjustment of this valve is highly recommended as changing well conditions, specifically, the fluid level of each well, can
dramatically affect cylinder downstroke traveling speeds. As the fluid level drops in the well bore (as the well becomes pumped-off),
the minimum polished rod load imposed on the cylinder during the downstroke increases, increasing the hydraulic pressure on the

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cylinder during the downstroke. The resulting increase in cylinder load and pressure tends to pull the cylinder down faster, as the flow
control valves do not compensate for fluctuations in upstream hydraulic pressures.

To adjust the downstroke speed / flow control valve:


(See diagram X on page Y to identify the flow Control valve)

1. Loosen the locknut on the flow control valve setscrew.


2. Turn the setscrew clockwise to slow down the downstroke, or counterclockwise to speed up the downstroke.
3. Tighten the setscrew’s locknut when the desired speed is achieved.

It is important to make adjustments in small increments, and to allow a full stroke cycle to elapse between adjustments to monitor the
effect of each adjustment. Too slow of a downstroke may cause a pressure spike to occur at the top of the upstroke, while too fast of a
downstroke will cause unnecessary wear and/or harm to the downhole equipment.

The actual downstroke time on each well can usually be observed at the power unit without the use of software, by feeling the actuation
hose connected to the cylinder you are adjusting. The cylinder phase (direction) and state can be usually can be identified by the level
of stiffness in the hose, as well as the amount of vibration and/or tension on the actuation hose.

Note: A simple rule of thumb for downstroke speeds relates to how long a cylinder sits at the bottom of the downstroke, before
beginning a new upstroke. When two wells are operating with even / matched stroke ratios, each cylinder should be waiting at the
bottom of the stroke for no more than three seconds and generally, no less than one second. Adjusting the flow control valves with too
short of bottom-of-stroke cylinder dwell time can prevent speed increases from being performed effectively through the software,
without first adjusting the flow control valves.

5.3 Pressure Relief Valve Adjustment

The hydraulic pump is the workhorse component of the hydraulic system and is subjected to extremely cyclic loading, including rapid
pressure fluctuations, extreme pressures and extreme temperature ranges. Proper care must be taken to prevent pump damage as
result of high pressure, as well as high temperature. One of the most common sources of heat in hydraulic systems is the relief valve,
specifically from either being adjusted too low or from improper system adjustment. Conversely, one of the most common causes of
premature pump failures is overpressure, which is ultimately governed by the relief valve. The pump has a maximum pressure rating,
as well as oil viscosity ratings, which are directly relative to temperature of the hydraulic oil. The relief valve is there to prevent the
pump from overpressure damage. Running a pump beyond its rated limit will drastically reduce its life expectancy.

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To properly set the relief valve, you must know the maximum estimated required upstroke pressure for both wells (if applicable), as well
as the pressure the pump is rated for.

Most Denison vane pumps are rated as follows*:


Pump Model # T7E: Continuous=3000 / Intermittent=3500
Pump Model # T6D: Continuous=3000 / Intermittent=3500
Pump Model # T6C: Continuous=3500 / Intermittent=4000

* Please contact HRPI or Denison for detailed specifications on all cam ring displacement pressure ratings. Some specific cam rings
have been de-rated to below the typical pressure ratings as described above.

Notes about intermittent and continuous pressure ratings:


Pumps may be operated intermittently at pressures higher than the recommended continuous duty rating when the time weighted
average of pressure is less than or equal to the continuous duty pressure rating. This intermittent pressure rating calculation is only
valid if other parameters (RPM, fluid, viscosity, and contamination level) are respected and if the cycle time is no longer than 15
minutes.

Example: T6D
Duty cycle Pressure
4 minutes 3500 psig
1 minute 500 psig
5 minutes 2300 psig
= 10 minutes cycle time

(4 x 3500) + (1 x 500) + (5 x 2300)


------------------------------------------- = 2600 psig (time weighted average)
10 (minutes)

The rule of thumb for the relief valve setting is: 400 psig above the maximum required lifting pressure, or 250 psig above the
continuous pressure rating of the pump, whichever is lesser. The maximum required lifting pressure is a predicted or calculated value,
which includes the downhole equipment design of the well as well as the well conditions (fluid level, API gravity, water cut, etc.) and the
installed cylinder specifications.

To properly set the relief valve, the pump must be forced to pump against a static and immovable load, such as a closed valve or
against a blocked piston. To achieve this condition, a ball valve may be closed on the hydraulic actuation line, or a plug or a cap may

Page | 43
be installed on a hydraulic line or hose. An alternative to these options is to adjust one of the upstroke timers excessively long,
allowing enough time to adjust the pressure relief valve while the cylinder’s piston is held at the mechanical end of the upstroke.

The following procedure must be performed in the prescribed sequence.


(add diagram to identify the flow relief valve)

1. Shut the power unit down.


2. Loosen the locknut on the setscrew.
3. Unscrew the relief valve adjustment setscrew counterclockwise, until it turns freely (with little resistance), or until it stops. This will
lower the maximum allowable pump pressure setting to near 0 psig for a safe startup point.
4. If using the closed valve or plugged line method, close the selected valve or plug the selected actuation hydraulic line at this time.

a. Start the power unit in normal operating (stroking) mode. Ensure that only the well with the closed valve / plugged line is
selected on the PLC control panel.
b. SLOWLY turn the setscrew clockwise during each attempted upstroke on the respective blocked line until the pressure
builds up to the maximum required lifting pressure.
c. Continue slowly turning the setscrew clockwise to increase the pressure to either: ~400 psig above the maximum required
lifting pressure or 250 psig above the maximum continuous rating of the pump; whichever is lesser.
d. Tighten the locknut on the setscrew while holding the setscrew in place, taking care to prevent accidental re-adjustment of
the setscrew.
e. Witness at least one additional attempted stroke to verify that the intended pressure setting is still valid after the setscrew
has been locked in position by the locknut.
f. Shut the unit down and reopen all valves or remove any plugs and/or caps on the actuation hydraulic line.

5. If using the excessively long stroke timer method, adjust the stroke timer on the well to ~300.0 seconds (~5 minutes).

a. Start the power unit in normal operating (stroking) mode. Ensure that only the well with excessive stroke timer is selected
on the PLC control panel.
b. SLOWLY turn the setscrew clockwise during the attempted excessively long upstroke until the pressure builds up to the
maximum required lifting pressure.
c. Continue slowly turning the setscrew clockwise to increase the pressure to either: ~400 psig above the maximum required
lifting pressure or 250 psig above the maximum continuous rating of the pump; whichever is lesser.
d. Tighten the locknut on the setscrew while holding the setscrew in place, taking care to prevent accidental re-adjustment of
the setscrew.
e. Verify that the intended pressure setting is still valid after the setscrew has been locked in position by the locknut.
f. Shut the unit down and adjust the stroke timer back to a normal range.

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6. If desired, restart the power unit in auto mode and press reset to clear any faults.

Note: It may be necessary to adjust the “max trip” and/or “shutdown psi” settings via software to temporary higher levels, as the current
settings may conflict with or interrupt the relief valve adjustment process. If it becomes necessary to do so, ensure that the
pressure settings are re-adjusted back to normal and safe levels after the relief valve is adjusted. For instructions on
manipulating the trip settings please review the Pumpreporter manual.

5.4 Soft Shift Valve

The 4-way directional control valve has an accessory installed called a soft-shift valve. This device allows the adjustment of how fast
the 4-way shifts out of each stroke position (A or B), back to center or neutral position. This device helps reduce hydraulic shock loads,
which may loosen pipe clamps and/or fittings.

Please read the entire section before attempting any adjustments to these valves.
(See diagram X on page Y to identify the soft shift valve)

Proper adjust of the soft shift valves:

a. Adjust the SPM on both wells (if applicable) to provide a minimum of one-second of shift delay time. This allows the soft
shift valves to be adjusted and tested, as less than one second of shift delay time may interfere with (override) the soft
shift valves by initiating a new upstroke on the companion well (if applicable).
b. Loosen both locknuts and unscrew both adjustment screws (counter-clockwise) all the way out.
c. Slowly tighten each knob (one at a time) 1/2 turn (clockwise) for each complete cycle of both wells.

Note: When the affected well is stroking, the respective soft shift adjustment screw will become stiff, due to hydraulic
pressure. This physical characteristic is important to be accustomed to, for diagnosing which valve / well needs adjusting.

d. Continue tightening clockwise ½ turn after each cycle until the 4-way directional control valve STALLS, or STOPS
SHIFTING (this helps determine how far is too far). CAUTION: At this time, the soft shift has caused the 4-way valve to
stall in an upstroke mode and the pump will build up and hold a considerable amount of pressure (it will be relieving the
pressure back to the reservoir via the pressure relief valve). The 4-way will stay in this stalled position until you begin
backing the knob out. Immediately loosen the adjustment screw until the 4-way valve (becomes un-stuck). When the 4-
way shifts back to neutral (or over to stroke the other well), you are close to properly adjusted, but this is only a reference
starting point.
e. Observe how smoothly the valve shifts for a few cycles.
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f. If the valve chatters, or stalls, back out the knob 1/4 turn each cycle until the valve shifts smoothly, yet positively.
g. Reset the locknut to prevent the adjustment from going out of adjustment.
h. Observe how smoothly the valve shifts for a few cycles. If the valve chatters, repeat steps e through h until positive,
smooth shifts are achieved.

Note: Hydraulic oil viscosity (temperature) and fluctuating well conditions (PPRL / hydraulic lifting pressure) will affect the shifting
reliability, so double-check the valve for correct shifting operation periodically after an adjustment or whenever a unit is switched from
dual to single well mode.

Section 6: Hydraulic System Maintenance, Repair & Troubleshooting

6.1 Hydraulic Fluid Cleanliness, Temperature & Viscosity

All moving components in the hydraulic system will fail prematurely without the proper type and condition of oil. This mandates that the
oil be kept clean and operating within a temperature range that is suitable for the key components. The pump and valves are the least
tolerant of contamination of all the system components, so the respective component manufacturers of these components dictate the
standards for the oil in the entire hydraulic system. Denison Hydraulics (the manufacturer of choice for hydraulic pumps) sets forth two
standards for hydraulic oil, known as “HF-0” and “HF-2”. These standards require that the oil maintain an ISO standard of cleanliness
of no less than 18/14 along with a viscosity range of X to y cP.

6.2 Preventative Maintenance Intervals:

Return Line Filter Element: Replace once every 2-3 months, or when filter pressure gauge indicates pressures average above 15 psig
continuous. The internal filter relief bypass is set for 25 psig and is non-adjustable.

Reservoir Breather Element: Replace once each quarter or whenever the return filter element is replaced.

Reservoir Sight Glass: Clean or replace when it becomes stained.

High Pressure Hoses: Maximum 24 months (Replace)

Hydraulic Pump: Once every 36 months or when efficiency drops below 90%, or if it does not build enough pressure to lift the cylinder,
or makes excessive noise.

Relief Valve Pilot Needle & Seat: check adjustment each month.

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4-Way Valve: Replace O-Rings once a year or when seepage occurs.
4-Way Soft Shift Valve: Replace once every two years.
4-Way Pilot Valve & Solenoids: Replace O-Rings every 12 months.
4-Way Flow Controller: Remove cartridges & inspect once every 6 months. Replace the flow control valve assembly once every 3
million cycles (either cartridge).

Clean Heat Exchanger Fins: Once every six months or when the unit runs hotter than usual (>170 degrees F), or it becomes difficult to
see through the cooling fins (clogged with dirt/debris).

Grease Motor Bearings: Every 3 Months

Motor-to-Pump Coupling Element: Replace once every two years or when original shape becomes distorted/stretched.

Cylinder Seals & Rings: Once every 36 Months or if unit consumes oil and there are no visible leaks. (Over 1 Gallon/Day with no visible
leaks)

Reservoir cleaning: Once every three years. (Drain the old oil, scrub inside of reservoir with degreaser or steam clean, clean & refill
with new oil)

HRPI builds each unit with the highest quality parts available. When replace parts we strongly suggest using parts identical to those
being replaced. We will not guarantee the suitability of any parts that we have not tested and approved.

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Appendixes

Appendix Description Page


A Basic Trouble Shooting 39
B Subsurface Cylinder Spacing Example 40
C Above Ground Cylinder Spacing Example 41
D System Design and Unit Information Card
E PLC Indicator Lights Legend
F Hydraulic Circuit Diagram
G Electrical Circuit Diagram

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Appendix A: Basic Trouble Shooting
PROBLEM CAUSES TROUBLESHOOTING ACTION CORRECTIVE ACTION
Unit will not run (No lights on). No power Check main breaker Cycle breaker handle to "ON"

Check "Hand-Off-Auto" switch. Cycle switch to "Hand" and then to "Auto".

Check reset buttons Press both reset buttons. When pressing


computer reset verify all lights work.
Unit runs in "HAND" and not "AUTO" No power to computer Check computer circuit breaker Reset computer breaker. If unit will not
run call service technician.
Unit not running (A and/or B lights on) Contactor tripped Reset motor overload Press main panel reset button. If motor
sill will not run call technician.

One leg of main power Call Service Technician


bad.
Fill with or dump oil to ¾ visible in sight glass. Press
Unit not running (Low Oil light on) Low or high oil Check oil level sight gauge computer panel reset.

Bad float switch Call Service Technician

Bad analog card Call Service Technician


Unit not running (High Temp light on) High temp fault Clear fault Press computer panel reset button. If fault
will not clear call technician.
Check all Hyd. Valves are open / not vibrated
Unit will not run (all lights flashing) High pressure fault closed. Clear fault Press computer panel reset button. If fault
will not clear call technician.
Unit runs - both wells will not stroke Unit in test mode Check "Hand-Off-Auto" switch Verify "H-O-A" switch is in "Auto" position.

If pressure gauge reads 0 psi, Shut down unit call


No hydraulic pressure Check pressure gauge service
technician.

Solenoid breakers are Check breakers in computer panel If solenoid breakers are off or tripped reset.
tripped or off If wells do not stroke call technician.
Unit runs - one well will not stroke Solenoid breaker is Check breaker in computer panel If solenoid breaker is off or tripped reset.
tripped or off If well will not stroke call technician.
PROBLEM CAUSES TROUBLESHOOTING ACTION CORRECTIVE ACTION
Unit running hot Fan motor not on. Reset motor overload Press main panel reset button. If motor
sill will not run call technician.

Relief valve by-passing Check hydraulic lines for closed valves. Open closed ball valves.
fluid.

Check Dyno's Rods could be parted or not dropping all

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the way down.

Relief valve worn or out of adjustment. Call Technician


Unit shuts down on low oil Low oil Check oil level. Unit may have enough oil to Fill with oil. Press computer panel reset.
start and/or run but enough to stroke wells. If continues to shut down call technician.

Bad float switch Call Service Technician

Bad analog card Call Service Technician


Pump noisy Low oil - air in system check oil level. If low, add oil and call technician.

Suction screen Call technician


plugged

Pump worn out Call technician

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Appendix B: Cylinder Spacing Example

HRPI Subsurface Cylinder Pump Spacing Instructions

Cylinder Lengths (extended)

20’ (240” stroke) Subsurface Cylinder – 43’

24’ (288” stroke) Subsurface Cylinder – 51’

28’ (336” stroke) Subsurface Cylinder – 59’

Add 1’ to overall length of cylinder to ensure the plunger it is off bottom (or remove one extra foot of the rod string).

ROD STRETCH: General rule, add 3” per every 1000’ of well depth for rod stretch.

Example:

(Using 30’ rods)

Using a 20” Cylinder (240” stroke)


Well depth 8000’ (3” x 8 = 24”)
At TAP DOWN there is 6’ of rods still above well head.
This means 24’ of rods is still in hole.

Calculate:

43’ extended cylinder length 54’ total rods come out of hole

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1’ off bottom 46’ total cylinder length comes out of hole
2’ rod stretch (8000’ well depth 8’ of rods go back in hole
46’ for cylinder length and stretch/well depth

This means 6’ of rods still above well head at tap down. There is still 24’ of that rod in hole. You need to remove a total of
46’ for the overall cylinder length.
You will remove the 24’ of rods still in hole, and one more 30’ rod. Now you have removed a total of 54’ of rod length from
the well. So to reach the 46’ mark, you will need to add 8’ of rods back in hole. This will ensure proper spacing for this well.

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Appendix C: Above Ground Spacing Example

HRPI Above Ground Cylinder Pump Spacing Instructions

Polished Rod Lengths (extended)

20’ (240” stroke) Above Ground Cylinder – 20.5’

24’ (288” stroke) Above Ground Cylinder – 24.5’

28’ (336” stroke) Above Ground Cylinder – 28.5’

Add 1’ to overall length of cylinder to ensure the plunger it is off bottom (or remove one extra foot of the rod string).

ROD STRETCH: General rule, add 3” per every 1000’ of well depth for rod stretch.

Example:

(Using 30’ rods)

Using a 20” Cylinder (240” stroke)


Well depth 4000’ (3” x 4 = 12”)
At TAP DOWN there is 6’ of rods still above well head.
This means 24’ of rods is still in hole.

Calculate:

20’ extended cylinder length 24’ total rods come out of hole (one 30’rod)
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1’ off bottom 2’ (sub) pony rod goes back into the hole.
1’ rod stretch (8000’ well depth) 22’ total polished rod goes into the hole
22’ for cylinder length and stretch/well depth

This means 6’ of rods still above well head at tap down. There is still 24’ of that rod in hole. You need to remove a total of
22’ for the overall polished rod length. You will lay down one 30’ rod. You now need to add one 2’ (sub) pony rod. This will
ensure proper spacing for this well.

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Appendix D: System Design and Information Card

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Appendix E: PLC Indicator Lights Legend

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Appendix F: Hydraulic Circuit Diagram
(Please note Figure 1 below)

The hydraulic circuit consists primarily of: one hydraulic oil pump driven by one electric motor, one manually adjusted pilot pressure
relief valve, two manually adjusted return-stroke flow control valves and one solenoid operated, three-position, four-way directional
control valve, one priority flow-relief manifold, one return filter assembly, one air-over-oil heat exchanger and one reservoir. The pump
is a fixed displacement vane type, which provides a constant traveling speed (GPM) for the cylinder and rod string during the upstroke
portion of the cycle. The four-way directional control valve directs hydraulic oil flowing from the hydraulic pump discharge port to one or
two cylinders installed on the wellhead(s), or back to the oil reservoir when shifted into the neutral (center) position. The hydraulic oil
that was used to retract (lift/upstroke) each cylinder is trapped in the cylinder under the piston, and then released back to the reservoir
when the directional control valve is shifted to neutral position, or engaged in stroking position for a companion well (when applicable).
All hydraulic oil returning from the cylinder(s) is directed into a priority flow-relief manifold. The priority flow-relief manifold directs as
much oil through the heat exchanger as it can safely accept. When the heat exchanger cannot accept additional or excess
flow/volume, oil is then diverted directly back to the reservoir. All oil returning back to the reservoir must first pass through a return filter
assembly. The return filter assembly includes an internal by-pass valve, which allows oil to by-pass the filter element when the filter
element becomes plugged with contaminants or if the flow capacity of the element is exceeded. An air filter (reservoir breather) filters
the air flowing into and out of the reservoir, as the oil level in the reservoir rises or falls.

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Figure 12

Actuation Circuit

The high-pressure, working portion of the hydraulic circuit is called the actuation circuit. It is used to actuate the cylinder and the
attached load (rod string). The actuation circuit reciprocates as oil is pumped into the cylinder and then released at a controlled rate,
back to the reservoir. Each cylinder extends (descends) at an independent speed, governed by a manually adjustable, individual flow
control valve.

Single And Dual Well Operating Modes

Power surveys taken by independent companies have shown that dual well hydraulic power units can reduce the energy consumption
by approximately 25%, when compared to single well implementations of the same design.

The single well and dual well non-counterbalanced system is designed to operate either one or two oil wells semi-independently. Dual
well operation is achieved by branching off the actuation circuit into two sub circuits, which can upstroke only one of two cylinders at a

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time in an out-of-phase fashion. In simplified terms, the first cylinder (“A”) upstrokes (retracts) while the second cylinder (“B”)
downstrokes (extends).

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Single Well Mode

The cylinder must be resting at the bottom of its stroke (fully extended) before startup, insuring all hydraulic lines and valves remain
open and the power unit is adjusted properly. After the power unit’s motor is started (RUN), the four-way valve will begin circulating
hydraulic oil within the power unit hydraulic circuit. When the PLC’s (on board computer) “A / B” selector switch is set to its desired
position, (well “A” or “B”). The four-way valve will begin cycling hydraulic oil directing the hydraulic pump outlet flow to the selected well
cylinder, and then back to the reservoir when an upstroke is completed. When the pump flow is directed back to the reservoir
(considered neutral or center position), fluid used to upstroke the cylinder also returns to the reservoir back through the actuation hose /
port, at a manually adjusted controlled rate through a flow control valve in the valve stack on the power unit. This allows the cylinder to
complete a down stroke and to start the cycle over again. The duration of upstroke time, as well as the dwell time between strokes are
governed by the power units PLC (computer system), controlled by, a user friendly web interface.

The traveling speed of the piston, polished rod and rod string are all governed by:

A. The hydraulic oil pump displacement during the upstroke


B. The manually adjusted flow control valve setting during the downstroke

The cylinder’s upstroke and downstroke traveling speeds are controlled by independent devices, which afford independent upstroke
and downstroke traveling speeds.

(Photograph: Typical pad style drill site multiple units in close proximity)

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Dual Well Mode

Both cylinders must be resting at the bottom of their strokes (fully extended) before startup, providing all hydraulic lines and valves
remain open and the power unit is adjusted properly (Figure 2).

Figure 13. Hydraulic circuit with both cylinders at rest.

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Once the PLC A/B selector is switched to the BOTH (center) position, the power unit’s motor is started and the unit automatically
begins cycling by shifting the 4-way valve from neutral (center) position to the first position (A), directing the hydraulic pump outlet flow
out to the first well cylinder “Well A” (Figure 3).

Figure 14. Hydraulic circuit well A lifting.

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Once the “Well A” set upstroke time is completed the 4-way valve is then shifted to the neutral (center) position (Figure 4). This
releases the first cylinder (Well A) to begin its downstroke. The second cylinder “Well B” will begin its upstroke when the 4-way valve is
shifted from neutral (center) position over to the second position (B), which directs the hydraulic pump outlet flow to the second well
cylinder (Well B), while allowing the first cylinder (Well A) to complete its down stroke (Figure 4).

Figure 15. .Hydraulic circuit well b lifting well a falling.

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When the second well cylinder (Well B) reaches the desired end (top) of its set upstroke (Figure 5), the 4-way valve is shifted back to
neutral or center position, which releases the second well cylinder (Well B) to begin its downstroke. The cycle can now be repeated,
beginning with an upstroke for Well A.

Figure 5. .Hydraulic circuit well a lifting well b falling.

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The duration of each upstroke time, as well as the dwell time between each upstroke are all governed by a PLC.

The traveling speed of the pistons, polished rods and rod strings are governed by:

A. The hydraulic pump displacement during the upstroke.


B. The flow control valve during the downstroke.

A common hydraulic pump drives both cylinders. Providing both cylinders have identical bore sizes and polished rod diameters, both
cylinders will upstroke (retract) at the same feet per second. Conversely however, each individual cylinder’s downstroke traveling
speed is controlled by manually adjusted independent flow control device mounted on the unit valve stack assembly, which affords
independent downstroke speeds for each well.

With the unit cycling two (both) cylinders, each cylinder will remain 180 degrees out of phase, with respect to its companion cylinder. In
other words, one cylinder goes up while the other comes down. The only exception to this rule is when two wells must operate at
different SPM (Strokes Per Minute) rates however, the directional control valve can only upstroke one well at a time.

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