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1: Introduction

Just like the unprocessed flowers we all know as "marijuana," hashish


varies in potency and appearance depending on the quality of cannabis
it's extracted from and the process used to do so. The end product of
hashish can range from hard, dry bricks that can be brittle and crumble
apart at a touch to soft, resinous balls that are sticky as tar. The colour
can vary as well, from creamy, yellow blonde or amber to rusty reds,
browns, and even black.

Hashish is made by collecting and compressing the sticky, crystalline


resin glands produced by cannabis flowers (known as trichomes but
sometimes called "kief") and then compressing them into sticks, blocks,
or balls.

For instance, the process of making "charas" in Pakistan and India is


thousands of years old and consists of gently rubbing cannabis flowers
until the resin accumulates on the farmers' hands to be scraped off,
shaped, and compressed. Modern methods of collecting the tiny resin
particles from cannabis often involve motorized tumbling machines, fine
sieves, molds, and presses, and there is an innovative process that
involves mixing marijuana with ice water to remove trichomes and make
a pasty concentrate called "bubble hash."

1.2 The origins of hashish

The origin of hashish is unclear, making the routes of its diffusion difficult
to trace. Made from the resin produced by the female flowers and floral
leaves of the marijuana, hashish is believed to have existed thousands of
years ago. There are many legends surrounding the origin of hashish.

One of them is the story of Sheik Haidar, written by Hassan Mohammed


ibn-Chirazi. Monk of the order Haidar, Sheik practiced many exercises of
devotion and mortification. He was detached from all worldly things and
lived alone in a corner of his convent. One day when he was in his retreat,
he wandered alone into the countryside. The latter noticed that all the
plants were in a perfect calm, not experiencing the least agitation despite
the extreme heat. When he passed by a certain plant covered in foliage,
he observed that it was moving softly from side to side with a soft light
movement, like a man dizzied by the fumes of wine. He began to pluck
the leaves of the plant and ate them.

According to him, the plant produced the gaiety that helped him humanize
and converse familiarly with his fellow devotees whom he never saw
before. Sheik then showed his disciples the magic plants and asked them
to cover his tomb with this plant when he died. When visitors, pilgrims and
devoted followers came from neighboring lands to venerate the master,
they were surprised by both the plants and the atmosphere of gaiety that
prevailed around Haidar's shrine. Soon, the secret of cannabis use spread
among Sufi followers of Islam throughout the Middle East to North Africa,
Central

1.3 Hashish use in America