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WIRELESS ELECTRICITY

14ME420 – ENGINEERING DESIGN

Technical Report

Submitted by

Abinav Karthikeyan R (17G002)

Ajay Kumar K R (17G006)

Amrish R (17G013)

Dhanush G (17G028)

Faculty Co-ordinators

Mr. M. SERMARAJ
Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Mr. B. BRUCELEE
Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Mr. P. MARAN
Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering

Department of Mechanical Engineering


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THIAGARAJAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
(A Govt. Aided Autonomous Institution, Affiliated to Anna University)

MADURAI – 625 015


APRIL 2019
THIAGARAJAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
(A Govt. Aided Autonomous Institution, Affiliated to Anna University)

MADURAI – 625 015.

Certificate of Evaluation

Certified that this 14ME420 – Engineering Design Technical Report titled “Wireless
Electricity” is the bonafide work of Mr. Abhinav Karthikeyan R (17G002), Mr.
Ajay Kumar K R (17G006),Mr. Amrish R (17G013),Mr. Dhanush G (17G028) of
Fourth Semester B.E – Mechanical Engineering during the academic year 2018 –
2019.

Mr. M. Sermaraj Mr. B. Brucelee Mr.P. Maran


(Faculty In-charge) (Reviewer 1) (Reviewer 2)

Signature of the Faculty Co-ordinators

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Signature of the HDME

Station : Madurai

Date :

ABSTRACT

In olden days wired counterparts called telephones, played an inevitable role in


people’s lives, which made communication easy. But in present world people don’t
find these wired counterparts that easy, rather they find their wireless counterpart
called mobile phones as a best technology to communicate. This feature ensured more
portability combined with better handling, and a plethora of other features embedded
inside. Following the same trend, there is wireless internet ,wireless charging and a
lot. There is wireless power in the form of batteries, which have got quite a few
interesting benefits, and also suffer from the reusable perspective, and the hazards
arising due to the improper disposal. This is where wireless dynamic power
transmission comes into the picture. Common household appliances like televisions
have a huge maze of wires bounding them and even a single wire malfunction can
cause unwanted component damage. Nevertheless they even add up to more problems
like the lack of quick shift and can induce tripping. The feature of wireless power
solves not only these, but a lot of other issues too.

In case of space probes,this feature has been a boon. Probes launched to far off
destinations often suffer from lack of power sustenance and ultimately die of in the
interstellar space. This occurs when the solar panels present experience perturbation
due to collisions with debris like asteroids,or do not get sufficient sunlight as they
recede away from Earth.Wireless power in the form of small microwave bursts help in
accomplishing these tasks. There have been talks for inducting a wireless charging

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system for electric cars. This groundbreaking technology will enable automotive
manufacturers to integrate wireless charging into the design of hybrid and electric
vehicles. This wireless charging system would not use plugs or charging cords.
Drivers would park their electric vehicle over a wireless energy source that sits on, or
is embedded in the garage floor, and the system will automatically transfer power to
the battery charger on the vehicle, transferring enough watts to fully charge an electric
car at the same rate as most residential plug-in chargers.
This project aims in introducing this behemoth technology into an affordable
spectrum. In this project the electricity is aimed to be transmitted wirelessly through
magnetic resonance.
The idea is about the introduction of wireless electricity transmitter and wirelessly
powered pads,which gain power from a WIFI like hub,and consequently powers the
appliance connected to it. Be it a laptop or the mandatory tablet it can power all of
them,when hooked on to the ennumerable ports present on the pad.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The success and final outcome of this project required a lot of guidance and
assistance from many people and I am extremely privileged to have got this all
along the completion of my project. All that I have done is only due to such
supervision and assistance and I would not forget to thank them. I respect and thank
our principal Mr. V Abhai Kumar and HOD Mr. K Chockalingam, for providing me
an opportunity to do the project and giving us all support and guidance which made
me complete the project duly. I owe my deep gratitude to our Faculty in-charge Mr.
M Sermaraj and reviewers Mr. B Brucelee and Mr. P Maran , who took keen interest
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on our project work and guided us all along, till the completion of our project work
by providing all the necessary information for developing a good system. I would not
forget to remember my parents for their encouragement and more over for their
timely support and guidance till the completion of our project work. I am thankful to
and fortunate enough to get constant encouragement, support and guidance from all
Teaching staffs of Mechanical Department which helped us in successfully
completing our project work. Finally I thank the Almighty God for giving us his
blessing and will power to complete this project.

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LIST OF TABLES

Table
List of Tables Page No.
No.

3.1 Dimension of wires 16

3.2 Cost of component 16

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure
List of Figures Page No.
No.

1.1 Block diagram of a wireless energy transfer system. 8

Schematic representation of inductively coupling into and


1.2 9
out of the resonators.

2.1 Circuit equivalent of an electromagnetic resonator. 11

2.2 Equivalent circuit for the coupled resonator system. 12

2.3 Optimum efficiency of energy transfer as function of the 14

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figure-of- merit,U.

3.1 Modem model 17

4.1 Block diagaram of wifi key encryption 19

Robustness index of modern programming


4.3 20
languages

4.3 Output 22

4.4 Bar graph for wireless charging revenue 23

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CHAPTER 1

1.INTRODUCTION

WPT for consumer devices is an emerging technology, but the underlying principles
and components are not new. Maxwell's Equations still rule wherever electricity and
magnetism are involved, and transmitters send energy to receivers just as in other
forms of wireless communication. WPT is different, though, in that the primary goal is
transferring the energy itself, rather than information encoded in the energy. The
project was researched by former Cornell students Lucas Jorgensen and Adam
Culberson in the year 2008. The need and usefulness of wireless power transmission
and the feasibility of using magnetic resonance as the means for wireless power
transmission is increasing day by day. The outline of our design process and the
logical steps which are took in the experimentation and design of our circuits are
explained.

1.1 BACKGROUND

The idea of transmitting power through the air has been around for over a century,
with Nikola Tesla’s pioneering ideas and experiments perhaps being the most well-
known early attempts to do so. He had a vision of wirelessly distributing power over
large distances using the earth’s ionosphere. Most approaches to wireless power
transfer use an electromagnetic (EM) field of some frequency as the means by which
the energy is transferred. At the high frequency end of the spectrum are optical
techniques that use lasers to send power via a collimated beam of light to a

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remote detector where the received photons are converted to electrical energy.
Efficient transmission over large distances is possible with this approach; however,
complicated pointing and tracking mechanisms are needed to maintain proper
alignment between moving transmitters and/or receivers. In addition, objects that get
between the transmitter and receiver can block the beam, interrupting the power
transmission and, depending on the power level, possibly causing harm. At microwave
frequencies, a similar approach can be used to efficiently transmit power over large
distances using the radiated EM field from appropriate antennas. However, similar
caveats about safety and system complexity apply for these radiative approaches. It is
also possible to transmit power using non-radiative fields. As an example, the
operation of a transformer can be considered a form of wireless power transfer since it
uses the principle of magnetic induction to transfer energy from a primary coil to a
secondary coil without a direct electrical connection.Inductive chargers, such as those
found commonly in electric toothbrushes,operate on this same principle. However, for
these systems to operate efficiently, the primary coil (source) and secondary coil
(device) must be in close proximity and carefully positioned with respect to one
another. From a technical point of view, this means the magnetic coupling between
the source and device coils must be large for proper operation.But what about going
over somewhat larger distances or having more freedom in positioning the source and
device relative to each other? Many techniques for transmitting power over “mid-
range” distances and arrived at a non-radiative approach that uses resonance to
enhance the efficiency of the energy transfer was explored (see Physics of Highly
Resonant Power Transfer for details). High quality factor resonators enable efficient
energy transfer at lower coupling rates, i.e., at greater distances and/or with more
positional freedom than is otherwise possible (and therefore, this approach is
sometimes referred to as “highly resonant” wireless energy transfer or “highly
resonant” wireless power transfer (HR-WPT)). The MIT team has demonstrated the
highly resonant technique using a magnetic field to transfer energy over a mid-range
distance of 2 meter. In some instances, this technology is also referred to as “magnetic
resonance”, and it is often contrasted to “induction” for its ability to efficiently
transfer power over a range of distances and with positional and orientational offsets.
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Since that initial demonstration, the use of magnetic resonance, has enabled efficient
wireless energy transfer in a wide range of applications that was not possible before.

1.3 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Across an application space that spans power levels from less than a watt to multiple
kilowatts, a wireless energy transfer system based on magnetic reasonance often has a
common set of functional blocks. A general diagram of such a system is shown in
Figure 1.

Figure 1.1. Block diagram of a wireless energy transfer system.

Progressing from left to right on the top line of the diagram, the input power to the
system is usually either wall power (AC mains) which is converted to DC in an
AC/DC rectifier block, or alternatively, a DC voltage directly from a battery or other
DC supply. In high power applications, a power factor correction stage may also be
included in this block. A high efficiency switching amplifier converts the DC voltage
into an RF voltage waveform used to drive the source resonator. Often an impedance
matching network (IMN) is used to effectively couple the amplifier output to the
source resonator while enabling efficient switching-amplifier operation. Class D or E
switching amplifiers are suitable in many applications and generally require an
inductive load impedance for highest efficiency. The IMN serves to transform the
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source resonator impedance, loaded by the coupling to the device resonator and output
load, into such an impedance for the source amplifier. The magnetic field generated
by the source resonator couples to the device resonator, exciting the resonator and
causing energy build-up. This energy is coupled out of the device resonator to do
useful work, for example, directly powering a load or charging a battery. A second
IMN may be used here to efficiently couple energy from the resonator to the load. It
may transform the actual load impedance into an effective load impedance seen by the
device resonator which more closely matches the loading for optimum efficiency
(Equation 5). For loads requiring a DC voltage, a rectifier converts the received AC
power back into DC. In the earlier works, the impedance matching was accomplished
by inductively coupling into the source resonator and out of the device resonator. This
approach provides a way to tune the input coupling, and therefore the input
impedance, by adjusting the alignment between the source input coupling coil and the
source resonator, and similarly, a way to tune the output coupling, and therefore the
effective loading on the device resonator, by adjusting the alignment between the
device output coupling coil and the device resonator. With proper adjustment of the
coupling values, it was possible to achieve power transfer efficiencies approaching the
optimum possible efficiency (Equation 6). Figure 2 shows a schematic representation
of an inductive coupling approach to impedance matching. In this circuit Mg is
adjusted to provide the desired input impedance for the given loading of the source
resonator. The device resonator is similarly loaded by adjusting 𝑀L, the mutual
coupling to the load. Series capacitors may be needed in the input and output coupling
coils to improve efficiency unless the reactances of the coupling inductors are much
less than the generator and load resistances.

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Figure 1.2. Schematic representation of inductively coupling into and out of the
resonators.

It is also possible to directly connect the generator and load to the respective
resonators with a variety of IMNs. These generally comprise components (capacitors
and inductors) that are arranged in “T” and/or “pi” configurations. The values of these
components may be chosen for optimum efficiency at a specific source-to-device
coupling and load condition (“fixed tuned” impedance matching) or they may be
adjustable to provide higher performance over a range of source-to device
positions and load conditions (“tunable” impedance matching). Requirements of the
particular application will determine which approach is most appropriate from a
performance and cost perspective.

1.4.EFFICIENCY:

A common question about wireless charging is: How efficient is it? The end-to-end
efficiency of a wireless energy transfer system is the product of the wireless efficiency
(see Physics of Highly Resonant Power Transfer for an explanation) and the efficiency
of the electronics (RF amplifier, rectifier and any other power conversion stages, if
needed). In high power applications, such as the charging of electric vehicles at multi
kilowatt levels, end-to-end efficiencies (AC input to DC output) greater than 94%
have been demonstrated. Such efficiencies require that each stage in the system have
an efficiency at 98-99% or greater. Careful design in each stage is required to
minimize losses to achieve such performance.
In mobile electronic devices, space is usually of utmost importance, so incorporating
resonators generally involves some tradeoffs in resonator size and system efficiency to
accommodate the space restrictions. Also, the application use-case may involve a
wider range of magnetic coupling between source and device which can also present a
challenge for the design of the impedance matching networks. However, coil-to-coil
efficiencies of 90% or more and end-to-end efficiencies over 80% are achievable in
these lower power applications.
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CHAPTER 2

2.1 RESONANCE:

Resonance is a phenomenon that occurs in nature in many different forms. In general,


resonance involves energy oscillating between two modes, a familiar example being a
mechanical pendulum in which energy oscillates between potential and kinetic forms.
In a system at resonance, it is possible to have a large buildup of stored energy while
having only a weak excitation to the system. The build-up occurs if the rate of energy
injection into the system is greater than the rate of energy loss by the system.
The characteristics of an isolated resonator can be described by two fundamental
parameters, its resonant frequency 𝜔o and its intrinsic loss rate, Γ. The ratio of these
two parameters defines the quality factor or 𝑄 of the resonator, (𝑄 = 𝜔o/2Γ) a measure
of how well it stores energy. An example of an electromagnetic resonator is the circuit
shown in Figure 3, containing an inductor, a capacitor and a resistor.

Figure 2.1. Circuit equivalent of an electromagnetic resonator.

In this circuit, energy oscillates at the resonant frequency between the inductor
(energy stored in the magnetic field) and the capacitor (energy stored in the electric
field) and is dissipated in the resistor. The resonant frequency and the quality factor
for this resonator are
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(1)
and

(2)

The expression for 𝑄 shows that decreasing the loss in the circuit, i.e., reducing 𝑅,
increases the quality factor of the system.
In highly-resonant wireless power transfer systems, the system resonators must have a
high quality factor to efficiently transfer energy. High-Q electromagnetic resonators
are typically made from conductors and components with low absorptive (also
sometimes referred to as ohmic, resistive, series resistive, etc.) losses, exhibit low
radiative losses, and as a result have relatively narrow resonant frequency widths.
Also, the resonators may be designed to reduce their interactions with extraneous
objects which may cause loss.

2.2 COUPLED RESONATORS:

If two resonators are placed in proximity to one another such that there is coupling
between them, it becomes possible for the resonators to exchange energy. The
efficiency of the energy exchange depends on the characteristic parameters for each
resonator and the energy coupling rate, 𝜅, between them. The dynamics of the two-
resonator system can be described using coupled-mode theory], or from an analysis of
a circuit equivalent of the coupled system of resonators.

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One equivalent circuit for coupled resonators is the series resonant circuit shown in
Figure 4.

Figure 2.2. Equivalent circuit for the coupled resonator system.

Here the generator is a sinusoidal voltage source with amplitude 𝑉g at frequency 𝜔


with equivalent generator resistance 𝑅g.The source and device resonator coils are
represented by the inductors 𝐿s and 𝐿d, which are coupled through the mutual
inductance 𝑀, where 𝑀 = 𝑘 (𝐿s𝐿d)^(1/2). Each coil has a capacitor to form a
resonator. The resistances 𝑅s and 𝑅d are the parasitic resistances (including both
ohmic and radiative losses) of the coil and resonant capacitor for the respective
resonators.
The load is represented by an equivalent AC resistance 𝑅L. Analysis of this circuit
gives the power delivered to the load resistor, divided by the maximum power
available from the source when both the source and device are resonant at 𝜔 as

(3)
Where

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(4)

is the figure-of-merit for this system.

We can choose the generator and load resistances which give the best system
performance (or use an impedance transformation network to match to other
resistance values). If we select

(5)

then the efficiency of the power transmission as defined above is maximized and is
given by

(6)

and shown in Figure 5. Here one can see that highly efficient energy transfer is
possible in systems with large values of 𝑈. Note that the impedance matching
described above is equivalent to the coupled mode theory treatment that shows that
work extracted from a device can be modeled as a circuit resistance that has the effect
of contributing an additional term, Γw, to an unloaded device object’s energy loss rate
Γd, so that the overall energy loss rate is given by

(7)

and that the efficiency of the power transmission is maximized when


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(8)

Figure 2.3: Optimum efficiency of energy transfer as a function of the


figure-of- merit,U.

Note that the best possible efficiency of a wireless power transmission system only
depends on the system figure-of-merit, which can also be written in terms of the
magnetic coupling coefficient between the resonators, 𝑘, and the unloaded resonator
quality factors, 𝑄s and 𝑄d

(9)
Knowing the resonator quality factors and the range of magnetic coupling between
them for a specific application, one can use Equations (6) and (9) to determine the best
efficiency possible for the system.

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The analysis above illustrates the importance of coupling factor and resonator quality
factor for wireless power transfer using magnetic resonance. The magnetic coupling
coefficient is a dimensionless parameter representing the fraction of magnetic flux that
is coupled between the source and device resonators, and has a magnitude between
zero (no coupling) and 1 (all flux is coupled). Coupling is a function of the relative
sizes of the resonators, the distance between them and their relative orientation.
Wireless power transmission systems based on traditional induction
(e.g., cordless toothbrush) are typically designed for larger values of coupling and as
a result require close spacing and precise alignment between source and device.
Equations (6) and (9) show that using high-quality resonators allows for efficient
operation even at lower coupling values, eliminating the need for precise positioning
between source and device and providing for a greater freedom of movement. The
ability to achieve high efficiency even at low coupling factors expands the application
space for wireless power far beyond that of traditional induction.

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CHAPTER 3
3.1 DIMENSION :

No of turns 10cm
Diameter of each turn 60cm
Transmitting Coil Diameter of copper tube 0.95cm
No of turns 10cm
Receiving Coil Diameter of each turn 60cm
Diameter of copper tube 0.95cm
No of turns 1cm
Transmitting Antenna Diameter of each turn 56cm
Diameter of copper tube 0.23cm
No of turns 2cm
Receiving Antenna Diameter of each turn 45cm
Diameter of copper tube 0.23cm
Table 3.1:Dimension of wires
*The above dimensions are based on wires available in market (no specific reason for
the dimension)

3.2 DESIGN DETAIL:

The product consist of an oscillator, a power amplifier, a transmission coil, a receiver


coil, rectifier,load. The oscillator used is Hewlett Packard 3310A Function Generator.
A simple switch-mode power amplifier design is used inorder to amplify the voltage
signal. switch-mode design consist of a MOSFET IRF 510, which when turned on
allows large current from the DC power supply to flow through the resistor and
through the transmitting antenna to transfer current from the power supply through the
transmitting coil. The large current from the transmitting coil was able to generate a
large flux to induce a high voltage in the receiving coil. The voltage rectifier is made
of 1N914B.
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3.3COST :

Hewlett Packard 3310A Rs. 80,000


Mosfet Irf150 Rs. 200
1N914b diode Rs. 300
Capacitors Rs. 320
Inductor Rs. 600
Copper wire Rs. 490
Pcb board Rs. 700
Resistor Rs. 500
TOTAL Rs. 83,110
Table 3.1:Cost of component

3.4 MODEL:

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Figure 3.1 : Modem model

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CHAPTER 4

4.1 HUMAN SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS:

A common question about wireless power transfer using magnetic resonance systems
is: Are they safe? Perhaps because these systems can efficiently exchange energy over
mid-range distances, people may assume that they are being exposed to large and
potentially dangerous electromagnetic fields when using these systems. Early popular
press descriptions of the technology as “electricity-in-the-air” have done little to calm
people’s potential fears. Of course, Wireless electricity technology is do not refer as
“electricity-in-the-air”, but rather a technology that uses oscillating magnetic fields to
mediate the wireless energy exchange. With proper design the stray electric and
magnetic fields can be kept below the well-established and long-standing human
safety limits that regulate all electro-magnetic consumer devices including cell
phones, wireless routers, Bluetooth headphones, radio transmitters, etc. For example a
company has already perform a detailed electromagnetic analysis, using
measurements and sophisticated numerical modeling tools, of each system design and
application area, including systems transferring more than 10 kW of power, to ensure
that the systems will meet all applicable human safety guidelines. Perhaps it is more
safer than having a smartphone near our ear.

4.2 SECURITY ASPECTS:

4.2.1:Introduction:

Since the power transmission takes place in a manner similar to wireless fidelity
signals (WIFI), a proper security framework should be ensured to prevent
unauthorised usage and power theft. Usage beyond the stipulated range can lead to
overloading and consequently a temporary blackout of the setup.

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A short term key is provided by means of an OTP (one time password). For the sake
of computational simplicity,4 digit OTPs are generated. Based on a tentative number
of devices which are required to make use of the facility,(“n”) ,“n” keys are generated
and are later assigned to the users. In this case , about “n” keys are generated using a
Python code which also takes brunt to ensure that , mismatching keys fail to encrypt
the facility.

In any random session, the number of possible 4 digit OTPs is given by the
permutation:

Total possible combinations = 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 =10,000

This indicates a fairly large set and hence with the chances of wild guessing
eliminated, it proves to be fairly a good setup.

Figure:4.1 :Block diagaram of wifi key encryption

4.2.2 Code Description:

Python is an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language., created


by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991. It finds use in almost all real time
software , ranging for Artificial intelligence based systems to open source codes.

Why Python? Because:

 it’s popular, fast, readable, intuitive, simple, clear, and scalable;


 it offers a ton of useful frameworks and libraries;
 it enjoys a vast and ever-growing community of supporters and enthusiasts.
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Clearly python enjoys a clear edge over its other rivals. The following figure
illustrates , how it fares up compared to other languages.

Figure 4.2 Robustness index of modern programming languages

The following code written in python , generates “n” ONE TIME PASSWORDS
,based upon the inputs recognized. It follows the conventional loop algorithm , and
checks for randomness by comparing with dynamic substrings.

4.2.3 The Code:

# import library

import math, random

# function to generate OTP

def generateOTP() :

# Declare a digits variable


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# which stores all digits

digits = "0123456789"

OTP = ""

# length of password can be chaged

# by changing value in range

for i in range(4) :

OTP += digits[math.floor(random.random() * 10)]

return OTP

n=input("enter the number of devices")

n=int(n)

for i in range(1,n+1):

# Driver code

if __name__ == "__main__" :

print("OTP of 4 digits for appliance",i,"is", generateOTP())

4.2.4 CODE OUTPUT CASE:

CASE 1: ASSUMING N=7:

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CASE 2: ASSUMING N=15:

Figure 4.3:Output

4.3 FUTURE:

With a maturing technology base and a broad application space, wireless power
transfer will become prevalent in many areas of life in the coming years. Since the
original demonstrations at MIT early this century, the technology of magnetic
resonance has moved from a scientific experiment to the production line where it will
be incorporated into mass-produced consumer electronics such as laptops and mobile
phones. Electric vehicles, both plug-in hybrids and full battery electric vehicles, will
soon offer wireless charging so that plugging in to charge will no longer be a
requirement. Development of world-wide standards for wireless power in both of
these application areas is underway to ensure interoperability across products and
brands, facilitate the deployment of wireless charging infrastructure and help to
accelerate adoption of the technology.
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Some advanced automotive technology, such as vehicles with autonomous navigation
and ultimately driverless operation, along with the expansion of car sharing services to
provide better utilization of such vehicles, will benefit greatly from the ability to
charge without human intervention. In fact, wireless charging is almost essential for
the deployment of autonomous vehicles where there may not be anyone around to
connect a wired charger (or otherwise add fuel).
Imagine a fleet of autonomous vehicles, offering ride services for example, that
automatically find the nearest charging spot when charging is needed and go back into
service once recharged. Research into dynamic charging of vehicles, using the same
basic technology of magnetic resonance, is underway and may someday lead to real
charging on the move. Another promising application area for wireless power transfer
is in the medical arena. The use of medical implants for innovative therapies for a
variety of chronic conditions is growing, and the ability to safely get power to such
devices opens the door to new treatment options. For example, wireless power offers
the ability to extend the useful lifetime of an implant because its battery can
be recharged, or even eliminate the need for a battery in some cases. Of course, there
will likely be applications for wireless power that we cannot envision today. With the
pace of technology innovation, expect to see wireless power technology deployed not
only in the areas mentioned here, but in many more applications.

Figure 4.4: Bar graph for wireless charging revenue

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Conclusion:-

At the end of the research transmitting watts of power wirelessly from the
transmitting coil to the receiving coil is made possible by using discrete components
such as the relaxation oscillator, switch mode-power amplifier and a full bridge
voltage rectifier for the system design process. There can be significant research
work that can be done in the future so that wireless power transmission can be
implemented to transmit electricity throughout the entire planet. Future work
includes connecting the relaxation oscillator with the power amplifier using current
amplifier chip for providing enough current to drive the gate of the Mosfet to drive
the efficient class D H-Bridge power amplifier. In near future as mankind becomes an
interplanetary species it is possible to have a solar plant in moon and transferring
those energy to earth or mars through this technology. Also, reduction in the size of
the transmitting and receiving coils and utilizing the regulated signal to power a DC
load could be something that could be worked in the future as a means to make this
system feasible for practical applications.

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References

1)Nicola Tesla, “The transmission of electrical energy without wires”, Electrical


World
and Engineer, March 1905. http://www.tfcbooks.com/tesla/1904-03-05.htm,
(acc. Dec. 08).

2) William C. Brown, “The history of power transmission by radio waves”,


Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions, 32(9):1230-1242,
September 1984.

3) A.B. Kurs, A. Karalis, R. Moffatt, J.D. Joannopoulos, P.H. Fisher, and M. Soljacic,
“Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances”, Science, 317,
pp. 83-86, (2007).

4) A. Karalis, J.D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, “Efficient Wireless Non-radiative


Mid- range Energy Transfer”, Ann. Phys., 323, pp. 34-48, (2008); published online
April 2007.

5) J.D. Joannopoulos, A. Karalis, and M. Soljacic, “Wireless Non-Radiative Energy


Transfer”, U.S. Patent Numbers 7,741,734; 8,022,576; 8,084,889; and 8,076,800.

6)A. Karalis, A.B. Kurs, R. Moffatt, J.D. Joannopoulos, P.H. Fisher, and M. Soljacic,
“Wireless Energy Transfer”, U.S. Patent Numbers 7,825,543 and 8,097,093.

7) A. Karalis, R.E. Hamam, J.D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, “Wireless


EnergyTransfer Including Interference Enhancement”, U.S. Patent Number 8,076,801.

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