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CAS Notes Compilation 2017

Contents
MODULE 1 – CARIBBEAN SOCIETY & CULTURE ............................................................................................................................. 3
LOCATION & DEFINITION OF THE CARIBBEAN REGION AND ITS DIASPORA .................................................................................. 3
THE CARIBBEAN (DEFINITIONS) ................................................................................................................................................................ 3
THE HISTORICAL PROCESS ............................................................................................................................................................ 4
MIGRATION ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
SYSTEMS OF PRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7
RESPONSES TO OPPRESSION.................................................................................................................................................................... 8
MOVEMENTS TOWARDS INDEPENDENCE .................................................................................................................................................... 9
CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIETY & CULTURE ................................................................................................................................ 11
SOCIETY HAS ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 11
CULTURE IS ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 11
IDENTITY & SOCIAL FORMATION ............................................................................................................................................... 12
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION........................................................................................................................................................................ 12
CULTURAL DIVERSIFICATION .................................................................................................................................................................. 13
CREOLISATION AND HYBRIDISATION ........................................................................................................................................................ 14
IMPACT OF GEOGRAPHICAL PHENOMENA ................................................................................................................................. 15
HAZARDS .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 15
SPECIFIC HAZARDS – VOLCANOES, EARTHQUAKES, HURRICANES, DROUGHT................................................................................................... 15
CORAL REEFS ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 18
IMPACT OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS ON CARIBBEAN PEOPLE ........................................................................................................ 20
FAMILY ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 20
RELIGION .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
EDUCATION ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 21
THE JUSTICE SYSTEM ........................................................................................................................................................................... 22
CARIBBEAN ARTS & POPULAR CULTURE .................................................................................................................................... 23
EXAMPLES OF CARIBBEAN ART .............................................................................................................................................................. 23
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT THROUGH CARIBBEAN ART ................................................................................................................................... 23
CARIBBEAN-GLOBAL INTERACTIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 26
CARIBBEAN'S INFLUENCE ON EXTRA-REGIONAL SOCIETIES (INCLUDING HAITI & CUBA)..................................................................................... 26
THE IMPACT OF EXTRA-REGIONAL SOCIETIES ON THE CARIBBEAN FROM CENTRAL TO CONTEMPORARY TIMES....................................................... 29
MODULE 2 – ISSUES IN CARIBBEAN DEVELOPMENT ................................................................................................................... 33
CONCEPTS & INDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................................................................ 33
CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT ................................................................................................................................................................ 33
INDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................................................................................................. 35
FACTORS THAT PROMOTE OR HINDER DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................................................. 38
PROMOTE ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 38
HINDER ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 38

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GLOBALISATION & DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................................................................................ 42
FORMS OF GLOBALISATION ................................................................................................................................................................... 42
FACILITATORS OF ORGANISATION AND DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................................................................... 42
GENERAL IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................................... 44
THE INTEGRATION MOVEMENT ................................................................................................................................................. 45
FEDERATION ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 47
WISA............................................................................................................................................................................................... 48
CARIFTA .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 48
CARICOM........................................................................................................................................................................................ 49
CSME .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 50
OECS ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 51
ACS ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 51
COMMON TERMS ................................................................................................................................................................................ 52
CONTRIBUTIONS TO SPORT ....................................................................................................................................................... 53
GENERATION OF INCOME ..................................................................................................................................................................... 53
HEALTH & FITNESS.............................................................................................................................................................................. 53
EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES .............................................................................................................................................................. 54
DEVELOPMENT OF CARIBBEAN IDENTITY .................................................................................................................................................. 54
DISCIPLINE & MORALE......................................................................................................................................................................... 54
SPORTS TOURISM ............................................................................................................................................................................... 55
INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION .............................................................................................................................................................. 55
CHALLENGES OF USING SPORTS TO FACILITATE DEVELOPMENT ...................................................................................................................... 55
INTELLECTUAL TRADITIONS........................................................................................................................................................ 56
PAN-AFRICANISM ............................................................................................................................................................................... 56
NEGRITUDE........................................................................................................................................................................................ 56
RASTAFARI......................................................................................................................................................................................... 57
MARXISM.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 57
DEPENDENCY THEORY .......................................................................................................................................................................... 58
INDO-CARIBBEAN THOUGHT.................................................................................................................................................................. 58
CARIBBEAN FEMINIST THOUGHT ............................................................................................................................................................ 58
INDIGENOUS PERSPECTIVES ................................................................................................................................................................... 58
ROLES & FUNCTIONS OF THE MASS MEDIA ................................................................................................................................ 59
PROVISION OF INFORMATION ................................................................................................................................................................ 59
ENTERTAINMENT ................................................................................................................................................................................ 60
CONSTRUCTION OF NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND DIASPORIC IDENTITY............................................................................................................... 60
PROMOTION OF CULTURAL EXPERIENCE AND EXCHANGE ............................................................................................................................ 60
RESPONSE TO CULTURAL IMPERIALISM .................................................................................................................................................... 61
PROMOTION AND DEFENCE OF RIGHTS OF CITIZENS ................................................................................................................................... 61
SOCIAL JUSTICE .......................................................................................................................................................................... 62
SEXUALITY ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 62
CONCEPTS OF SOCIAL JUSTICE: .............................................................................................................................................................. 63
POLICE BRUTALITY .............................................................................................................................................................................. 63

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MODULE 1 – Caribbean Society & Culture


Location & Definition of the Caribbean Region
and its Diaspora
The Caribbean (definitions)
 Geographical
o All the areas washed by the Caribbean Sea - excludes some territories like Barbados and Bermuda
o Located between 0° and 23.5° N Latitude - this excludes some territories like Bahamas
 Geological
o all the territories found on the Caribbean plate, which experience common geological phenomena
(earthquakes, volcanic activity) - excludes territories like Barbados, Bahamas
 Historical
o all the islands and territories colonised by European powers, resulting in a legacy of slavery, Asian
immigration/indentureship.
 encompasses all historical practices; chattel slavery, encomienda
 includes territories excluded by geographical and geological definitions
 Political
o All territories which have experienced colonization and adopted political systems of their mother
country.
 Westminster system of government - British
 The overseas department - French
 Tripartite kingdom - Dutch
 Diasporic
o Individuals who have migrated from the Caribbean and established communities within their host
countries.
 examples in: London, Toronto, New York

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The Historical Process


Migration
Caribbean society began with migration.

Inter-Island
With slavery abolished in 1838, ex-plantation workers began to move within the region for economic opportunities.
 They went to
o Costa Rica - construction of the railroads (being done by the USA).
o Panama - construction of the Panama Canal (started by the French, completed by the USA)
o Trinidad, Venezuela - oil industry
o British Guiana, Santa Domingo, Cuba - sugar industry (late 1800 when wages were higher)
 Based on desire for socioeconomic improvement.
 Closely linked to failure of plantation society to meet
o Social
o Economic
o Political needs
 Started in immediate post-emancipation
o 11,000 emigrated to Trinidad from Eastern Caribbean
o 5,000 went to British Guiana
o Barbadians moved to St. Croix and Dutch Guiana (Suriname) 1800s
 In contemporary Caribbean, strong economics attract migrants
o Trinidad's migrants primarily from Windward Islands,
o Bahamas migrants primarily from Leeward Islands (to work in tourism)
o Dominican Republic primarily from Jamaica, and Eastern Caribbean (1980s)
 Involved Jamaican labourers
 Some from the Eastern Caribbean.
 Worked in the sugar industry
 Expected to return home at the end of crop season.

In 1900s Caribbean nationals moved to Europe, initially in small numbers and then to North America.
 Caribbean nationals went in very large numbers to Europe in 1948
o Went to the UK, after end of WW2 (1945)
o economic activities to rebuild UK after war
o settled in London, Manchester, Bristol, Liverpool, Birmingham
o settlement of the Caribbean nationals has given rise to the Diasporic Caribbean
 large groups of individuals with similar heritage/culture who have moved from their
homeland/region to settle elsewhere, but still acknowledge the region as their home

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Immigration
1. Amerindians
 first crossed Bering Straight during the Ice-Age, following their food
 came up from the Orinoco in Venezuela
 went as far as Cuba and the Bahamas
 settled on island coasts for easy
i. food
ii. travel
iii. protection (visibility of enemies)
iv. because they lacked technology to navigate the forest, and make it habitable
v. they also settled near to clay deposits
 Tainos (Arawak) – Greater Antilles, Barbados
 Kalinagos (Caribs) – Lesser Antilles
 Exploited by Spanish to extract labour using the Encomienda System.
 Had their own political, economic, recreational, social, and agricultural systems
 Gender division of labour
2. The Europeans – came in 15th century (1492).
 In search of lust and greed. Gold, Glory, God.
 Enslaved the Amerindians via Encomienda
 Encomienda ultimately failed, and they then used European Indentureship
i. Ridded Europe of vagrants, criminals and vagabonds.
 They settled in the following territories
i. Spanish – Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola
ii. French – Guadeloupe, St. Martin, Martinique
iii. English – St. Kitts & Nevis, Antigua, Barbados
iv. Dutch – Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao (ABC islands)
3. The Africans
 After the failure of Encomienda, Africans were used as labour
 Started in 1600s, increased in 1700s due to Sugar Revolution
i. Only form of forced migration to Caribbean
ii. Brought from West Africa.
iii. Worked where there was slavery/colonialism: British/Spanish/French West Indies
iv. Exploited using Slavery (until 1838) and the Plantation System (after emancipation)
4. Indentured Servants (Indians)
 Post emancipation (1838)
 Extra and intra-regional migration – attempts to improve socioeconomic status
 Most came from Calcutta and Madras in India
 Came to region to satisfy labour demands in post-emancipation Caribbean
 Settled where there was great demand for labour: Trinidad, Jamaica and British Guiana
 Worked under contract for 5, 7, or 10 years.
 Brought new cultures and Religions
 Horrible conditions, small wage, wages penalized for frivolous reasons.
 Exploited using Indentureship
 Worked under horrible conditions, small wage, penalisations for frivolous reasons.

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Emigration
Emigration started in early 1900s, continues to present
1. Panama Canal – 1914
 First attempted by French
 Finished by the US
 Between 70,000-100,000 migrant workers in total
 Many settled permanently at terminal points of the canal; Panama City, Colón
 In colon, migrants were called
i. Jamaican – came from English speaking Caribbean
ii. French – came from Haiti, Martinique, Guadeloupe
 Migrants preserved their Caribbean culture:
i. Ate Caribbean food – red beans & rice
ii. Listened to calypso
iii. Spoke English or French Creole
iv. Established special schools with English instruction
2. Sugar & Banana Plantations - Cuba, Honduras and Costa Rica, British Guiana, Santa Domingo
3. Railroads – Costa Rica (Being made by USA)
4. Oil Industry – Trinidad, Venezuela
5. US, UK, Canada - 1910-1924
 102,000 West Indians migrated to the US
 WW2 also facilitated migration (sent to rebuild society in the US)
 Migration to the US took off again during the 1960s.
6. UK [focus]
 In late 1800s-early 1900s, migration limited to middle class
 1951-1960 about 280,000 West Indians went to Britain
i. Worked on the London Transport
ii. Worked as Nurses.
 Worked in dirtiest, lowest paid, least skilled occupations
 Were not welcome in the UK
 Migrants needed to rebuild Britain in 1950s post-war
 Migrants encountered discrimination
i. Were forced to assemble in ghetto apartments.
ii. Non-whites were kept out of public entertainment spots. Eg. pubs.
iii. Racial tension caused riots between white and black youths.
7. Interisland – present-day phenomena
This Outward migration has led to the Diasporic Caribbean – A large groups of individuals with similar
heritage/culture who have moved from their homeland/region to settle elsewhere, but still acknowledge the region as
their home.

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Systems of Production
Slash and Burn
 cutting down and burning of natural vegetation to clear land for agricultural production
 also known as swidden or shifting agriculture
 traditional farming method used with domestic crops
 rotation of several plots of land in a planting cycle
o crops planted in a field for a few seasons
o left to fallow for several seasons
o the planter then shifts to a fallowing field.
o vegetation is cut down and burned in order to remove it
o ash adds nutrients to the soil.
 system used by the Amerindians - Tainos (Arawaks), Kalinagos (Caribs).
Encomienda
 method of control and enslaving indigenous people (Amerindian enslavement by Spaniards)
 Columbus resorted to this in Hispaniola as first form of enslavement in the New World
 The system allowed for allocation of Tainos in the area to one man
o He was to collect commodity tribute from, and had rights over the Amerindians.
o The Spaniard was expected to Christianise the Amerindians. This resulted in:
 The constant movement of Amerindian families
 Devastation of agricultural crops
 Sexual exploitation of women
 Reduced native birth rates
 Increased death rates – infanticide, suicide, genocide
 Resistance against Spanish domination
 Near extinction of the Amerindians.
European Indentureship
 In first 20 years of colonization, French and English employed primarily white labour force
o they found no natives to enslave
 tobacco and cotton plantations were worked by European indentured labourers
 indentured servants
o worked as free persons
o under contractual obligations
o worked in gangs from 6am-6pm
o they were generally fed potatoes, salted meat and water
o in the French islands, they were called egagés
o visitors to the islands referred to them as white slaves
Chattel Slavery
 The slave was defined as property without legal and civil rights.
 the status of slaves was passed from mother to child
 only the master has the right to manumit (release from slavery) the slave
 system began and was expanded with the introduction and continuation of the Sugar Revolution
 vast majority of slaves were employed
o in sugar production
o but approximately 10% lived in cities

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Responses to Oppression
RESEARCH EACH: Resistance, Revolution, Development of Peasant Groups
The systems of production were exploitative and oppressive (except slash and burn), to persons involved and hence
anger and frustration lead to resentment of persons in authority.
Oppressive behaviours include:
1. Corporal punishment
2. Lack of adequate food
3. Deprivation of customary allowances
4. Restriction of movement without permission
5. Wagers deliberately kept low
6. Limited health care
7. Wages withed for frivolous regions
8. Being overworked
9. Denied opportunity to practice their culture.
10. Separation of families.
11. Economic control - had limited opportunities to own land

The subjects resented these issues and the enforcers of them. Some of the responses to these included
1. Suicide
2. Infanticide
3. Destruction of property
4. Maroonage - to run away
5. Poisoning
6. Arson - burning of cane fields
7. Open warfare - the revolts, eg. The Bussa Revolt, The Christmas Revolt 1831 - Western Jamaica, The Cuban
Revolution

In the post-emancipation period the desire to break away from colonial rule to political independence was a major
focus for Caribbean people, because although slavery was abolished in 1838 there was hardly any improvement in
the lives of the ex-plantation workers. Eg. wages remained low, there were substandard working conditions, limited
healthcare, inflation, seasonal jobs, high unemployment, etc.
Due to this many did the following:
1. Emigration out of the Caribbean
2. Peasant farming - (economic enfranchisement) as a means to sustain themselves and to be independent of
the plantation. In this process they were able to diversify the economies of the region.
3. Open confrontation - Eg. The 1876 Confederation Riots in Barbados, the 1865 Morrant Bay rebellion in
Jamaica, the rise of the 1930s. Out of these riots there were the formation of trade unions and political
parties. To which a number of persons gravitated to become members.

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Movements towards independence
Caribbean people sought to challenge the status quo.

Pages 25-43

Political Enfranchisement
 The right of a people to determine their own affairs
 After Emancipation, Caribbean people migrated in search of better wages; Panama
o Panama – Canal
o Cuba – Sugar Plantations
o Curacao, Aruba – Oil
 Returning Caribbean soldiers from the wars had also experienced new and different ideas, fuelling desire for
political enfranchisement.
 Trade Unions
o Poor economic conditions in 1930s: labour riots, protests. Rise of the 1930s.
o Popular leaders in the labour movement developed these unions.
 Bustamante, Manley, Adams
o Dedicated to better working conditions, improvements in health & education.
o Lead to emergence of political parties who negotiated constitutional changes for the people.
 People's National Party – PNP headed by Norman Manley
 Jamaica Labour Party – JLP
 Universal Adult Suffrage
o This refers to the right of a people to vote and elect their representatives.
o The rise of the 1903s forced Britain to cease oppressive “crown colony government”, and reinstate
elected representation.
o No restrictions on who can vote.
 Internal Self-Government
o Local authorities could govern themselves to a limited extent.
o Ministers could be elected; anyone in the population could be voted for.
o Transition to full independence.
o End of colonialism in sight, with election of multiracial governments.
 Political Independence
o Barbados, British Guiana – 1966
o Jamaica, Trinidad – 1962

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Economic Enfranchisement
 The condition in which a country may determine how it develops its systems of production.
 Shift in major system of production
o From: Large-scale agricultural production (plantations), run by the unskilled and uneducated
o To: Civil service, run by educated persons.
 Change in status quo… From: Master-Slave, To: employer-employee
 However, employees were still frustrated and oppressed.
 Modern-day oppressive behaviours
1. Lack of promotion
2. Supersession (unfair promotion)
3. Sexual harassment
4. Poor working conditions (ventilation, bathrooms)
5. Pay inequality (race, gender)
 Responses to modern-day perceived oppression
1. Strikes
2. Work to (exact) rule
3. Extended sick leave
4. Malingering
5. Extended lunch break
6. Non-participation in workplace activities
 Entrepreneurial activities
o Enabled persons to get away from having to work for someone.
o Could not raise the peasants from poverty
 Savings societies
o Accept deposits to save money
o Provide loans
o Replaced by banks in modern-day

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Characteristics of Society & Culture


The major groups that were identified during the historical process have now formed a society of their own, due to
the fact that they settled in specific areas for a long period of time. In the respective areas of settlement, they would
have developed.

Society has
1. A shared, common purpose
2. A defined territorial space
3. Continuity over time and space
4. They are all citizens within a space

Culture is (in Caribbean territories):


1. learned behaviours
2. customs and traditions
3. norms and values which guide behaviour
4. Institutions would have emerged to prescribe behaviour (church, school, courts, government)
5. Gendered practices (child rearing, employment)

Examples of cultural diversity in Caribbean:


1. Pudding and Souse - Began as a source of protein for the enslaved. Use of corn meal to make cou-cou.
2. Amerindians used cassava, pepper-pot.
3. Europeans - Religion, Government Systems (Governor-General), Dress

Culture can be divided into two groups


1. The material culture – foods, etc.?
2. Non-material culture – that learned through observation or formal teaching

Culture can also be seen as its subcultures

 Drug culture
 Cyber culture
 Literacy culture
 Migration culture

High Culture vs Popular Culture


 High Culture – elitist understanding of culture.
 Popular Culture – music, arts, festivals, cuisine promoted through the mass media. Not necessarily a people’s
indigenous culture; heavily influenced through globalization.

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Identity & Social Formation


The major migratory groups and their settlement, creation of a society, and emergence of a culture have led to the
three major social formations in the region. They are
1. Cultural diversity
2. Social stratification
3. Creolisation and Hybridization

Social stratification
 The ranking of various social groups within society, based on power, wealth, race, education and heritage.
 Emerged during slavery and continues up to post-emancipation. It was very rigid and inflexible.
 Free education challenged the notion of inflexible social stratification
 Gave the people of the Caribbean opportunity to
o study
o get good jobs
o improve economic & social well-being
 Social stratification so well rooted in Caribbean society that there is still
evidence today.
o some schools are seen as superior to others
 Queen's College, Harrison's College (Barbados)
 Queen's Royal College (Trinidad)
 Jamaica's College, Kingston College (Jamaica)
 Parents encourage students to do well in 11+ exams so
they may attend these places.
o Places of abode where heights, terraces and gated communities are seen as better,
professions/workplace.
o Involvement in certain activities like sailing, surfing, social club
o Churches – some are seen to be better and for richer people than others. (not as rigid as it used to
be)

Terminologies to know:
 Plantocracy – the influence wielded by planters in society, effectively as a ruling class.
 Intelligentsia – those who have had the benefit of higher education; the intellectual elite comprising of the
managerial and professional class.
 Middle class -
 Bourgeoisie -
 Working class -
 Under/Lower class -
 Caste –

Social Mobility
This refers to the movement of individuals from one social class to another. This is a characteristic of a meritocracy.
Often achieved through marriage, education or business achievements.

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Cultural Diversification
Different races, different people, living in a geographic space, practicing their particular way of life or
culture. Emphasis on differences.

Manifestations of cultural diversification in the region


1. Language - English, Spanish, French, Dutch, Hindi, Patois (St. Lucia), Papiamento (Curacao), Creoles
2. Religion - Christianity (Anglicans/Roman Catholics, Methodists), Muslims, Hindus, Jewish, Rastafarian, Obeah
(Jamaica), Voodoo (Haiti), Spiritual Baptist, Mormons
3. Sporting interests - Cricket, Road tennis, Football, Track and field
4. Architecture - Chattel House, Victorian Era, Georgian
5. Festivals - Crop Over (Barbados), Vincimass (St. Vincent), Sumefest (Jamaica), Carnival (Trinidad), Creole
Festivals (St. Lucia, Dominica)
6. Music - Zouk (French-speaking), Calypso, Reggae, Parang, Spouge, Soca, Dance Hall, Dutty Wine, Bashment
7. Legal system
o In Guyana, they have a hybrid system and it is called the Roman Dutch traditions
o St. Lucia practices civil law
o rest of English-speaking Caribbean practice common law
o Dutch islands practice civil law based on the Dutch model
8. Culinary practices and general food preparation
o Trinidad - Doubles, pealau, callaloo, bake and shark, curried crab, dumplings
o Grenada - 'ils' dung, saltfish
o Belize - Bammy (fried cassava cake), bile up (boil up)
o Barbados - Pudding and Souse, Coucou, conkies, sweetbread, pone
o Jamaica - ackee and salt fish, bammy, peas and rice (read kidney beans)

Benefits of cultural diversity:


 Little hostility and social cohesion
 good aesthetic beauty across the region pertaining to architecture, like chattel houses, churches, mosques
and temples.
 area can be used for active research by anthropologists
Negatives of cultural diversity
 Possibility of ethnic tension, intolerance, hostility, segregation, isolation and non-cooperation
 society can become polarised and can affect the electoral process in terms of people, or a particular ethnic
group, voting for a specific party, thus in this kind of environment minority groups can become socially
invisible

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Creolisation and Hybridisation
Creolisation is the combination of the cultures of the Europeans and Africans, as well as other minority groups to
form a Caribbean cultural identity. Creolisation was verbalised by Edward Kamal Brathwaite.
Hybridisation is the process of cultural and ethnic mixing to produce new ‘creole’ forms.

Manifestations of Creolisation
 Mulattos (African and European)
 Mestizo (Amerindian and European)
 Douglah (pretty hair and african hair - Indian/African)
 Creole (a person born in the Caribbean)

Cultural retention
 These cultural practices which have survived the onslaught of modern technology, eg. food and culinary, mail,
some religious practices, eating terms, herbal medicine, proverbs and sayings, certain instruments.
o eg. clothes line, food, post office, religious practices, meeting turns, herbal medicine,
proverbs/sayings, use of drums

Cultural erasure
 The discontinuation of cultural practices over the years, sometimes due to the introduction of and use of
modern technology also particularly from exposure to the mass media and first world lifestyles

o eg. juking board, standpipe, pit toilet

Cultural renewal
 The rekindling of past cultural practices for eg. use of herbs as a form of medicine, the reintroduction of
Emancipation Day as a public holiday in Barbados and Jamaica, natural hair and beauty, wearing of African
garb

Question
Explain FOUR ways in which the historical experiences and culinary practices of Caribbean people have
shaped/influenced food choices today, (20 marks)
+Go back to migratory groups and what food they brought from their culture.
• Amerindians - cassava, pepper pot, barbeque
• Europeans - pasta, sugar
• Africans - coucou, souse, pone, conkies
• Indians - roti, doubles, rice
pages 61-83

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Impact of Geographical Phenomena


Hazards
 Anything that has potential to do damage
 Considered a disaster when that potential is realised
 Geological
o Volcanic
o Earthquakes
 Meteorological
o Hurricanes
o Droughts
o Floods
 Man-made vs Natural
o some floods
 What determines impact of the disaster
o Size of the hazard
 eg. hurricanes based on categories. more damage expected from a 5 than a 4. Not always
however.
o Population Density
 potential for significant loss of life greater
o Experience with the hazard
 Will persons be prepared to cope with problems which come as a result of the disaster
 Eg. Hurricanes: Will there be enough food, water, protecting windows,
doors, building in way to resist a hurricane

Specific Hazards – Volcanoes, Earthquakes, Hurricanes, Drought


Volcanic Activity
 Plate tectonics
o refers to a theory which explains formation of features like mountains, volcanoes etc.
o earth is made up of plates which move in 3 basic directions resulting in various hazards and features
 Divergent - volcanoes
 Convergent - earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains (found in East of Caribbean)
 Transform (slide past) - earthquakes (found in Northern Caribbean)
 A volcano is an opening or rupture in earth's surface or crust
o magma comes onto the surface and makes various landforms
 How volcanoes impact on society
o Positive
 land creation
 can lead to increase of land mass, eg. Monseratt
 soil fertility
 good for farming
 tourist interest
 sulphur springs - said to be good for certain ailments
 Dominica
 St. Lucia
 Geothermal energy
 clean, non-polluting energy
 reduces need to import petroleum to generate electricity

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 Creation of artworks
 volcanoes can be inspirational
o Negative
 Loss of life and human potential
 loss of workforce - those who are economically active in society
 loss of consumers
 loss of taxpayers
 In Eastern Caribbean, volcanoes have had most significant impact in loss of life. 30,000
people over last 300 years.
 In Martinique in 1904 30,000 people died in the explosion of Mt. Pele
 Can lead to cultural erasure
 persons who may be knowledgeable of the island's history may lose their lives and not
pass along their knowledge through socialisation
 Social displacement
 persons must be relocated from their home environments
 can be traumatic
 In Monseratt many people had to leave the island due to prolonged volcanic activity
 Destruction of plants and animals
 Especially those used for economic activity
 crops
 those used for export
 Can lead to destruction of infrastructure
 buildings
 communications
 transport - airports, roads
 can lead to unplanned spending by governments
 catastrophic to economies
 Result in respiratory illnesses
 gasses like sulphur, ash plumes/clouds
 measures used to mitigate the impact of volcanic activity
o public education
 teaching about nature of volcanoes
 signs for volcanoes and volcanic activity
o formation of exclusion zones around a volcano
o technology
 thermal imaging - heat changes
 chemical sensors - increases in gasses like sulphur
 seismographic instruments - shaking within earth
 early warning system
Earthquakes
 A series of shocks and tremors that result from a sudden release of pressure in the earth's crust
 impacts of earthquakes
o loss of life - most recent was Haiti, 2010 - 300,000 deaths
o social displacement
o landslides
o destruction of infrastructure
 loss of cultural landmarks
 fires - gas main ruptures
o spread of water-born illnesses
 cholera

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 water mains and sewage mains rupturing can lead to water contamination
 measures to mitigate impact of earthquakes
o provision of public education
 what to do before, during and after hazards is significant
o sound building practices
 discouraging building in areas where land may be unstable or prone to liquefaction
 solid foundations, reinforced steel
 use of ball bearings which allow building to sway with earthquake
o use of exoskeleton on building to stabilize during earthquake
o Storing critical supplies
 adequate provisions of water, food
 knowing where documents are located
o improvement of emergency response services
o ensuring good communication plans
 should be drills so people know what to do
 where are safe zones
 staying under a sturdy desk
 Prohibitive factors which prevent proper preparations
o Cost of maintenance
o weighting of different preparations for different disasters
o training of qualified staff
o perception of public of disaster - perception of the event as a once in a lifetime event

Hurricanes
 cultural
o sayings
 june too soon, july stand by, august it must, september remember, october all over"
o songs
 Lavindeer cause the windows to break - hurricane in 1988 which destroied certain areas of
Jamaica
o buildings
 how homes are built
 shutters, how roofs are built - Gable roof
 hurricane straps
o changing behaviour
 stocking up on supplies
 batteries, food, tools

Droughts
 what is a drought?
o A period with exceptionally low rainfall
o According to BWA we need 1400 mm of rainfall per year to replenish aquifers
o it takes approximately 3 months for surface water to reach our aquifers
 impacts of droughts
o loss of agricultural produce
 reduction in foreign exchange
 increase in price of food items
o increased risk of forest/bush fires
o reduction in revenues for governments

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o make it difficult for some territories who depend on water as an alternate source of energy to supply
energy to consumers - hydroelectric generation
 social impacts
o reduction in quality of life
 some persons have had no/little access to water for up to three months
 bathing, cleaning, cooking, sanitation made difficult
o lead to spread of diseases
 how to reduce effects of a drought
o public education
 taught how to conserve water
o use of water-saving devices
 encouraging use
 making them available to the public
 high pressure shower heads
 lever to flick on and off taps
 toilets which use less water - brick in tank
o rationing of water
 fixing leaks in water mains
o desalination
 ionisation of brackish water using reverse osmosis
o requiring water tanks in building plans
 rainwater harvesting

Coral Reefs
 What are corals and how do they form?
o are simple and primitive animals called polyps
o they secrete limestone beneath their bodies, making cups in which each one sits
o over time the polyps grow upwards expanding their skeletons as they grow
o during this process, they divide by budding off identical twins leading to the formations of coral reefs
o coral reefs are also made up of dead and decaying sea life which fuse together to form coral reefs
 conditions which lead to the formation of coral reefs
o they grow only in clear water since sunlight must be able to penetrate down to where coral is
growing.
o corals grow best in shallow water
o they grow best in salt water
o grow best in waters between 23C-30C hence they are found mainly in the tropics
 how do they impact on Caribbean society?
o serve as a tourist attraction
 corals tend to be unusual for the tourists
 over time when corals die, they help to create sand and by extension beaches
o benefits from tourism from corals
 they indirectly generate employment
 beach vendors
 boat operators (glass bottom boats)
 brings in foreign exchange
 helps us to pay for various services
 purchase items not produced in the Caribbean
 personal consumption or manufacturing
 help to protect beaches
 act as wavebreak

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 minimise effects of wave action
 reduces the energy that the waves have thus protecting the beaches
 homes of a variety of fish
 supply us with food - a rich source of protein
 helps to reduce imports of fish, saving foreign exchange
 provide delicacies
 sea eggs, etc.
 they house potential cures for various ailments/diseases
 cancer, arthritis, bacterial infections
 serve as source for creative expression
 in visual and audio arts
 destruction of coral reefs
o being destroyed at an alarming rate
 consequence of economic development
o why?
 loss of mangroves along coastal areas of Caribbean
 mangroves trap silt and sediment from increasing turbidity in the water
 lead to the buildup of silt from the land which clouds the water and kills the coral
 poor farming practices
 excessive use of fertilizers
 causes eutrophication - overgrowth of algae
 prevents sunlight getting to corals
 marine pollution
 from ships
 improper sewage disposal
 oil spills
 anchor
 removal of corals as souvenirs
 through climate change or global warming
 increase in temperatures causes coral bleaching
 Hurricanes
 cause such large waves they can break up parts of coral
o measure to be taken to preserve corals
 creating Coastal Zone Management Units (CZMU)
 monitoring quality of water surrounding islands
 working in conjunction with the town and country development planning office
 to determine if certain buildings can be placed on the coast with minimal harm to the
marine environment, eg. Hotels
 creation of EIAs
 CZMUs build conservation structures which limit the negative impacts of beach
erosion eg. groynes
 Implementation of legislation
 there are certain activities where people cannot engage in certain activities
 through revitalisation of coral reefs
 creating artificial reefs - reef balls
 sinking old ships

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Impact of Social Institutions on Caribbean People


Social institutions are agents of socialisation, which is the process through which individuals know how to behave
in society. Social institutions help to maintain social order and social control.
Social order - A system of institutions, pattern of interactions and customs which reproduce the conditions necessary
for a stable society to exist.
Social control - this refers to how members of society attempt to induce each other to comply with the norms of that
society.

Family
Family - A group of persons linked by blood, marriage or quazi-marital commitment. (eg. Common-law)
Functions of a Family
 Reproduction
 Socialisation of its younger members
 Providing emotional support for its members
 Providing economic support for the young, elderly and those with challenges.

Types of families in the Caribbean


 Nuclear family - a family consisting of a mother and father joined by marriage, living with their offspring in an
independent household.
 Common-law union - an unmarried couple living with their offspring in an independent household
 Visiting union - a relationship in which there is no permanent father figure. The male visits at intervals and
provides some economic support for his offspring.
 Extended family - a family consisting of several generations. Among those who follow Islam, there is a special
kind of extended family known as the joint family. In this family type, brothers, their wives and children all
occupy one family home.

Religion
A unified system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things. It is an agent of social control, and promotes social
solidarity because it encourages the development of a collective consciousness. All see murder as wrong. Religions
generally prescribe ideal behaviours and are in constant competition with secular values.
Syncretic religions
 these are a merger/combination of seemingly opposing beliefs
 they emerged due to the interaction between Christian enslavers and West Africans of various beliefs.
 characteristics include
o animal sacrifice
o spirit possession
o dancing and drumming
o and a combination of Christian Saints and African deities
 examples
o Shango (Grenada, Trinidad)
o Spiritial Baptists, Obeah (Barbados)
o Voodoo, Santeria, Orisha (French & Spanish speaking territories. eg. Haiti)
 The existence of synthetic religions proves that religion has resistance elements which were targeted to
colonialism. This is seen in the Rastafarian religion which has its religions in the philosophy of Marcus Garby,
and his belief in a black God and the need to return to Africa.

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Education
This is the social institution responsible for guiding a society's transmission of knowledge including basic facts, job
skills and cultural norms or values to its members.
Functions of education
 To inculcate the norms and values of society into the next generation
o this is why students are awarded for conformity and punished for deviance
 Increasing an individual's chance of achieving upward social mobility.
 Contributing to a society's economic development by creating a productive workforce.
Pre-colonial vs colonial education
 Pre-colonial
o Among indigenous peoples, learning was achieved via an apprenticeship system. Girls learned from
their mothers, and boys from their fathers. In more developed indigenous societies, there were
schools which were used to teach specialised skills such as
 carpentry
 writing
 feather-working
 Colonial education
o with colonisation, came new systems of labour, and with these systems of labour education for the
masses centred or concentrated on teaching the workforce the tasks needed to generate profits.
o consequentially, no formal academic education was given to the labour force
 enslaved were denied the right to learn to read or write.
o children of the wealthy were educated in Britain or the US.
 charity schools were established for poor whites
 Manchester high school (Jamaica)
 Wolmer's (Jamaica)
 Combemere (Barbados)
o the Negro education grant of 1835 was an attempt to cater to the educational needs of the former
enslaved populations in the British west Indies.
 while it allowed the number of schools to increase, it did not adequately provide for the
running of these schools
o Under the colonial system, the curriculum still catered for an agricultural society and
the Eurocentric subjects (British history) did not create a notion of West Indian identity.
The latent and manifest functions of education
 Manifest function (intended function)
o to increase knowledge and abilities of the population in order that they can contribute of the
workforce.
 Latent function
o leads to the development of a ranking system which places the most educated among the most
affluent in society.
The hidden curriculum
 This refers to those indirect messages communicated by the school which are separate from the school's
mission statement and subject area curriculum guidelines
o English & Mathematics are the two most important elementary subjects. this message is conveyed to
students, parents and teachers, especially at the primary level. These subjects are tested more often
and are usually scheduled before lunch.

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Gender and education
 In the Caribbean, females are in the majority
o they account for 60% of university enrolment
o at primary level, more girls gain entry to secondary grammar schools with higher grades than boys
o at CXC, girls are carry off top regional prises
o Despite this, there remains a gender bias in subject choices.
 Eg. Engineering, TD, IT – males
 Commercial subjects, law - females
 non-academic subjects:
o girls are found in clothing and textiles
o boys are highly represented in woodwork and metalwork
 Reasons for perceived male underachievement
o Teachers are less strict with boys
o Boys believe that school-work is unmacho
o Boys underestimate their ability and do not work had enough for the grades they expect
o Teachers and parents are more likely to encourage girls to be academically successful.
 Reasons for increased female performance
o increased cost of living
o in many homes, it is expected that girls excel at academics
o girls are more likely to want to pursue higher qualification jobs
o education allows females to achieve upward social mobility
The Justice System
 This is concerned with protecting and preserving the rights of individuals and ensuring that citizens are aware
of their duties and responsibilities. The justice system is expressed through the political, legal and judicial
frameworks existing in a country. The laws of the land are a formal system of control and they are utilised
when informal controls prove ineffective.
Police
 primary responsibilities
o maintaining law and order, protecting the life and property of people
The courts
 functions include
o keeping the peace, deciding disputes, law-making
The CCJ
 Caribbean Court of Justice
o Established because it was believed that within the region, there would be a better understanding
and knowledge of regional problems, culture, and language as well as the court's ability to identify
with the Caribbean community.
 The ethos of the Caribbean community.
o The CCJ was established via approval of the heads of governments of CARICOM
o Trinidad is the seat of the court, however CCJ is a travelling court operates in any member country.
o CCJ has 2 functions
 Address the rights of CARICOM citizens to move freely within the region and to move their
money and business
 Function as an appeals court
o CCJ judges have the authority to decide how CARICOM organs and institutions, member states and
citizens must function under CSME (Caribbean Single Market & Economy)

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Caribbean Arts & Popular Culture


What is Caribbean Art?
This is a reflection or manifestation of the cultural practices that emerge during the occupation of the various
migratory groups in the region over an extended period of time.

What is Popular Culture?


This is the creative expression of the people, accepted by the majority of the individuals in a particular society. Eg.
Crop Over, Calypso
Examples of Caribbean Art
 Visual Arts – Paintings, Drawings, Murals, Wood Carvings, Photographs
 Literary Arts – a collection /anthology of new writings from Caribbean writers. The writings often reflect
o Anti-colonial sentiment
o Conditions in the Caribbean
Some Caribbean authors include: Derek Walcott, George Lamming, Hazel Simmmons-McDonald
 Performing Arts
o Speech
o Festivals – vinci mass, carnival, crop over
o Dance – wuk up, Spanish dance
o Drama
o Music – parang, calypso
 Culinary Arts – a combination of food traditions of Europe, Arica, India, China, Amerindians
o Salt fish
 Barbados – fishcakes, Coucou & Saltfish
 Jamaica - Ackee & Saltfish
 Antigua – Duckanou & Saltfish
 St. Vincent – Breadfruit & Saltfish
o Animal Parts not fit for human consumption were given to the slaves. Today salted, smoked and
pickled meats are highly popular across the Caribbean.
o Pepper sauce and a variety of herbs and spices make Caribbean cuisine truly distinctive.
 Curry, Jerk, Chutney
 Escovitch Fish (vinegar, pimento, carrots)
 Pepperpot

Human Development through Caribbean Art


 Gives the artists and performers a sense of self-worth.
 Gives a sense of identity for their environment
 Gives a sense of freedom about oneself when compared to the socialisation of the oppressor (Europeans)
 Gives writers and creative artists and performance artists on the international scene a sense of pride in their
heritage. This will help them to resist ethno-centric ideas and thus gives them a sense of empowerment.
 Can help one to grow intellectually through their dedication to the particular discipline. In this way, the arts
can become centres of excellence through which Caribbean people can come to understand and find a place
in the world.
 Increases one’s exposure to multiple ways of experiencing the world. They may learn through auditory
experiences, kinaesthetically, visual or multi- modal learning

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Caribbean Region Development through Caribbean Art Forms
 It can attract investors
 Gives rise to new forms of employment - money generated in these business will go towards the GDP of the
country. NB. The creative arts is an alternative to mainstream academia
o persons who organize festivals
o managers of artistes
o entrepreneurs (small restaurants, craft shops- Pelican Village)

Harnessing of Caribbean Art Forms (Tertiary Institution)


The visual and performing arts has been recognised and has been given a place in tertiary institutions across the
region.

 Edna Manley College for the Visual and Performing Arts (Jamaica) - awards degrees, diplomas, or certificates
depending on the field of study.
 Barbados Community College- Associate degrees in visual arts, music, dance, theatre arts.
 University of Trinidad & Tobago- they offer a degree in visual and performing arts
 UWI Cavehill Campus in the faculties of Humanities and Education- Masters/ PhD in Cultural Studies
 In addition, there are special accommodations for the performing arts in the region. For example:
o Errol Barrow Centre for the Creative Imagination – Cavehill
o Phillip Sherlock Centre for the Performing Arts- Mona
o Department of Creative and Festival Arts- St. Augustine

Out of this recognition for Caribbean art form and popular culture there is the emergence of CARIFESTA (Caribbean
Festival of Arts) came about in 1972 and is held every four years in one of the member states. The main purpose is to
gather musicians, artistes, and authors etc. to exhibit their culture. There are 13 member states. Manual-pg. 99-
106—A list of people who are have been recognized because of their contribution to Caribbean art.

Question:
Discuss the ways in which Caribbean Art form has contributed to the development of the region.
[20 Marks]
Question:
Discuss three ways in which creolization has contributed to the development of Caribbean art form.
[20 Marks]
Caribbean art has manifested itself in North America and Europe in the following ways:
 Festivals
 Caribana
 Notting Hill Festival
 West Indian Day Parade (Labour Day) - USA

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During the abolition period, there was a string element of parody in Trini Songs and dances. They were forbidden
from holding their own festivals during slavery, but after 1838 they took full advantage of their new freedoms by
dressing up in costumes that mimicked the European fashions, whitened their faces using flower or masks. This
established a tradition that continues in costume-making today, the proper name for this aspect of carnival is 'Mas',
derived from Masquerade. Notting Hill also provides a connection into Caribbean food as it provides an introduction
to peas and rice and jerk chicken.
 Notting Hill Carnival
o Largest street festival in Europe
o Began in 1964
o Way for African-Caribbean communities to celebrate own cultures and traditions.
o It takes place every August in streets of London
o At the roots of the Notting Hill Carnival are the Caribbean Carnivals of the early 1800s- a particularly
strong tradition which were all about celebrating the abolition of the slave trade and slavery.
o First carnival was an attempt to showcase the steel pan musicians who played in the Earls Court of
London every weekend.
o When the bands paraded through the streets of Notting Hill, the Black residents came out because
the music reminded them of their Caribbean homes.
 Caribana
o Created in 1967 and Caribbean Cultural Community/Committee (CCC) to celebrate carnival arts and
improve the economic, cultural and social position of Toronto's Caribbean Community.
o First organised by the CCC and held on August 5th, 1967.
o Huge tourism product and its heavily influenced by steelpan music, calypso and costumes from
Trinidad
o The aim of Caribana was to promote Caribbean trade and cultural exhibition. Today, the parade is
held on Lakeshore Boulevard and is 3.6km long.
o There are approximately 10,000 masqueraders and 1 Million spectators. It generates 400 Million CAD
in ancillary economic activity. The organisers are now known as the Caribbean Arts Group (CAG) and
they award annual scholarships to persons attending the Seneca College.
 The West Indian Day Parade
o In 1920s immigrants from Caribbean with Carnival traditions began celebrating Carnival in private
spaces in Harlem. These took place in the traditional pre-Lenten period.
o In mid 1940s Trinidadian Jesse Waddle/Wattle organised a street festival organised on labour day on
7th Avenue, Harlem.
 The permit for Harlem was revoked in 1964 when a disturbance occurred. 5 years later, a
committee headed by Carlos Lezana obtained permission to parade on Eastern Parkway. That
committee became the West Indian-American Day Carnival Association (WIADCA)
o Events are held every year from the Thursday before labour day through the weekend, culminating in
a Labour Day Parade. Highlights include:
 Steel band competition
 Kiddie carnival
 Dimanche Gras (Fat Saturday)

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Caribbean-Global Interactions
Caribbean's Influence on Extra-Regional Societies (Including Haiti & Cuba)
Migration is one of the defining features of the modern Caribbean since slavery, colonisation and indentureship. In
the first 50 years since the post-independence period, the Caribbean has shifted from being a net importer of labour
to become a net-exporter. The Caribbean has one of the largest diasporic communities in the world in proportion to
population.

Migration Patterns of Caribbean Nationals


19th Century
Caribbean Nationals (males) emigrating for economic opportunities to:
 Panama, Cuba, Costa Rica, Venezuela
This was caused by bad social and economic conditions in the Caribbean.
20th Century
 Caribbean Nationals (males) leaving to fight in WW1. - 1914
 After riots of the 1930s there was a wave of migration leaving the Caribbean.
 WW2 devastated economy of Britain - 1939
o and people were needed to rebuild
o After 1945, many Caribbean nationals migrated to Britain
 worked in hospitals, transportation, construction.
 By 1970s-1990s, there was a shift from Britain to the US and Canada.
o Britain began to tighten immigration policies.
o Increased demand for service workers and professionals in the US/Canada
 nannies/babysitters, agricultural workers, teachers
o The USA became the #1 destination for Caribbean migrants,
 (#2 UK, #3 Netherlands, #4 France)
 75% of Caribbean born & first/second generation migrants are in the USA
o In US, they settled in: New York, Florida, Washington
o In Canada, they settled in: Toronto, Montreal
Cubans
 left from the 1960s-Present
 No social stratification.
 Cuban elite migrated to USA because of communist policies
o Thought that by leaving Cuba with their money that the regime would collapse.
 USA willing to take them as they had money. Majority settled in Florida.
 They set up businesses, and now have a serious impact on elections. (anti-Castro)
 Have been given top diplomatic postings in USA, running for local positions. eg. Marco Rubio
Haitians
 Migrated because of economic/political instability
 Settled in: New Orleans, Florida, Arizona.
o Have not had kind of impact Cubans have: more from a cultural perspective
 Hatian refugee Michaelle-Jean went to Canada at 11, became first female Governor-General of Canada.

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Politics
We as a Caribbean do not directly impact politics as we are not sufficiently organised to effect change.
This differs with two groups:
 Cubans
o Cuban dissidents (those who left Cuba and made Florida their home) have formed associations over
the years which have been relentless in getting US politians and policymakers to have a hard line
towards Cuba.
o The would push for embargos, and ways to remove the then president Fidel Castro from office. The
policy may now change with the death of Castro and the improved relations between the US and
Cuba.
 Haitians
o The Haitian boat-people
o They are economic rather than political refugees
o The US has created policies which has refused thousands of Haitians from asylum and caused many
human rights questions to be raised about standards and treatment of refugees in the US, since the
1970s.
o In 1980, Marialle Boat Lift: 80,000 tried to immigrate to the US, causing president carter to re-
evaluate US-Haitian policies
 The class of 'Cuban-Hatian entrant' immigrant was formed (status pending).
 This allowed Hatians who had entered the US up to Oct. 10th, 1980 to apply for asylum.
 Hatians entering after that date was faced with incarceration and deportation
 Reinforced by President Regan in 1981.
 President Clinton tried to change it, but ended up reverting to the old system.
 Many immigrants can cause
o low wages
o high unemployment
o spread of disease caused by lack of adequate healthcare
o creation of sllums
 2nd Generation Caribbean people
o influenced politics, where they were able to obtain high office in the judiciary
 Caribbean people in extra-regional politics
o Eric Holder - Former attorney general of Obama administration. Barbadian father
o Dianne Abbott - MP in Britain since 1985, has won every election called. From Jamaica
o Bernie Grant (deceased) - MP Britain. From Guyana
o Valerie Amos - leader of the House of Lords, UK. From Guyana
o Syvia-Hinds Raddich - judge in the USA. From Barbados

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Culturally
 Art Forms & Festivals
o Notting Hill - Biggest open air festival in Europe. 2,000,000+ visitors spend £30,000,000. (£93,000,000
economic impact/year total)
o Miami carnival
o Labour Day
o Caribana
 Music
o Traditionally, it would not have impacted the huge markets of extra-regional countries
 reggae has been popular
 ska, spooge, bento have not been as popular
o However, in contemporary society, it is growing increasingly popular
 music samples of soca, dance-hall
 popular musicians sampling these types of music for their own
 Culinary practices
o for people in extra-regional countries, Caribbean cuisine represents one more type of the ethnic food
that any metrapolitan centre offers.
o people are drawn towards curry, jerk and highly seasoned food
o there are now major Caribbean restaurants in cities like New-York, Toronto
o in some places Cuban or Hatian food is very popular.
o many Europeans, Canadians and Americans have acquired a taste for Caribbean cooking
o Proliferation of Caribbean restaurants across north America and Europe.
 Religion
o Rastafarianism - has spread throughout the world and has influenced beliefs of many Non-Caribbean
people. It calls for an introspection into the absorption of mainstream capitalist values, and the
"white man"s world
 With reggae, the Rastafari have had a significant impact on urban cultural life on North-
America and in Europe
 Many copy the hairstyle, and like the colours, symbols, music associated with the Rastafari
o Other changes in religion are subtle, eg. drums in church, the 'preacher'
Economic
 Trade:
oFlorida does most of its trade with Caribbean. Supports tens of thousands of jobs. As a result, the US
enjoys surplus over $7,000,000,000
o Threats to the economic security of Caribbean causes major concerns to the US
 Migrants:
o Provision of [seasonal] migrant labour (from low-level to high level).
o Migrants provide a labour force that the host country cannot provide from its own resources, or at
least not at the rate that would allow profits to be made by businesses that employ these people.
o Recruitment in the Caribbean is based on agreements between governments of the region and the
host-countries
o Farm-Labour Program - migrants work for a period of time

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The Impact of Extra-Regional Societies on the Caribbean from Central to
Contemporary Times
Began with Imperialism and Colonialism
 Tension relating to how Caribbean people view themselves in the image of the West.
 Persons revere western countries; they are leaders in technology & innovation
 Colonised mimic Colonisers
 Children grow up and see Western ways as better for their entire life
 Dominant attitudes, norms, modes of dress of the west have become the norm
Trade & Consumption
Caribbean has an outward focus where trade and consumption are concerned.
 High percentage of goods and services consumed within the Caribbean originate in western countries,
particularly the US.
 Contributes to foreign exchange problems Caribbean governments face as persons refuse to buy local
 Caribbean has not been able to infiltrate the intentional markets with our goods/food products
 colonial policy has fostered skewed economic relationships; prohibiting manufacturing and
encouraging dependency.
 Caribbean has tried to resist this dependency but subaltern (lower-class) populations see western products as
hegemonic (dominant).
 Food
o High salt and oil/fat content - junk food eg. Pizza, Chips, Burgers
o Such a part of north American lives that fast food restaurants exist.
o Has begun to spread to the Caribbean: KFC, Subway, Burger King
o An indigenous entity in Barbados is Chefette
 Clothing and Accessories
o Casual to formal wear
o Weave, dresses, shoes
 Architectural designs
o Houses
o Furnishings
o Appliances: Faucets, Washing machine (no longer use jukking board)
 Modes of communication
o Phones, Facebook, Email
o Gadgets
 Remittances
o household income from foreign economies from migration to those economies.
 Migration can be temporary; undocumented
o They include cash and non-cash items (including barrels of items)
o Remittances are fast growing and a stable source of capital flow & foreign exchange
 important source of foreign exchange and balance of payment support.
o Major source of income for many low-income households around the region.
o In some rural Caribbean areas, 40% of households derived significant support from remittances
o Remittances are filling gaps that the state and development agencies have been unable to plug
o USA is largest remittance source for the Caribbean: The Grace Kennedy Company LTD
 Well established business in Jamaica
 Partnered with Western Union International
 Helps to transmit remittances from overseas to the region
Art Forms - see "Art forms and Popular Culture"
 Music: Gospel rap, Pop, Rock, Disco,
 Theatre Arts

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 Visual Arts: Comedies - 75% of TV originates from outside the region
Education
 American: 2-Semester System (tertiary)
 British: Common Entrance, GCSE/A-Levels, Uniforms, 3-Term System, Boarding Schools
 Use of technology in the classroom
 Stratification and Elitism
o Division of schools in the region based on academic competency
 Traditional Subjects
 Creation of our own examination systems (CXC)
Judiciary
 Common-law system
 Maintained hierarchy of the courts system
o Trinidad: Privy Council <-- Court of Appeal <-- High Court <-- Magistrates Court: British
o Barbados: Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) <-- Court of Appeal <-- High Court <-- Magistrates Court:
Not 100% British
o Jamaica: Privy Council <-- Court of Appeal <-- High Court <-- Parish Court: Canadian Influence
 Dress Conservatively
o Black/Grey/White
o Wigs - Barbados has broken away from that
 Witnesses swear on the bible
Political influence
 Governor General is head of state - represents the Queen
 Prime Minister is head of government
 Separation of powers -
o Executive: Prime Minister, Cabinet
o Legislature: People who make the laws
o Judiciary: Judges
 Houses:
o Upper House - Senate
o Lower House - House of Assembly
 Electoral Office
o Parliamentary elections every 5 years
o Prime minister can call an election
o House Campaigns
o Application of the rule of law
o Everyone is subject to the law
Sports
 Cricket - Originated in England
o Competitions - School, Community, National, Regional, International
 Football - Originated in Europe
o Made it to the world cup: Haiti, Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica
o Fans wear team jerseys
 Track & Field
o Inter-School, CARIFTA
o World Championship
 Basket Ball - Originated in Canada
o Gained traction in region - there are several basketball competitions at local and regional levels
 Swimming
 Scholarships provided for talented individuals in these disciplines

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Question
"The Caribbean needs its diaspora in order to fully understand itself." Examine the extent to which
Caribbean diasporic communities influence the formation of Caribbean identity. [30 Marks]
 Remittances
 Festivals
 Tourism

Questions
Describe FOUR ways in which the Rastafarian culture has impacted the societies of metropolitan countries.
[20 marks]
Explain why the countries of the Caribbean even though politically independent are still seen as dependent
on extra-regional countries. [20 Marks]
Using Caribbean Society & Culture as an example, explain what is meant by post-colonial society[30Marks]
Economic structures
 Western Structures like Multinational Corporations (MNCs), Transnational Corporations (TNCs), World Trade
Organization (WTO) and the United Nations (UN) threaten what independence means to the Caribbean
region. Dependency on west.
o MNCs - have no serious allegiance to the Caribbean
 they use labour and infrastructure within the region
 take bulk of profits out of the region
o WTO - policies, standards, trade regulations based on agreements that favour western interests.
 Dominance of west in industrial manufacturing and internet communication technologies
mean that the Caribbean has to import these goods and services which leads to an imbalance
in trading relationships.

Neo-Colonialism
 The use of economic, political, cultural or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially
former dependencies
 Continuing colonialism
Post-Colonialism
 The political or cultural condition of a former colony; a theoretical approach in various disciplines that is
concerned with lasting impact of colonisation on former colonies
 Effects of colonialism

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The Post-Colonial Theory
This states that the western values are a privilege, and as a result people believe
 Foreign is better - products of the west appear better than local products.
o West is seen as a "pace setter" - being modern, we want to be up-to-date with the latest innovations,
fashions and in tune with what is happening with the world at large, therefore we mirror the values
of the west
 building social capital - networks of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society
o this enables the society to function effectively.
 remittances
o constitute a valuable source of foreign exchange for the home country
o however frivolous spending may create a dependency
o does not teach social responsibility
 Migration
o migration to extra-regional countries because it lessens pressure of unemployment in the Caribbean,
and social services.
o migration & brain drain is a serious problem to the development of the Caribbean
 Festivals
o Carnival in the Caribbean reflects the resistance of the oppressed people.
o Through carnival persons parodied and satirised European attitudes, dress & mannerisms under the
guise of celebration
o the tradition of critique, social commentary and resistance was strongly entrenched in the
celebration.
o Some believe carnival is a European phenomenon, associated with Roman Catholicism,
preceding lent, the medieval Latin meaning: "Carne-Vale" meant farewell to the flesh.
 carnival in Dominique and Trinidad is celebrated on the Monday and Tuesday preceding lent
o Carnival and Kadooment in Barbados and Antigua is celebrated to commemorate emancipation.
 It is influenced extra-regionally because of tourism. It has become an elaborate portrayal in
order to draw tourists to these countries.
 The event staged, its location, how it is packaged, and the general commercialisation of the
event show the influence of the extra-regional countries/west
o Technology
 computer programs are used to produce costumes
 materials come from extra-regional countries to create the costumes
 increase in the special effects and engineering used in the shows
 increase in pyrotechnics
o Development of ideas
o The bands
 inspired by extra-regional themes
 some portray effects of globalization, capitalism, oppression, ecological awareness and
gender issues
o Built Structures
 floats are reminiscent of traditional carnivals overseas
 Music
o call & response, picong - rap battle
 Theatre & Visual arts
o often a quest for Caribbean identity, eg. paintings
o still has western influences: productions still require technology in their productions
 Education
o changing our curriculum to suit Caribbean needs

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MODULE 2 – Issues in Caribbean Development


Concepts & Indicators of Development
Development involves the social, political, cultural and economic improvement in the lives of citizens in country.

Concepts of Development
Social Development
 This is making reference to quality education, good health care, good infrastructure, and recreational
facilities. These include the things that are accessible to each member of society.
Political Development
 This is reference to free and fair elections (no coupe), no attempt to overthrow a government, a mature
democracy where law and order is maintained (no fighting) and political stability.
Cultural Development
 This is the enhancement of the cultural skills and ideas of the people in the country in the cultural arts
(Barbados through NIFCA). Facilities are also provided/built to enhance these skills (Errol Barrow Centre for
Creative Ideas).
Economic Development
This is a country’s ability to generate revenue to meet its domestic and international obligations. How can we
generate the revenue throughout the region?
 Exploitation of natural resources (Guyana – Bauxite)
 Tourism (Barbados)
 Commercial Agriculture (Guyana – sugarcane)
 Manufacturing Sector (Trinidad - clothing & textiles, oil industry)
 Remittances (Jamaica)
Sustainable Development
 Development which meets the needs of the current population without compromising the ability of the
future population to meet their own needs.
 The planned and balanced development of society's resources over an extended period of time.
 There should be no wholesale exploitation of the resources to the extent that it becomes injurious (harmful)
to the society.
o Haiti - deforestation
o Education, health and security are also aspects of sustainable development
 Citizens should be educated, taken care of
 Development cannot only be economic.
 Generally looked at as an environmental issue
 Mindsets must be changed
o citizens must commit to the idea
o they must be empowered
o there must be equity
 equality is equal treatment for all
 equity is help based on a situation
o if equity is severely compromised, so is the environment
o eg. Haiti- no empowerment, no equity
 In societies where there is inequality in the distribution of income, where many live in abject poverty, daily
survival will be more of a priority than the well-being of future generations
o in Haiti forests have been cut down for firewood leading to massive soil erosion

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o Most measures designed to ensure sustainable development are directed at poverty reduction and
reducing inequalities
 Big businesses often hinder sustainable development: they suck resources out of countries.
o difficult to stop them
o people must be empowered
 they need knowledge
 they need access to resources
 professional development, job security,
Human Development
Improvement in the lives of individuals by having access to the resources in a country.
 Development of skills in the individual.
 Giving persons opportunities to pursue their dreams so that they can improve their lives.
 These aspects are necessary to human development
o access to knowledge - education is powerful
o access to decent standard of living
o there must be equality in the country
o security, national security
Modernization Theory
Used to explain the advancement of societies and its progress. It elaborates the development process within
societies.
 States that "Marginalized and underdeveloped societies develop in the same phase with that of other
developed countries by providing proper support."
 It explains how economic, social and political systems developed in the West and will spread to
underdeveloped countries.
 Ideas of Emile Durkheim provide a strong foundation for development of the modernisation theory.
o He compared the development of the society to the development/evolution of an organism.
o As an organism evolves, the more complex it becomes
o As society develops, it also becomes more complex.
 W. Rostow, 1960 (sociologist) explained the idea through his stages of growth
1. Traditional/Agrarian Society - this society is pessimistic to change
2. Pre-conditions for take-off: as needs increase within society, production and manufacturing increase
3. Take-off - Industrialisation happens at a rapid stage. Possible establishment of scientific technologies
4. Drive to maturity - long period of time. Standard of living increases with use of technology/innovation
5. Age of mass consumption - People enjoy the conveniences of technology. Urban culture replaces
traditional culture, making it a developed country.
Dependency Theory
 States that colonialism and neo-colonialism have created unequal economic relations between poor and
wealthy countries
 In the past, colonialism allowed wealthy countries to plunder their colonies for material benefit.
o eg. Caribbean: Sugar cultivation
 In today's society, poor countries have taken enormous loans from wealthy countries in order to stay afloat
 paying off the compound interest from this debt prevents investment of resources into their country
 Governments cannot focus on economic or human development if they are repaying the world bank or if they
are under austerity measures of the IMF.
Indicators of Human Development
 Levels of income - gives an idea of how much an average citizen earns. Accordingly, one can determine
whether a country has high, middle or low income and thereby determine the level of development a country
is at. A comparison can also be made to past years. Diversification of the economy can also affect this along
with levels of employment and unemployment.
o how many earning more then minimum wage

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o how well people are able to care for families
o determine wage gap
o compare to other countries, time
 Modern knowledge - This, coupled with access to and use of technology can impact on levels of productivity
and by extension development. Use of modern knowledge and technology can affect how a country is able to
meet demands and the growth of the economy.
o use of technology, and knowing how to use it
o involves a change in skillsets
 Improved institutions and attitudes -
o efficient service, better goods
o newest technology
o acceptance of technology & improvements
o access to technology, and training
Measures of Human Development
There were several indicators developed in an effort to measure the different aspects of development. However, they
only succeeded in measuring economic growth.
 Population growth rate - (birth-death)+(immigration-emigration)
o If population growth can be kept down, per/capita income should rise
 Age-dependency ratio - refers to the to the ratio of dependents (<15, >65), to the working age population
Indicators of Development
 GDP - Gross Domestic Product
o money earned from the product of domestic goods over a 12-month period
o the total market value of the output of a country, in a given year
 GNP - Gross National Product
o Money generated from local production and from production overseas by local entrepreneurs.
 Many countries do trade in OECS countries.
o The value of output produced by a country, plus any income derived from abroad
 Per/capita - (Per-capita Income)
o Average income of persons in a country based on total production in that particular country
 National Income/Population
 If per/capita is high, it is perceived that employment is high. However this is not necessarily
true of a very good economy.
 eg. Income can be high, but there may be a lot of poverty in the country; Bahamas ($24,000),
Norway ($64,500)
 GINI Coefficient
o Examines inequality in distribution of income in a country across different social groups over an
extended period of time.
 This accumulated information will help to determining the level of development in the
country
 HDI - Human Development Index
o The average measure of basic human development achievements
o The average of long term progress in 3 basic dimensions
1. Life expectancy
2. Access to education
3. Decent Standard of living
 Modern technology and internet penetration
o Modern technology has been a driving force in improving and enhancing development in nation-
states that can afford to do such
 In the area of telecommunications it has transformed business relations with the availability
of the internet

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 E-commerce
 Skype
 WhatsApp
 Fax machines
 It has challenged the concept of geography and distance with the investment in fibreoptics
which ensures immediate connection from the Caribbean to the rest of the world.
 It allows
 individuals to work from home.
 companies to outsource work.
 pay bills and purchase things online
 E-marking
 Registration of university students online
 Productivity
o the rate at which goods and services are produced so as to enhance the GDP and GNP of a country
and overall economic growth.
 Caribbean is very relaxed
o methods to enhance productivity
 Provide intensives for our employees
 Bonuses
 Parties, gifts
 Employee of the month
 Promotion
 Application of science and technology to the business to improve efficiency
 Regular training for employees, especially interpersonal skills
 Good management of resources
 Good employee-employee relationship
 Good employee/trade union/government relationship
 strikes lower productivity
 Good governance
 Conduct of public affairs
 Management of public resources
 These must be transparent to all
 This will ensure corruption is minimised.
 Corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for private gain by persons in authority.
 Manifestations for corrupt practices
 Nepotism -
 Financial rewards
 Awarding of contracts for underqualified persons
 Material gifts
 Sexual Favours
 Other opportunities and services
 Holders of public office must be responsible and accountable to the public when public funds
are being used
 Everyone must respect the rule of law (no-one is above the law), irrespective of social status
in society
 Responsible environmental factors
o Society must adhere to good environmental practices, which help to enhance sustainable
development
 Proper disposal of refuse
 maintenance of drainage system to minimise flooding
 limiting deforestation

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 reduction in pollution (water, air, land)
 avoid squatting

The progression of a society in which general quality of life is improved, in several aspects; healthcare & sanitation,
education, services and domestic and social issues.

Development
The specific goal of development in the decolonisation era was economic development through economic growth.
This term refers to an increase in the value of the goods ans services produced by a country within a specific period of
time. Generally it is believed that economic growth will automatically fix problems like poverty and inadequate
schooling, but this is not necessarily the case.
 Linkages must occur between entities for development to fully take place.
 Must not be all about money- social responsibility is a must.

Issues in Development
Policies being put in place in order to increase output, so that per/capita share (of revenue) will also grow.
o between 1960s-1980s
 However, these policies were ethnocentric: (evaluating other peoples and cultures according to the standards
of ones own culture). centred around one demographic.
o because of this they did not address the problems citizens were facing
o like the IMF, policies are the same: developing/developed, small/large
o productivity and production may improve, but benefits may not trickle down to the average person
 Bulk of population should be in the middle of a population pyramid

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Factors that Promote or Hinder Development


Promote Hinder
Entrepreneurial drive and activity Gender Inequality
Contribution to economy is of immense value. Gender disparity is rooted in some societies where a segment
 helps in the growth of national income and per of the population is marginalized (females), affecting
capita income development.
 The stimulate the economy through
o investments It affects
o employment  poverty, education, access to healthcare, productivity,
o diverseness in products and services household income, savings
o international trade  Government revenue
 Demand for goods and services
 Creates insecurity
 Lowers social cohesion

Political Ideology & Popular Movements Popular Movements - A large and sometimes informal groups
Capitalism - often attracts investors because there is of individuals which focus on specific social and political
minimal intervention be government. These individuals issues. They are pressure groups for a particular cause. They
control the means of production and distribution. The are assertive and militant in nature. They appeal to the masses.
only thing governments do is to ensure the companies  Trade unions
respect the rights of workers and their trade groups.  Consumer groups
 Garbeysm
Hinder development by engaging in industrial actions, or
actions which can cause instability in a country.

Political Ideologies - This is a set of principles, doctrines or


ideals of a social movement that explains how a society should
work. If a society embraces socialism, communism, Marxism
(Cuba), this would hinder development, because governments
tend to control the commanding heights of the economy.
 They control all utilities, etc. in the country
 There is no private sector
This is a system which preaches "take from the wealthy, give to
the poor". It embraces equality for all.

Natural and Man-made disasters


Region is exposed to geographic and geological hazards.
 Flooding
 Seismic Activities
 Hurricanes
 Oil spills
 Pollution
 Wildfires
Global Warming

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Distribution of wealth and resources - investment and Distribution of wealth and resources - if wealth is
reinvestment of entrepreneurs across an entire nation concentrated in a particular strata or group, only those persons
will help to reduce unemployment and therefore persons would benefit from such.
would have disposable incomes through job  Leads to high unemployment
opportunities. Demands for goods and services could  Low expenditure
increase as there would be more money in circulation  Frustration
 Alienation, which leads to social unrest
 Corruption
 Capital flight
 Brain drain
Can make a country dependent on external forces for survival
and economic sustainability, like the World Bank and IMF.

Changing Class Boundaries Changing Class Boundaries


Injection of funds into the education system Where class boundaries exist, there is no avenue for upward
 allow persons to be exposed to education social mobility. This can lead to hostility, as people see
 breaks the cycle of poverty themselves as inferior to those who are in higher status
brackets. This kind of situation would increase the poverty rate,
making it virtually impossible for the poor to help themselves
out of the situation.
 Where there is a large income gap between the different
social groups, social stratification becomes entrenched.
There will be fewer opportunities for persons to have
 a decent job
 relevant training
 exposed to credit services
 Healthcare
 Housing

Government Policies Government Policies


Government must provide an enabling environment for Oppressive taxation of companies and general population
private sector to conduct businesses.  Discourages potential investors
 intensives to support small businesses  Capital flight (people take money and leave)
 reduce taxes on goods imported to be used in the  Increases poverty
agriculture and manufacturing sector.  Social and political instability
 higher taxes on goods that are imported and also
produced/available locally
 Effective monitoring policies
o control the supply of money
o keep inflation low
o ensure price stability
o general trust/confidence in the currency
 disciplined fiscal policy
o Adjusting spending levels to avoid large deficits.
When this is done, investors will feel confident they are
operating in a stable economic environment.

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Use of Technology Use of Technology
 transformed the world's economy Inaccessibility of funding to purchase up-to-date equipment.
 transition from manual to electronic delivery services
o public and private sector
o advancement of business community
throughout world.
 Improves/enhances development in nation-states
that can afford to do so
 transformed business relations with the availability of
the internet
o E-commerce, e-banking
o Skype/WhatsApp
o Fax machines
 Transcends geography/distance using fibreoptics, for
immediate connection between the Caribbean and
the world.
Allows
 many transactions done easily & speedily
 individuals work from home
 companies outsource work
 pay bills/purchase things online
 E-marking, e-registration of students

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Global Conditions
Global warming in developing countries
 the speeding up earth's hydrological cycle causing both
drought and flood
 Makes land less productive
 Causes not to be able to be self-sufficient and therefore
lead to importation of goods which is an additional
expense
o leads to countries becoming dependant on
external agencies
o Grenada - hurricane Ivan
o Haiti - Matthew
Economic misfortune since 2008 (recession)
 reduction in visitor arrival in the region translated to more
spending
 caused a wage freeze in the Caribbean
 higher taxes
 unemployment due to restructuring
 stricter border control to reduce free movement of people
 move towards protectionism
 lead to the emergence of populist governments - plays
on vulnerabilities of individuals
 lead to political volatility - Brexit

Tourism Tourism
 Improvement in infrastructure  Degradation of environment
o development of Bridgetown port o Beach erosion, habitat destruction
 improvement of sanitation/health standards o Aesthetic reduction
 Provision of jobs o Pollution (water, solid waste)
 Foreign exchange reserves o Natural resource overuse (corals)
 Preservation of cultural sites/environment  Escalating land prices
 Cultural retention/renewal o foreigners purchase land, raising prices
 Greater demand for local goods/services o use of agricultural land for golf
 Erasure of values
Caribbean Tourism Organisation o drug use, prostitution
 Tourism development agency. o unsavoury individuals
 Offers scholarships to Caribbean nationals  Leakages (of funds)
 Provides reference resources for its members o All-inclusive hotels
 Comprised of government & private sector o Money wasted in marketing, goods, services etc.
 Collects and disseminates research  Seasonality of jobs
 Promotes Caribbean tourism globally o Tourist season
 Encourages discussion among stakeholders  Competition from cheaper destinations
 Has had to fight against insular fears and comes up  Foreign Ownership
against measures which support the status quo o MNCs
 Discrimination
page 171-173, 112-117 in manual o Tourists over Locals
o Continues slave/master relationships
 Susceptible to
o Disasters, epidemics, recession

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Globalisation & Development


What is Globalisation?
This is the process of integration and interaction between people, companies and governments of different nations.
It entails reduction and/or elimination of national barriers for the global movement of goods, services, technology
and capital.
What drives Globalisation?
It is driven by international trade and investment aided by information technology.

Forms of Globalisation
1. Economic Globalisation
o Transfer of economic resources from one country to another through investment and trade.
2. Cultural Globalisation
o The transmission of ideas, values, norms and way of life around the world, done via mass media
(electronic & print) and international travel.
3. Political Globalisation
o Governmental action being taken on a global level by an international body.
o This improves
1. welfare of citizens
2. economic growth
o eg. WTO (World trade Organisation)
o eg. PANHO (Pan-American Health Organisation)
o eg. UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund)
o eg. UNIFEM (United Nations Development Fund for Women)

Facilitators of Organisation and Development


WTO
 The only international body that deals with the rules of trade between nations.
 It ensures that the rules of international trade are correctly applied and enforced.
 It settles trading disputes between nations.
 It ensures international trade flows freely.
 It offers technical support to developing countries which would in turn help those countries to build trade
capacity.
 It ensures countries do not give preferential treatment
EPA - Economic Partnership Agreement
 economic agreement which enables CARICOM countries to sell their goods in the EU market.
 CARIFORUM (Caribbean Forum) - 2008
o Free-trade area between Caribbean/EU
o sub-group of African-Caribbean-Pacific States, serving as base for economic dialogue with the EU
o EU invests €146M in region through CARIFORUM
 aim to provide preferential trade conditions, cover issues like competition, intellectual property, copyright,
government procurement
 It is the first free-trade agreement between developed states and developing countries.
 It allows CARICOM and CARIFORM countries to send goods to the EU duty-free and quota free.
 This is done to promote regional integration and development.
 This enables the region to benefit from substantial and unparalleled development; in particular aid for trade.
 It will help Caribbean countries to build trade capacity and effectively compete with the global economy.

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IMF
Works with world bank. Headquarters in US, president usually European. It came after WW2 to help to avoid future
economic disasters. It is one of the world's largest lender of funds to countries that experience shortage in US funds.
It fosters & oversees global monetary cooperation and ensures worldwide financial stability.
 extends loans and technical assistance to help
o manage payment problems
o in debt management
o policymaking
 When they lend money to countries in debt, it comes with "strings attached" in the form of policy
prescription called SAPs
 Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs)
o prescriptions by the IMF
o SAPs must be agreed to before accepting IMF aid
o have resulted in widespread unemployment
 prescribes austerity, not stimulus on struggling economies
1. raise interest rates to stabilize currency
2. devalue currency to boost exports, and decrease imports
3. reduce government spending on: education, health, welfare
4. Raise taxes, freeze wages.
5. Privatize state-owned corporations (education, welfare, security)
6. Open up economies for penetration by foreign countries
7. Focus should be on agriculture and manufacturing for export
World Bank
 created in 1945, after WW2, located in Washington, DC. President is always American.
 Provides loans for developing countries for Capital Programs
 It is an institution that promotes development.
 They lend money to:
o Improve sanitation and water supplies
o Vaccination and immunisation programmes, reducing incidences of communicable diseases
o Build schools
o Improve infrastructure in countries
o Technical assistance to perform and deliver services that can promote economic growth
o To sustain poverty-reduction programmes
Trans-national organisations
 The utilise vast resources of people for cheap labour, invest in developing countries.
 They eventually crush local companies because of the high production costs associated with the local
companies.
 This enables these cooperation’s to make a profit.
 They tend not to obey local labour laws
 They influence people through advertisement on TV, internet etc.
Technology
 Helped to transform the world's economy.
 The transition from manual to electronic delivery services both in public and private sector has led to the
advancement of the business community throughout the world.
 Has led to the concept of e-commerce, e-business, e-banking etc. all of which allows for large numbers
of transactions to be done easily and speedily through the internet. (see information on technology: indicators of
development)
Ideologies
They foster globalisation by mingling people across national and regional boundaries.
o eg. Social Ideology - equality for all irrespective of social status, helping to break down barriers
o eg. Gender Ideology - focuses on freedom and opportunities for women

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o eg. Economic Ideology - based on free trade and market in the trade of goods and services, capital
and information.
o eg. Political ideology - capitalist overtones persuade much of the political ideology of the American-
led western democracies. Trade liberalisation is seen as the best way of regulating economic affairs.

General Impact of Globalization


 There is equality in the globalized world economy because of the one set of rules for all countries whether
you are developing, least developed, or underdeveloped. This has led to significant displacement within and
between nations.
 In the pursuit of the greatest profits, corporations seek the cheapest means of production, which often
results in the shifting of many labour-intensive processes overseas, or replacing them with automated
solutions.
o Lead to massive job cuts in a period where there is the greatest resistance to the provision of social
safety nets for those who are most vulnerable to the provision (unemployment).
 It has created unimaginable wealth for those capable of navigating the challenges of the digital age.
o Eg. China
 It has created brain drain for developing countries
o Educated people leave for better opportunities
 Globalization has given consumers a wider choice of goods and services (cost/variety)
 Globalization can increase employment in countries because of foreign direct investment
 Exploitation of workers
o long hours
o not allowed to join trade unions
o breaches of labour laws (in countries in which they have invested)
 Importation of inferior goods into a country
o Can have health challenges
 Bringing back the old days
o Rise of populist governments- Brexit, Trump

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The Integration Movement


Manual: 198-225.
Factors which promote regional integration Factors which hinder regional integration
Within the Caribbean The way CARICOM is governed
 no sanctions for those who do not enforce regulations
Common cultural heritage  countries free to decide whether or not to implement
 colonization CARICOM decisions
Need to pool national markets to overcome the  OECS makes decisions for the its members
restrictions of limited market size  unanimity rule: decisions must be unanimous
 efficient, large-scale/mass production not possible
because of small markets Hesitancy of some countries in supporting regional
Need to increase intra-regional trade and reduce extra- institutions
regional imports  countries take long to adopt institutions (Jamaica,
 region has high import bill Trinidad - CCJ)
 barriers to intra-regional trade must be eliminated  some fully reject institutions (Bahamas, CSME)
Need to improve standard of living
 high levels of poverty & unemployment Conflict between national and regional interests
 removal of barriers would increase demand for  economic downturn forced some countries to protect
regional goods/services their interests before CARICOM's
 this would increase production and employment rates  hindrance of immigration & free movement
Vulnerability to natural disasters o fear of immigrants taking jobs
 earthquakes, floods, hurricanes o thought of illegal immigrants using social services
 should foster cooperation they have not contributed to
Need to pool natural resources
 few natural resources available in each country Other factors
 Jagdeo initiative: Guyana offered large tracts of land to Dependence on extra-regional markets
CARICOM nationals for farming, increasing food  concentration on supplying extra-regional market,
security rather than regional/domestic
Poverty and need for functional cooperation Lack of Unity
 pooling financial resources, sharing services  Caribbean islands separated by sea
 Eg. UWI  feeling of separateness kept during colonization
Shortage of skills  absence of affordable inter-island travel
 brain drain Lack of single currency
 skilled workers should move freely to where needed  challenges for travellers & traders
within the region Limited opportunity for masses to participate
 only available to skilled and self-employed persons
Globally  lack of knowledge - affects willingness to participate
Growth of trade blocs  people do not have timely access to information
Necessary to keep up in negotiation regarding regional developments
Effects of globalization Unequal distribution of resources
 created a more competitive world environment  countries with limited resources are unwilling to
 to deal with this, businesses may join participate
Need to negotiate with the rest of the world as a group  countries with more resources seen as benefiting at
 greater political influence if unified expense of others
Vulnerability to economic shocks in rest of world Differences in stages of growth and development
 dependence on tourism  more developed countries have factories and skilled
 need to develop regional tourism labour force
 these would have a better share of intra-regional
exports
 they would see more benefit from the integration
 LDCs need assurances from MDCs that they will help
them become more developed.

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Ministerial Councils

 COTED - Council for Trade and Economic Development


 COFCOR - Council for Foreign and Community Relations
 COHSOD - Council for Human and Social Development
 COFAP - Council for Finance and Planning

Regional integration has been attempted from as far back as the 17th century;

Federation of the Leeward Islands – 1674


 Sir Williams Stapelton established the first federation in the British WI
o Set up a general assembly of the Leewards in St. Kitts, Antigua, Monseratt, Nevis, with two
representatives each
 2nd attempt came about in 1871
o way to save money as reforms and services from colony system of government caused increases in
government expenses
o In 1869 Benjamin Pine began to set up and run this federation.
o Same countries were involved, with the Virgin Islands added.
o headquarters was in Antigua
o units were known as presidencies

Windward Islands Federation of 1874-1876


 Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Tobago, Barbados.
 The following were shared
o Common governor
o Auditor general
o Lunatic Asylum
o Lazaretto
o Chief Justice
o Police force
 Opposed by Barbados. They felt they were better than the other Caribbean islands and were not willing to merge
with less fortunate islands
o Believed they would lose their labour force
o Unwilling to share their labour. Workers supported it.
o In spite of this, they sent John Pope Hennessey to promote the federation. He was met with opposition,
and said: "If I cannot bend the Whites, I will stir up the Blacks".

With all early attempts of early integration, a general trend runs through the reasons for failure:
1. Insularity
2. Geographical separateness
3. Selfishness of some governments
4. Neglect

Contemporary integration started in the 1940s with aims to


 Achieve political independence from Britain.
 Strengthen regional cooperation

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Federation
Date: 1945-1962
 1945 - Letters of invitation sent to stakeholders (union reps, government officials), requesting a date for a
proposed conference to make plans for the new political union; The Integration Movement.
 1947 - Montego Bay Conference, Jamaica. Various groups given tasks, and a date given to report these findings.
 Standing Closer Association Committee report of 1949 - Dealt with financing federation
 London Conference of 1953
 Conference on the freedom of movement 1955 - Dealt with regional immigration
 London Conference of 1956 - Federation finalised
 The Standing Federation Committee meeting of 1957
o final draft of constitution
o title West Indies adopted
 In 1958, Princess Margaret declared the Federal Parliament open.
o Called the British West-Indian Federation Act.
o Jamaica (17), Trinidad (10), Barbados (5), Montserrat (1), 2 each in the rest
o Grantley Adams appointed PM. He was leader of WIFLP (West Indies Federation Labour Party).
Opposition was the DLP, led by Alexander Bustamante.
o Federation's biggest problem was funding. Adams suggested taxing Jamaica & Trinidad
o Williams (PM, Trinidad), and Bustamante (Jamaica) were against this
o Bustamante resigned as leader of the opposition, to fight for Jamaica's independence
o Norman Manley (PM, Jamaica), called a referendum in 1961. 54% of votes desired leaving federation
o Within a year, Trinidad withdrew, Williams saying "1 from 10 leaves 0".

Reasons for formation:


 Britain had little time/money to give the colonies, rebuilding from war (WW1, WW2).
 Blockades in the Atlantic reduced Euro-Caribbean trade, increasing US-Caribbean trade
 Britain considered relinquishing Caribbean dependencies.
o many Caribbean economies were not able to sustain themselves
o political & economic federation was then suggested
 In the Caribbean, desire for federation was based on
1. Neglect by Britain
2. Poor social/economic colonial conditions
 Employment, Housing, Sanitation, Limited franchise
3. Belief that federation would increase region's bargaining power
4. Educated West Indians (like Adams & Manley) saw need for/benefits from federation.
5. Federation deemed necessary for independence

Challenges of Federation:
 From 1947-1957 there were conflicts, disagreement and lack of consensus among participants
o Trinidad Government did not want free movement of people
o Some countries did not wish to participate: Bahamas, British Guiana, British Honduras
o In 1957 the British Government passed legislation for the integration movement to take effect in 1958.
 Lasted from 1958-1962 due to continuing issues (from before/during Federation)
 Came to an end when Jamaica then Trinidad withdrew.
 They then negotiated their political independence.
 Capital location in Trinidad disputed by Jamaica, feeling Trinidad to be a US military base. In 1958 they applied to
the US to continue to lease the base even through federation was formed.
 Jealousy that PM was Adams of small Barbados. As a result, Eric Williams and Norman Manley focused on the
developing their countries, not federation.

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 Separatism and insularity, small-island loyalty. Individuals putting nation before region, feeling there were few
advantages from federation
 Jamaica & Trinidad saw federation as retarding their political advancement. By 1958 they were constitutionally
closer to independence than federation. Thought it hindered self-governance and independence.
 Funding of federation viewed as unfair. Jamaica and Barbados felt it unfair for Jamaica to contribute 48%,
Trinidad 39%, Barbados 9%, and the rest sharing 9%. Trinidad and Jamaica held 77% of the population, 83% of
land, 75% of wealth, yet smaller countries dominated federal assembly.
 Fear of freedom of movement: Trinidad, Jamaica. (Bahamas in CARICOM)

Federations are called weak or strong, dependant on the powers that governments give over to them
 WI Federation weak because units kept most powers to themselves and gave few to federation
 Federation only took over matters of inter-island concern;
o taxation, education, economic development was left to unit governments
 It was therfore weak in its economic base

WISA
(West Indian Associated States) Council of Ministers - 1966

Sought economic integration and functional cooperation between several LDCs


 Antigua, Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Monseratt, St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, St. Lucia, St. Vincent.
 The Agony of the Eight

Functional Cooperation:
 Integration in all aspects

CARIFTA
(Caribbean Free Trade Association) - 1968

 Attempt by Barbados, Guyana and Jamaica, to


o "Try a type of economic integration that focused only on trade, removing barriers/tariffs on
intra-regional trade on goods produced in the region.”
 Comprised of the more and less developed countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean
o Anguilla, Antigua, Barbados, British Honduras, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, St. Kitts, St.
Lucia, Montserrat, St. Vincent & Trinidad.

 Focus was on trade.


 Promote intra-regional trade where a group of countries agree to remove the tariff and non-tariff barriers to
trade among them

Achievements:
 the CBD (Caribbean Development Bank)
 the Commonwealth Regional Secretariat

Challenges:
Trade imbalance between LDCs and MDCs.
 Caused the movements to be in a state of dormancy

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CARICOM
(Caribbean Community) - 1973-Present
 Treaty of Chaguaramas.
 Continuation from CARIFTA where the focus was not only on trade, but on coordinated foreign policies,
advancement of social, cultural and technical development.
 NB - In 1989 there was a shift in focus of CARICOM to deal with Globalization, Trade Liberalisation, Trading Bocks (EU,
NAFTA)
 In response to the trading blocks, CARICOM leaders formed the CSME for all 15 member-states

Objectives:
Deeper linkage through
 Economic cooperation  Functional Cooperation  Political Integration

Achievements:
 Establishment of institutions since 1973 - CXC, Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), regional security system
 Partial movement of persons across the region (sports personnel, media workers, UWI graduates)
 Wholesale movement of goods and services across the region and high levels of cultural interaction, because of
CSME
 High level of cooperation in sporting activities in the region - Cricket, football, volleyball, rack & field.
 Support in times of need - Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA). Has helped Dominica,
Grenada, Haiti

Challenges:
 lack of funding because of indebtedness of member states
 this limits what CARICOM can do across the region
 unwillingness of some member states to join the regional court (The Appellate Jurisdiction)
o Barbados, Dominica, Guyana, Belize have adopted this system
o In Nov., 2016 the Grenada voted to reject the CCJ.
o Inclusion of Suriname and Haiti has made the integration process more complex
o These countries practice the civil law, influenced by the Napoleonic Law
 Lack of timely implementation of decisions taken at heads of government conferences (fiscal/monetary policies)
 Insularity (subtle patriotism)
 Undermines Caribbean movement
 Trade imbalance: Trinidad - exports much. Issue for other countries.
 Fear of mass migration (to countries deemed more successful).
o Eg. Bahamas has not signed into free movement of people
 Disparity in currency: some devalued, others tied to the US dollar.
 Disparity in levels of economic and social development: uneven development
 Caribbean nationals see CARICOM as a ‘talkshop’: all talk, no action.

Members:
5 Associate members 7 observer countries Haiti granted full membership on
 Anguilla (July 1999)  Aruba July 2nd, 2002
 Bermuda (July 2003)  Columbia
 BVI (July 1991)  Dominican Republic
 Cayman Islands (May 2002)  Mexico
 Turks and Caicos (July 1999)  Netherlands Antilles
 Puerto Rico
 Venezuela

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CSME
(Caribbean Single Market and Economy) - Feb. 2002
 Formed as a result of continued globalisation
 Response to formation of other trading blocs
 Formed with revision of the CARICOM treaty
 Members include:
o CARICOM + Central/Northern South-American countries
 Seeks deeper integration and strengthen CARICOM in all areas
Objectives:
 free movement of goods, services, people, capital throughout member states
 one currency across region.
 CARICOM passport
 1 regional airline
 negotiation with international lending agencies
Challenges:
 lack of public awareness
 not fully embraced by political leaders
 reluctance to remove trade barriers
 reluctance to lose autonomy as leaders of their respective countries
 resistance to the establishment of a current currency

CSM - CARICOM Single Market


An arrangement by which CARICOM members have agreed to convert their separate national markets into one large
single market, through removal of all barriers to the free movement of regional goods, services, capital, and labour.
 only permitted free movement of goods
 restrictions on:
o establishment of business
o provision of services
o movement of labour, capital
 businesses were forced to close due to trade liberalization, and an inability to relocate
 Features
o removal of trade barriers
o free movement of capital: finance development of region
o free movement of labour
o movement of business
o establishment of regional standards (for goods)
o uniform rate of duty on non-CSME imports
o common trade policies
 Objectives
o increasing trade in regional goods and services
o increasing the output of goods and services
o promoting competition among CARICOM firms
o promoting efficient use of region's resources
o improving welfare of CARICOM citizens
 leaders thought the CSM would help producers by providing a wider market
 was meant to result in sustained economic development5
 Regional Dvelopment Fund
o meant to cushion negative impact

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Decision made that CSM not enough, but CSE also needed

CSE - Caribbean Single Economy


Created by member states:
 who have corresponding company, property, and intellectual property laws
 common foreign investment policy
 to decide taxation and monetary policies
 who pursue similar strategies in developing businesses
 who use a common currency
Objectives
 pursuing corresponding revenue and spending policies
 pursuing corresponding policies to control availability of spending money to businesses and consumers
 adopting a single currency
 adopting common customs and company laws
 pursuing similar development policies in the major industries; agriculture, tourism, manufacturing and
industries
OECS
 OECS
o Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
o Sub-group of CARICOM
o All islands in the leeward and windward chain
o Began in 1981
o Thought they were 'bullied' by bigger islands
o Main objective is to have functional cooperation - no division
o Establishment of own institutions that they deem common to all
 1 high court
 1 central bank
 1 currency
 tourist board - does all advertising for that region.
 Eliminated use of passports when travelling between sister islands
o Challenges
 Trade liberalisation - removes subsidy, preferential markets. Affected the banana industry.
Islands became uncompetitive
 Depleted foreign exchange
 Resorted to going to the IMF
 Lead to economic stagnation
 Prone to natural disasters. Impacts their GDP.
ACS
(Association of Caribbean States) – 2nd, Jul. 1994
Members:
 Made of French, Spanish, Dutch, English territories, who’s shores are washed by the Caribbean Sea. (Geographical
Caribbean)
Objectives:
 Strengthen cooperation and integration through trade
 To preserve the Caribbean environment (Sustainable Development)
 To have joint negotiations with each other on external economic relations
 To exploit opportunities presented by current national developments
 Aim for member countries to work together on ensuring sustainable development of the entire Caribbean
region.

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Formed the world's 3rd largest trading bloc (237,000,000 people)

Common terms
 Bilateral Agreement - An agreement between two groups, countries or nations
 Multilateral Agreement - Agreement among many groups, countries or nations
 Common Market - An economic unit, formed of nations, intended to eliminate or markedly reduce trade
barriers among its members
 Single Market - A group of countries that have few or no restrictions on the movement of goods, money and
people between members of the group.
 Economic Integration - the process by which the economies of a group of countries are drawn more closely
together so that the group as well as the individual countries becomes stronger or more developed
 Independent State – self-government of a country, nation or state by its residents and population
 Underdeveloped Country - a relatively poor country with little or no material wellbeing
 Developing Country - A country that has not yet reached the stage of economic growth to stand on its own
for further growth
 Developed Country - A country that has a high level of development and high GDP/capita
 Trade Liberalization - The movement towards the removal of trade barriers among members of the WTO
 Globalization - the process by which countries all over the world are becoming connected or similar because
large companies are doing business in many different countries
 Multinational Corporations - Aka transnational corporations are corporations/enterprises that manage
production and deliver services in more than one country
 Trading Bloc - Made up of a large number of countries, with the same political and economic aims, linked by
special trading arrangements between them
 Free trade Area - an arrangement whereby a group of countries agrees to remove the tariff and non-tariff
barriers to trade among them
 Intra-Regional Trade - countries in the region buying/selling locally produced goods from/to other countries
in the region

Attempt Date
Federation of the Leeward Islands 1674
Windward Islands Federation 1874-1876
WICB 1920s
UWI 1949
West Indian Federation 1958-1962
WISA 1966
CARIFTA 1965-1972
CXC 1972
CARICOM – Caribbean Community 1973
OECS 18th Jun.
1981
ACS 2nd Jul. 1995
CSME Feb. 2002

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Contributions to Sport
Manual Pages: 226-236
1. Generation of income 4. Development of 6. International recognition
2. Health and fitness Caribbean identity 7. Sports tourism
3. Education opportunities 5. Discipline and Morale
Sports is a game, competition or activity needing physical effort and skill that is played or done according to rules for
enjoyment and/or as a job.
 Caribbean: football, netball, basketball, cricket, track & field, volleyball

Generation of Income
 Hosting of mega sporting events:
o Cricket test matches
o Caribbean premier league
o One day internationals
o CARIFTA swimming, track & field
o Regional tennis, golf tournaments
 These events attract spectators/fans locally & internationally
o hospitality industry would benefit as it would provide accommodation for these individuals
o transportation industry benefit: taxis
o departure tax?? - airports
o visiting historical sites; entry fee
o shops and malls: sales, souvenirs
 professional athletes receive large salaries/endorsements
o this is taxed by their countries
 Generate income for
o sports managers
o nutritionists
o physical trainers
o instructors
o medical personnel
o other support staff

Health & Fitness


 students participate in PE
 promoting healthy lifestyle
 persons encouraged to participate in sporting activities irrespective of age
o regional senior games
 physical education encouraged in primary/secondary schools
o reduces lifestyle diseases
o WHO - recognised world's most chronic diseases;
 respiratory illnesses, stroke, diabetes, heart disease, cancer
o placed a significant burden on a country's financial resources
o Citizens must eat healthy, refrain from tobacco use, be involve in physical activities
o this would contribute to longevity of individuals and country's productivity levels
 Physical activity is least expensive preventative medicine to combat chronic diseases
 citizens more productive, less spent on healthcare

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Educational Opportunities
 Avenue for higher education
o Scholarships & Bursaries
o Locally (UWI, UOT [University of Technology], G. C. Foster College) & North America (UCLA,
Pennstate)
 Aid in
o upward social mobility
o world fame
o status
o income
 Educational opportunities accessed can help in development of the Caribbean
o Development of human resource
o Returning athletes would aid to the cadre of professionals available to help younger athletes
o contribution to the national good, through expertise in different fields
o Exposure to quality training overseas & high level competition, not found in Caribbean
 CXC introduced physical education & sports syllabus for CSEC & CAPE
o driven by exploits of Caribbean nationals in 2008
o gives Caribbean nationals a niche in the global market
 UWI offers BSc, MSc Sports degrees
o response to a need for qualified persons in area of sports science

Development of Caribbean Identity


 success at competitive sports seen as means towards
o achieving common feeling of Caribbean identity
 Cricket has been able to help us feel a sense of identity as Caribbean countries identify with the WI Cricket
Team
o because individuals drawn from all Caribbean territories
 Success of Caribbean athletes in track & field is a source of pride for the entire region
o Bolt, Jones
 Football
o Trinidad & Tobago qualified to the World Cup in 2006
o Jamaica qualified in 1998

Discipline & Morale


 Promote character building potentials for individuals depending on how the approach and play the game
 Sports develop qualities in individuals like
o team
o spirit o humility o fairplay
o loyalty o discipline o tolerance
o dedication o endurance o peaceful coexiste
o flexibility o honesty nce
 take these qualities into the workplace
 no "winning at all cost"
 discourage dishonest practices like
o taking illegal substances
o engaging in tactics to destabilise a fellow competitor, to gain an unfair advantage
 do not allow the lure of riches to transcend moral principles

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Sports Tourism
 Become a rapidly growing subsector of tourism
o Contributed to marketing of the region as a tourist destination
o Persons travel to participate in/observe sporting activities
 test matches
 1-day international matches
 Tourists travel to visit halls of fame and sports museums
 eg. Legends of Barbados Cricket Museum
 Sports tourism provides competitions for local atheletes
 annual road races1
 10k marathon; sponsored by BTA (Barbados Tourism Association)
 Sandy Lane Gold Cup -
 much medic coverage. Shows cultural and entertainment package
 they would want to come to experience the culture

International Recognition
 Based on top-quality performances be individuals or teams
o Sir Garfield, Brian Lara, Chris Gale
o They use their popularity to advance development in various ways
o they establish charity organisations to help less fortunate individuals
o Can be appointed as UN Ambassadors, supporting various projects across the world.
o Mass appeal helps motivate people to act in interests of improving their own lives and those of fellow
citizens

Challenges of using sports to facilitate development


 Lack of funding due to heavy indebtedness of the governments in the region (not enough money to fund/take
care of sporting facilities). Lack of sponsorship from private individuals/companies because the produt being
offered is not attractive and the return on the investment will not help to advance the company. Some
companies do not have enough brand ambassadors to attract sponsorship from the private sector EG Usain
Bolt brand ambassador for Digicel.
 Lack of interest among the population in some sporting discipline EG cricket. In addition, those who
participate do so for their own personal and economic development and not for her/his respective country.
 Lack of adequate facilities that meet international standard EG National Stadium that is partly condemned
(can hold small sporting games but not regional or international events).
 There are not many individuals that are trained in these areas, therefore not many people to train others.
 Athletes are not competitive enough when they go on the international scene because:
a) they do not meet the international requirement for the particular discipline
b) some of the athletes are not exposed to international meets
 Lack of widespread media coverage EG netball, tennis, golf etc.

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Intellectual Traditions
1 Pan-
2 Africanism 5 Industrialisation by 8 Caribbean feminist
3 Negritude Invitation thought
4 Restafari 6 Marxism 9 Indo-Caribbean thought
7 Dependency theory 10 Indigenous perspective

Intellectual traditions reflect the writings of the 20th century West Indian intelligences.
Writings range from
 politics
 economics
 history
 gender relations
Pan-Africanism
 conceptualised in the early 1900s by William Du Bois, Henry Sylvester among others
 came about because of the growing concern for unification of people of African descent in the diaspora and
the motherland
 objectives
o promote a feeling of oneness among the people of African descent
o to have a collective African identity among the people
o to have a continuous link between the motherland and the diaspora
 impact
o revolutionised the thinking of Caribbean leaders in terms of public policy
 formation of a local pan-African commission to fulfil objectives identified
o naming of institutions, roads, parks after African icons
 Mandela Park (Barbados, Jamaica), Haile Selassie High School
o People's mode of dress and hairstyle
o Celebration of Black History Month
o Lyrical content of songs - express solidarity for countries in Africa trying to get independence from a
European country
o Geared towards British WI territories
Negritude
 French version of pan-Africanism
 conceptualised by Amie Cesaire
o he was concerned about the experiences of the blacks during slavery and colonialism
o hence a sense of black consciousnesses emerged in the French WI.
 Objectives
o feeling of oneness
o African identity
o African pride
o Link to motherland
 Impact
o inspired others to write about Black identity
 Franz Fanon -
o Instilled pride in African heritage
o Formation of African studies organisations

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Rastafari
 A religious group developed in Jamaica in the 1930s which regard Africa as the Promised Land to which true
believers will return some day. (See page 138 in manual)
 Impact
o Movement has spread globally - persons from other ethnic groups have begun to mimic or adapt the
cultural practices of the Rastas.
 Clothing - red, green, gold, black
 wearing locks
 music
 culinary practices
Industrialisation by invitation
 This was a strategy conceptualised by William Arthur Lewis
o invited foreign investors to come in and invest in the Caribbean
o Idea was that investors would transform the Caribbean from being predominantly agricultural to
manufacturing
 took place after rise of the 1930s when unemployment was very high among Caribbean nationals
 companies were given intensives to come to Caribbean
o given buildings
o tax holidays
o relaxation of labour laws
 Impacts
o Provided many jobs
o had access to markets overseas, allowing for inflows of foreign exchange to the Caribbean
Marxism
 Is an ideological response to European capitalism .
 The Marxist is of the view that capitalism was a form of exploitation of the most vulnerable in society
 It embraces equality for all
 Objectives of Marxism
o To sensitise the public to the evils of capitalism
o Evils include
 Low wages
 Bad working conditions
o Inform persons that they can have control over their own labour
 Caribbean impact
o Some Caribbean leaders adopted this ideology, and implemented strategies to reflect the notion of
equality
o examples
 Michael Manley, Jamaica
 Forbes Burnham, Guyana
 Maurice Bishop, Grenada
o strategies implemented
 passing of labour legislations which denote equal pay for men and women
 land distribution to the masses, to encourage food production and self sufficiency
 Nationalisation of private assets (telecommunications, transportation, financial)
 Free education/healthcare
 welfare system to take care of the most vulnerable
 For many countries, the Marxist ideology did not work and they returned to the capitalist way

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Dependency theory
 Economic exploitation of poor underdeveloped countries by a "core of wealthy ones".
 During the process of exploitation the poor underdeveloped countries become impoverished while at the
same time being integrated into the global economy
 It is unequal power relations which have emerged between developed and lesser developed countries
 It is about profit maximisation, not philanthropy
 Dependency theory manifested itself in the Caribbean during the colonial era.
o The Europeans exploited the resources in the region (sugar cane, agriculture).
o This dependency prevented developing nations from fully creating institutions and infrastructure
deemed necessary for their full transition into industrial nations.
 Resources of the less developed nations were used to fuel the colonial nations factories.
 Colonialism collapsed after WW2, but its legacy has continued in international finance and capitalism as the
preferred method of control over developing countries. (IMF, World Bank)
Indo-Caribbean thought
 indentured Indians came to the region in large numbers (1848) going to Guyana, Trinidad and Jamaica to help
revive the ailing sugar industry
 Period of indentureship came to an end in 1917.
 Impact
o Culture - religion, food, music, festivals, language, dress, literature (V. S. Niapaul - The House of Mr.
Biswas, Samuel Selvon - The Lonely Londoners)
o Sports - Cricket (Shivneraine Chander-Paul, Ramnaresh Sarwan)
o Politics - Basdeo Panday (PM, Trinidad), Pamela-Persaud Bissaser (PM, Trinidad), Bharrat Jagdeo
(President, Guyana)
o Population proportion (Trinidad: 35.4% Indian, 34.2% African, Guyana: 43.5% Indian, 32.5% African)
Caribbean Feminist thought
 Feminism is a movement who’s objective is economic, social, political and cultural equality for women.
 Emerged in the US during the 1960s-1970s.
 It was branded: "American Feminist Movement: Breaking down barriers for women.".
 This movement wanted to get rid of the stereotype of women being confined as home-makers, someone's
keeper, property of a husband, and that the domestics fear is the place where women should be confined.
 Impact
o Achievement of:
 equality in the workplace
 better opportunity
 good treatment overall
o Establishment of department of gender studies at the UWI
o Women's organisations in the Caribbean (NOW)
o Legislation passed for protection of women
 maternity leave with pay act
 family court act - ensures men look after their children
Indigenous perspectives
 Were the first inhabitants of the region
 Established a civilisation while they were here, before the Europeans
 They were agriculturalists and hunters
 They had their own religion
 They had their own food, culture
 Haiti is an Amerindian word for mountain, Tuna Puna in Trinidad
 residual communities in Dominica

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Roles & Functions of the Mass Media


Definitions
 Sensationalism - a type of editorial bias in which events and topics in news stories and pieces are over-hyped
to increase viewership or readership numbers. A style of reporting news to the public which involves the use
of fear, anger, excitement to increase viewership ratings and profit. Tactics used include:
o Appealing to emotions
o Being controversial
o Intentionally omitting facts and information
Trivial information and events are sometimes misrepresented or exaggerated as important or significant,
especially if the information is about the actions of an individual or small groups of people.
 Censorship - the suppression of speech, public communication or other types of information which may be
considered harmful, sensitive, objectionable, politically incorrect or inconvenient as determined by the
government or other groups of institutions.
o Cuba
o North Korea
o China
o United States
What is Mass Media?
 Any channel through messages are sent simultaneously to large audiences
o Print media (The Observer, The Nation, The Gleaner, The Guardian, Washington Post)
o Electronic media (radio, TV, internet)
The roles and function of the mass media:
 Provision of information
 Entertainment
 Construction of national, regional and diasporic identity
 Promotion of cultural experience and exchange
 Responding to cultural imperialism
 Promotion and defence of rights of citizens
The Media is called the 4th estate - the 4th branch of government, as it monitors the political process to ensure that
the political players do not abuse the democratic process
Provision of Information
The core function of journalists is to give correct information to citizens:
 Politics
 natural disasters
 climate change
 terrorism/security
 education
 health, etc.
Information will stimulate intellectual discussion and debate, helping citizens to be aware of their environment and
also helps them to make informed decisions. Information coming from journalists should not be sensational.

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Entertainment
An important part of the mass media. Can be categorised as
 Local
o Entertainment Events, Theatrical productions: Q in the community, Crop Over, Gospelfest, Laugh it
Off, Nifca
o Can be live, or tape delayed
 Regional
o Larger cultural events: Carnival in Trinidad, Vincimass, Carifta
 International
o Advent of satellite technology has opened up the region to international sources of entertainment
like
o Oscars, Grammys, World Cup, Olympics, SNL

Entertainment will play a role in human development by promoting ones wellbeing through relaxation, and stress
release. This will help individuals to have a balanced existence, re-energising individuals for another day of productive
work.

Construction of national, regional and diasporic identity


 National
o Newly independent formed governments of the 1960s became actively involved in the ownership of
media outlets (radio and TV). In order to bolster the national consciousness and patriotic dedication.
o These outlets allow local culture to be aired and celebrated, thereby building a sense of belonging
and collective destiny.
 Regional
o The Caribbean lacks a pan-regional television or radio station, which is critical to the integration
effort. Mass media in the region is country focused.
o Caribbean Media Corporation (CMC) was established to provide information on news and sports at
the regional level, but found it difficult to compete with the international press agencies.
o In addition, the CMC lacks funding from regional government.
 Diasporic
o The setting up of ethnic mass media among the diasporic communities has become a powerful means
of shaping or reshaping identities. In cities or areas with large West Indian population, radio stations
have emerged, catering almost exclusively to this particular group.
 They give detailed information on
 Festivals - Caribana, Labour Day, Nottinghill,
 Independence Day activities
 Advertise fund-raising events for alumni
 Host artists coming up from Caribbean
 Link with live streams coming from region

Promotion of Cultural Experience and Exchange


 Technological advances have helped to extend the reach of information across borders (Skype, email,
WhatsApp).
 Cultural exchange has exposed individuals to peoples of different religious, geographic, and socioeconomic
background, providing an opportunity for individuals to develop a greater understanding of diversity and
multiculturalism.

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Response to Cultural Imperialism
 The intentional or unintentional of the imposition of a particular country's values, norms and overall way of
life on others.
 Caribbean countries are heavily influenced by US mass media through images of lifestyle, fashion, diet which
have become part of the knowledge and daily experiences of the people.
 This can be minimised by
1. An intensive educational drive through school curriculum where persons are taught about a
particular culture. (CAS - CAPE, Social Studies - CSEC/Primary)
2. Developing local programmes. (Bajan Bus Stop). These are very expensive.
3. Minimise programmes bought from overseas.

Promotion and Defence of Rights of Citizens


 Media still has a significant role to play in the promotion and protection of people's rights. This will help to
counter any breaches of social justice that could impede development.
 Rights of citizens
o Freedom of expression - this is why talk show programs are so popular, especially
among marginalised people to express dissatisfaction or experiences of discrimination.
o Basic democratic rights - right to peaceful protest, industrial action, freedom of worship, right of
association.
 The media has the right to promote the rights of individuals regularly, and to inform them.

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Social Justice
A doctrine that promotes fairness, equality, natural justice (no man is condemned without being heard) for all
individuals in a society, irrespective of social, economic and political status.
Fairness and equality will exist when all individuals in society share a common humanity with rights to
 equitable treatment
 support for human rights
 allocation of resources
Therefore, in conditions of social justice there should be no discrimination or prejudice on the basis of
 gender  religion
 sexuality  disability
 age  political affiliation
 race (Jamaica: Rastafari, descendants of the  abode/dwelling
maroons, Guyana/Dominica: Amerindians)  social and economic circumstances
 belief  any characteristic of background/group
 social class membership

Sexuality
refers to the gender to which a person is attracted. There are five types that are commonly described:
1. The heterosexual/straight
o persons who are physically attracted to members of the opposite sex
2. Homosexuals
o people who are romantically and physically attracted to persons of the same sex. Males – gays |
Females – lesbians
3. Bisexuals
o persons who are romantically and physically attracted to members of both sexes.
4. Queer/questioning
o individuals who are unsure of their sexual orientation and/or gender identity
o the only group excluded from this are the heterosexuals
5. Transgender
o one whose gender differs from that at birth through surgical operation or hormonal drugs
Global push for the recognition of rights for these individuals as an integral part of human rights campaigning.
Traditionally, these individuals were discriminated against due to strong Christian doctrine encouraged by centuries
of colonial rule that linked religion with social norms across the region.
In the Caribbean, there is no law to protect these people, instead there is much prejudice against them.
 In Belize, the conviction for homosexuality carries a sentence of 25 years and this is based on legislation.
 Barbados has harshest penalty for homosexual activity in the western hemisphere but overall enjoys a culture
of tolerance. Section 9 of the sexual offences act 2002 provides a sentence of up to life imprisonment for
buggery.
o Barbados is the only commonwealth country that recognizes the binding jurisdiction of the inter-American
court of human rights. However, by retaining the anti-sodomy and the indecency law which affects the LGBT
community is effectively in violation of its obligation under the American convention. Even with these harsh
anti-gay laws, Barbados has recorded very few of the savage, homophobic attacks on the LGBT community,
perhaps this is a function of a tolerant culture where people in the small, densely-packed territory are likely
to know at least one gay individual.
 The law was originally imposed during British colonial rule. Even though Barbados is now independent, these
colonial era laws appears to be constitutionally entrenched and cannot be challenged in any local court in
Barbados despite their clear violation of their right to privacy.

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Concepts of Social Justice:
1 Recognition of natural rights
The right to life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness, freedom of speech with the right to responsibility, freedom
of religion, fair treatment before the law courts within reasonable time. All of these in chapter 3 of Barbados
constitution.
2 Mutual advantage
All individuals must benefit from the resources available in a country irrespective of where you are in society.
Public authority/figures must make themselves accessible to those who want to meet them, not just the
economic or political class based on this doctrine of social justice.
3 Welfare
this concept was designed to take care of the most vulnerable in society EG the elderly, women in children,
mentally and physically challenged. This welfare system will help significantly to narrow the gap between the
rich and the poor in society.

Police Brutality
An extreme form of discrimination by police officers to civilians. This form of discrimination manifests itself in
 Unwarranted or excessive use of force in carrying out duties - beating persons in custody or at random in the
streets or their homes, denying accused persons food/water or torturing them to obtain confessions.
 Extra-judicial police killing; detainees killed while in police custody or while being pursued and interrogated
 Unauthorised search and seizure of property
 Arbitrary arrest and other forms of mistreatment of citizens, which are against international law
Persons targeted are generally as follows
 Those socially excluded  Predominantly young males
 Gang members  Sex offenders
 Drug dealers  Persons living
 LGBTQ persons in marginalized communities

These kinds of issues go against the philosophy of social justice because it denies citizens of a certain class of their
just dues.

When this kind of behaviour expressed by the police is continued over a period of time, these people will become
very resentful, angry, and can engage in subversive activities which undermine the development of the society's
organizational state (subtle protest - do not adhere to the laws of the land, further engagement in criminal activities).
Indicators of development affected by police brutality
 Productivity levels
Not being able to make a positive contribution to the society because they feel so overwhelmed by the
actions of the police. A large segment of the society has been marginalized, therefore productivity levels will
fall.
 Quality of life
HDI would be affected. Individuals will not have access to good healthcare since they have no disposable
income (no jobs), continue to be involved in unsavoury activities and are unable to take care of their material
needs. This is especially in countries where there is no subsidised healthcare, education or welfare system.
 Democratic rights
The ability to participate in democratic processes (right to vote). If individuals are not able to participate in
these processes because they are locked away, they cannot participate in the running of their country.
 High levels of social inequality
Breaches of social justice mean that some persons will think they are better because of their wealth or status.
Certain behaviour patterns and activities come with being in a specific group.

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