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Hurricanes and

Hurricane Readiness
Storm Surge and Tidal
Flooding – A Hampton
Specific Look

Bill Sammler
Warning Coordination Meteorologist
NOAA’s National Weather Service, Wakefield VA
http://weather.gov/akq

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Storm Surge Defined
STORM SURGE – The abnormal rise in water
level directly associated with the wind and
pressure forces associated with a hurricane

Storm Surge Example – hurricane makes landfall at high tide

Storm Surge is highest in right forward quadrant near


center as it crosses coast
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Coastal Hurricane Threats
Storm Surge

Storm Surge is
highest in the
RIGHT FORWARD
QUADRANT close
to where center
makes landfall

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Coastal Hurricane Threats
Storm Surge Example – Hugo 1989

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Coastal Hurricane Threats
Storm Surge Factors
• Storm Intensity and Size
– Stronger = Higher Surge
– Larger = Larger Area
Affected
• Storm Speed
– Slower Often Means
Higher Surge
• Angle to Coast at
Landfall
– Perpendicular Maximizes
Surge (Katrina)

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Hurricane Threats
STORM SURGE – STORM INTENSITY

CAT 1 NNW 20 mph

CAT 2 NNW 20 mph

CAT 3 NNW 20 mph


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Hurricane Threats
STORM SURGE – STORM SPEED

CAT 3 NNW 10 mph

CAT 3 NNW 20 mph

CAT 3 NNW 30 mph


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Hurricane Threats
STORM SURGE – ANGLE TO COAST

CAT 3 N 20 mph

CAT 3 NW 20 mph

CAT 3 WNW 20 mph


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Storm Surge contd.
STORM SURGE – Isabel

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Hurricane Isabel
Storm Surge & Wave Action
Jordan Point Marina Near Gloucester

Hampton – Buckroe Area


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And Then There Was Ernesto

Overriding Principle –
Good Wind Forecast =
Good Coastal Flood
Forecast

Get the Winds Wrong,


And…
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Ernesto Wind Animation

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Ernesto Tidal Departures
vs. Wind

Yorktown VA (USCG)

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Ernesto Tidal Departures
vs. Wind

Windmill Point VA

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Wachapreague Tides
vs. Ocean City Tides

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Tropical vs. Nor’easter Flooding

1-2 Tide Cycles


(Tropical)
vs.

24 Hours
Several Tide Cycles
(Nor’easter)

Yorktown - Ernesto(2006)

Gloucester Point
1998 Nor’easter
48 Hours

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Storm Surge
Hurricanes vs. Nor’easters

Minor Flooding Begins

Sewells Point - Isabel

Sewells Point
11/2009 Nor’easter

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Hurricane Stats – SE Va.

Hurricanes Only

1933 Hurricane

All Tropical Cyclones

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Hurricanes in Virginia
• Ernesto (2006) – Inland and Coastal
• Gaston, Ivan, Frances (2004) – Mainly
Inland
• Isabel (2003) – Inland and Coastal
• Floyd (1999) – Coastal and Inland
• Camille (1969) – Inland****
• Donna (1960) – Coastal only
• Hazel (1954) – Inland and Coastal
• 1933 Hurricane – Inland and Coastal
• 1749 Hurricane – Willoughby Spit

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Hurricane Stats – SE Va.
Hurricane Return Period

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Some H.R. High Water Events

*
*
*
*
*

*
*
* - Denotes Event Since 1998“Taking the pulse of the planet”
Hurricane Stats – SE Va.
Tropical Cyclones by Year

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The End!!
Are There Any
Additional
Questions?
william.sammler@noaa.gov
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Weather Info 24/7/365

Clickable Map
for Forecasts NWS Wakefield,VA:
http://weather.gov/akq

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NWS Wakefield EM/Briefing Page
http://weather.gov/akq/empage.php

Hazard/Topic
Specific Tabs

Local
Radar

Local
WFO
Products

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NWS Wakefield,VA Briefing Page:
http://weather.gov/akq/empage.php

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NOAA Tides and Currents Site:
http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/

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NOAA Tides and Currents Site:
http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/

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NOAA CBOFS Model Site:
http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/ofs/cbofs/cbofs.html

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NOAA CBOFS Model Site:
http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/ofs/cbofs/cbofs.html

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Hurricane Info 24/7/365
National Hurricane Center: http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/

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NOAA Weather Radio

• 24/7 Weather Broadcast


• IMMEDIATE broadcast of
Watches & Warnings
• Newer radios (S.A.M.E.)
are programmable to
local areas

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