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In the competitive environment of open economy human resource management with the increased modern trends becoming significant
factor for the efficient running of organization Human resource management emerged from personnel management and personnel
management emerged from manpower planning. The consideration of changes taking place in managing human resource led to adaptation of
strategic HRM the consideration of strategy and HRM system jointly led to the emergence of strategic human resource management SHRM
which is crucial for achieving a corporation¶s long term goal. This article attempts to bring the historical evolution of HRM and changing roles
of HR professional from time to time in order to considered employees as an important assets which helps in attaining goals of the
organization. The article finally draws attention to the fact that SHRM and not PM or HRM are people considered for modern industrialization
that is to be used for creating and sustaining competitive advantage for the firm.
 
American writers Terrey and Franklin (1996) mentioned about the 6 Ms of management, viz. Men and women, material, money, market and
method. But among these, men and women - the only living being- do the effective coordination and utilization of these human and non-
human resources. All the activities of any enterprise are initiated and

Human resource gained more attention as the workforce considered to be an important resource to gain competitive advantage of
organization and also it helpful in utilizing the resources of an organization to a optimum extent in order to achieve organizational goal.

Managing human resource is an complex process. As Harzing and Ruysseveldt said a better way to understand the philosophy of
human resource management demands a thorough understanding about the evolution of the concept itself from the ancestral concept
personnel management. In 1990 due to liberalized government policies of various countries the human resource started floating from one
country to another this led to diversification of workforce and cross culture took place as a result employees from one nation migrating to
another nation and bringing their culture with them this led to mixed organization culture so the HR professional has to play major role in
coordinating the workforce of different culture in an organization.

Approaches towards recruitment of staff focused to geocentric from ethnocentric and polycentric which is more efficient because
workforce will be selected based on talent regardless of nationality. Method of recruiting also changed towards efficient policies like using of
head hunters, cross national advertising, E- recruitment.

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Evolution of Personnel management started in 19th century at that time there was a boom in industrialization which
leads to increase in franchising and influence of trade unions and harshness of industrial condition called for the better of industrial condition.
There was no department as such for taking care of above problem only welfare officers came into being to take care of above situation.
These welfare officers were only women¶s who take care of protectionism of women and girls because they feel it as worthy if women
employee are sick they visit their home give food accommodation give moral welfare. As the role of women increasing like they were getting
employed in modern industries where their work is packing assembly or other routine job so the quality required by these women employee
increased so these welfare officer who were women their responsibility also increased that is to recruitment training development.

But ambiguity has been increased due to increased in production and also increased in paternalistic behavior relationship between
employer and employee and also aiming at moral protection of women and girls and also side by side the aim of achieving economies of scale
is also increased like achieving higher output by minimizing cost by resolving grievances control of sickness these leads to mixed aim of
achieving organizational objective in order to achieve but at that time their was only a handful of welfare officer was their they wanted to
improve the condition of working of women in 1900 there were only few welfare officer was their but in 1913 number of welfare officer has
been increased to take care of the situation.

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The exact growth of personnel management started during First World War because the number of munitions manufactured at a large
scale so the number of employees needed to manufacture increased on the other hand the welfare officer also increased by 1300 to take care
of employees it also sought the supply of labor to munitions factories as the supply of welfare officer made mandatory by government.

During war women recruited at a large scale to fill the gap of men who left the factories to joint war which in turn leads to dispute
labour union to employ unskilled women

The title labour manager or employment manager came in the yeat 1920 in engineering industry and other industries where the
factories was very huge to handle absence, recruitment, queries over business and so on.

Companies started merger and acquisition as strategy to grow in the mid of 19th century due to large number of employees
employed they created their own specialist personnel department to unify the different policies and manage absence and recruitment with the
objective of improving productivity. But this department is mainly concerned with hourly paid workers. As personnel management exist only
in the emerging companies like plastic, chemicals and multiple retail. But during 1930¶s the economy started to grow at a rapid pace due to
this big corporation came in to existence they feel to improve the value of employee benefits like different kinds of allowances as a measure
of retaining motivating employee.
SECOND WORLD WAR LEADS TO IMPROVEMENT IN PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT.
Second world war increased the importance of having personnel department because of producing large war materials the ministry of labour
and national services insisted to combine both personnel department and welfare officer work on a full time basis. Again in second world war
the number of women employees is more to fill the gap left by men who join the battle field again re-training proper recruitment taken place
government saw the there is a huge neeed to have personnel department to take care of all employees in well manner.

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As the industrial revolution take place simultaneously the factory system came in to being that leads increase in working rules and
regulation to large number to employees increase in the hierarchical structure also increased in working hours but decrease in pay bad
working condition, social distance between employee and employer has increased, increased bureaucratization all these factor results in
increasing monotony boredom job displacement impersonality due to these factor personnel management got higher attention.
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As in the Second World War the term employment manager started to take care of women employees the combination of both welfare officers
and employment manager leads to personnel management. Though in the war times the productivity increased due to number of employment
policies undertaken but the role of personnel management during war time was small that to implement the rules demanded to produce large
scale goods but it was not focusing on other aspect of managing human resource that is by motivation, promotion, increasing morale,
performance appraisal etc but the role of negotiation of union has gain important role.
But there is an increasing in the bargaining between employer and unions during pre world war. During there is an enormous
growth in an engineering industry but in 1950,s and 60,s there was an enormous growth in other type of industry which leads to the
increasing the role of personnel management at same time large companies wanted to develop their own employment policies which suites to
their company which leads to improve emerging new aspect in personnel management.
The bargaining power of unions has increases which resulted in unnecessary official and unofficial strikes which were damaging the
economy particularly manufacturing industry in UK the strikes were in huge number and it became famous in maintain poor industrial relation
and the number of working days lost due to strike which resulted in closer of number of factories. The situation becoming worse and worse it
was critical for both employers and unions due to this reason personnel manager was blaming for lacking of negotiation skill to resolve these
situation and plan for industrial relationship strategies because of these deficiencies personnel management was not given high priority these
leads to management to think something higher profile which have all the skill to negotiate to motivate.
In the year mid of 1960¶s organization started giving much importance to employ the personnel specialist to perform
different activities in order to make the employees as a whole package to perform in the organization. the world is becoming global village
and labour started moving from one country to another this resulted in managing the workforce diversity this become the challenge for the
personnel management to manage these workforce diversity.
In the year 1960 Even the domestic rules and regulation was increased towards employability the new legislation was
introduced towards employment, training, and redundancy payments, equal pay opportunities, employment protection. The year 1960 was
high inflation so there was a regulation on wages paid by the employer personnel manager has to understand this new aspect of regulation
regarding inflation to develop policies to implement new measures which aligned with employee¶s satisfaction level.
Improvement in selection training appraisal and new management techniques has been expanded to improve the
performance of the employees which demands to improve the profile of personnel management.
Personnel management perform different function such as
j? Collective bargaining role
j? Implementation of legislation role
j? Bureaucratic role
j? Social conscience of the business role
j? Growing performance improvement role
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The role of HRM has gain more important in the year 1980. There was a complete shift from post war collectivism and towards
individualism and changes in structure of economy. Some people thought that HRM was evolved to solve union problem as there is an
demand to take care of employees of an organization as a whole it performs different function.
During 1990,s the success of large Japanese corporation in export market like automobiles and electronic goods took surprise
to many western companies but studies says that the success of these Japanese firm is due to effective management of workforce the studies
also shows that the workforce of Japanese firm are more productive and efficient than western firm. The key to success of Japanese
companies like Toyota Matsushita are the practice adopted for efficient management of workforce as these companies started opening its
manufacturing plant in western countries the practice of these companies also started practiced by western companies. The practice include
are:
j? Strict and rigorous selection and recruitment
j? High level of training, especially induction training and on the job training
j? Team working
j? Multitasking
j? Better management-worker communications
j? Use of quality circles and an emphasis on right first time quality
j? Encouragement of employee suggestions and innovation
j? Single status symbols such as common canteens and corporate uniforms
The reason of above practice is create an organization atmosphere where workers can grow and identify their own success and
goal which match with organization.


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Job design
Focused on the individual
Focused on the team
Performance management
Measured standards for minimum performance
Higher ³stretch´ objectives
Management structure
Top down and hierarchical. Emphasis on management symbols
Flat organisation structure. Minimum status differentials
Compensation
Individual pay linked to job evaluation
Pay linked to skills and mastery
Employment
Employees viewed as variable cost
Assurances that participation will not result in job losses
Employee voice
Employee input allowed on a narrow agenda.
Employee participation enacted on a wide range of issues
Labour management relations
Adversarial labour relations
Mutuality with joint planning and problem solving
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Walton¶s control to commitment
(Source adopted from Walton 1985)

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Strategic human resource management is a branch of human resource management. SHRM means combination of strategy and HRM. It also
refers to linking of human resources with strategic goals and objectives to achieve goals of an organization it also helps in improving the
performance of innovation flexibility and competitive advantage. In an organization SHRM means accepting and involving the HR function as
a strategic partner in the formulation and implementation of the company¶s strategies through HR activities.
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j? Linkage of HR policy with organizational strategy in order to achieve organizational goals and objective
j? Linkage of individual HR intervention so that they are mutually supportive.
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j? Globalization and internationalization of market integration
j? Increased technological change
j? Cross culture issues
j? Increased competition
j? Increasing new concept
 
By doing complete analysis of evolution of HRM the conclusion is their will be modern trends will be occurring in HRM like strategic human
resource management it is mandatory for every organization to treat all employees in a well manner because they are the assets of an
organization which helps in achieving organization goal.
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Depending on the size of the organization, the HR manager has responsibility for all of the functions that deal with the needs and
activities of the organization's people including these areas of responsibility.

j? Recruiting
j? Hiring
j? Training
j? Organization Development
j? Communication
j? Performance Management
j? Coaching
j? Policy Recommendation
j? Salary and Benefits
j? Team Building
j? Employee Relations
j? Leadership

With all of this in mind, in m 


  , Dave Ulrich, one of the best thinkers and writers in the HR field today, and
a professor at the University of Michigan, recommends three additional roles for the HR manager.

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In today¶s organizations, to guarantee their viability and ability to contribute, HR managers need to think of themselves as strategic
partners. In this role, the HR person contributes to the development of and the accomplishment of the organization-wide business
plan and objectives.

The HR business objectives are established to support the attainment of the overall strategic business plan and objectives. The
tactical HR representative is deeply knowledgeable about the design of work systems in which people succeed and contribute. This
strategic partnership impacts HR services such as the design of work positions; hiring; reward, recognition and strategic pay;
performance development and appraisal systems; career and succession planning; and employee development.

To be successful business partners, the HR staff members have to think like business people, know finance and accounting, and be
accountable and responsible for cost reductions and the measurement of all HR programs and processes. It's not enough to ask for
a seat at the executive table; HR people will have to prove they have the business savvy necessary to sit there.

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As an employee sponsor or advocate, the HR manager plays an integral role in organizational success via his knowledge about and
advocacy of people. This advocacy includes expertise in how to create a work environment in which people will choose to be
motivated, contributing, and happy.

Fostering effective methods of goal setting, communication and empowerment through responsibility, builds employee ownership of
the organization. The HR professional helps establish the organizational culture and climate in which people have the competency,
concern and commitment to serve customers well.

In this role, the HR manager provides employee development opportunities, employee assistance programs, gain sharing and
profit-sharing strategies, organization development interventions, due process approaches to problem solving and regularly
scheduled communication opportunities.

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The constant evaluation of the effectiveness of the organization results in the need for the HR professional to frequently champion
change. Both knowledge about and the ability to execute successful change strategies make the HR professional exceptionally
valued.

Knowing how to link change to the strategic needs of the organization will minimize employee dissatisfaction and resistance to
change.

The HR professional contributes to the organization by constantly assessing the effectiveness of the HR function. He also sponsors
change in other departments and in work practices. To promote the overall success of his organization, he champions the
identification of the organizational mission, vision, values, goals and action plans. Finally, he helps determine the measures that will
tell his organization how well it is succeeding in all of this.