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'''Tidal power''', sometimes called '''tidal energy''', is a form of hydropower that exploits the
movement of water caused by tidal currents or the rise and fall in sea levels due to the tides.
Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation and is
more predictable than wind energy and solar power. This is the only form of energy whose
source is the moon. Some other energy sources, nuclear power and geothermal energy for
instance, have the Earth as their source. The remainder, Fossil fuels, Wind energy, biofuels ,
solar energy, etc. have the Sun as their source, directly or indirectly. The tidal power is
generated by the Gravitational pull of the Moon on water. Due to these gravitational forces
the water level follows a periodic high and low. The height of the tide produced at a given
location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth
coupled with the effects of Earth rotation and the local shape of the sea floor. The tidal
energy generator uses this phenomenon to generate energy. The higher the height of the tide
the more promising it is to harness tidal energy. Here the diagram show when tides make up
and take off.
A tidal power scheme is a long-term source of electricity. tidal power is one of the
alternative source of energy that will need to be developed to satisfy the human demand for
energy

 

  

Tidal power can be classified into two main types:
Tidal stream systems make use of the kinetic energy from the moving water currents to
power turbines, in a similar way to wind mills use moving air. This method is gaining in
popularity because of the lower cost and lower ecological impact.
Barrages make use of the potential energy from the difference in height (or) Hydraulic head
between high and low tides. Barrages suffer from the problems of very high civil
infrastructure costs, few viable sites globally and environmental issues.
Modern advances in turbine technology may eventually see large amounts of power
generated from the ocean especially tidal currents using the tidal stream designs. Tidal stream
turbines may be arrayed in high velocity areas where natural flows are concentrated
A factor in human settlement geography is water. Human settlements have often started
around bays, rivers, and lakes. Future settlement may one day be concentrated around moving
water, allowing communities to power themselves with non-polluting energy from moving
water.
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Specifically, the barrage (dam) blocks the incoming and out-going tides of a coastal basin.
The barrage is equipped with sluices and turbines that will permit the retention of water
entering at high tide and release it at low tide; normal turbines will produce electricity as the
water flows out; reversible blade turbines, however, can produce electricity both as the water
enters the basin and when it leaves. The basic difference between a hydraulic power plant on
a river and a tidal power plant is this two-directional flow . If navigation to the upper part of
the basin is necessary, a ship lock may be installed.

 
  
they are just as wind turbines, but underwater to which a generator is connected generates
energy. the picture of turbine is shown below.

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An emerging tidal stream technology is the shrouded tidal turbine enclosed in a Venturi effect
Venturi shaped shroud or duct producing a sub atmosphere of low pressure behind the
turbine, allowing the turbine to operate at higher efficiency (than the Wind turbine design
Axial momentum and the Betz limit of 59.3%) and typically 3±4 times higher power output
than a turbine of the same size in free stream.
Considerable commercial interest has been shown in recent times in shrouded tidal stream
turbines they can produce 3-4 times the power output of simialr sized open turbine.
While the shroud may not be practical in wind, as the next generation of tidal stream turbine
design it is gaining more popularity and commercial use in Australia make use of the design
and Lunar Energy use a double ended shroud. The tidal turbine is mono directional and the
Lunar Energy turbine bi directional. Both constantly need to face upstream in order to
operate. In the Tidal Energy Pty Ltd case this can be achieved by floated under a pontoon on
a swing mooring, fixed to the seabed on a mono pile and yawed like a wind sock to
continually face upstream. Lunar Energy use a wide angle diffuser to capture incoming flow
that may not be inline with the long axis of the turbine. A shroud can also be built into a tidal
fence or barrage increasing the performance of turbine

Various turbine designs have varying efficiencies and therefore varying power output. If the
efficiency of the turbine "Cp" is known the equation below can be used to determine the
power output.
The energy available from these kinetic systems can be expressed as:
*P = Cp x 0.5 x ȡ x A x V³
Where
Cp is the turbine coefficient of performance
P = the power generated (in Watts)
ȡ = the density of the water (seawater is 1025 kg/m³)
A = the sweep area of the turbine (in m²)
V³ = the velocity of the flow cubed (i.e. V x V x V)
Relative to an open turbine in free stream. Shrouded turbines are capable of higher
efficiencies as much as 3±4 times the power of the same turbine in open flow.

The following equation can be used to calculate the revenue from a tidal stream turbine. By
substituting variables such as size of the turbine, flow velocity and price into the equation it is
possible to accurately predict an annual return.
Annual Revenue = Cp x 0.5 x ȡ x A x V³ x Hr x LL x GGL x $ x Y (x 3 for shrouded
turbines)
Where:
Cp = the turbine coefficient of performance (say 20% for free stream or 60% for shrouded)
ȡ = the density of the water (seawater is 1025 kg/m³ or 998 kg/m³ for fresh water)
A = the sweep area of the turbine (in m²)
V³ = the velocity of the flow cubed (i.e. V x V x V)
Hr = the number of hours per day that the turbine would operate at maximum efficiency (12-
22 hours for tidal and 24 for run of river)
LL = x .95 line losses (multiply by .95 )assuming a 5% loss in a cable run of 1000 meters.
This may vary by manufacturer.
Gearbox and Generator Losses = x .95 (multiply by .95) assuming 5% for gearbox and
generator losses
$ = the price per watthour that would be paid (prices vary with location)
Year = 350 days (allowing 15 days per year for maintenance if necessary)
Shrouded turbine produce approximately 3 times as much revenue.
For example, a tidal stream turbine with a sweep area of 1m² at a site with a 3 m/s flow
velocity, operating at maximum output for 12 hours, and earning 10 cents per kilowatthour
would earn
Annual Revenue = Cp x 0.5 x ȡ x A x V³ x Hr x LL x GGL x $ x Y
Annual Revenue = 0.20 x 0.5 x 1025 x V³ x 12 x 0.95 x 0.95 x 0.10/1000 x 350
Annual Revenue = $1,049.02 (or $3,147.06 for a shrouded turbine)
Keeping in mind this is only a 1m² sized turbine, in 3m/s flow velocity for only 12 hours per
day. Many commercial turbines are 20-30 times or greater in size, in faster flow velocity, at
20 or more hours per day. A run of river turbine would operate for as long as the river flows,
which is obviously 24 hours per day.
As the flow velocity doubles, the revenue increases by 8 times (as power is a function of the
velocity cubed). The same turbine given in the example above, if installed in a 6 m/s velocity
flow, would return $8,392 (or $25,176 for a shrouded turbine) for every square meter of
sweep area of the turbine.


    
The placement of a barrage into an estuary has a considerable effect on the water inside the
basin and on the ecosystem. Many governments have been reluctant in recent times to grant
approval for tidal barrages.
  
Turbidity (the amount of matter in suspension in the water) decreases as a result of smaller
volume of water being exchanged between the basin and the sea. This lets light from the Sun
to penetrate the water further, improving conditions for the phytoplankton. The changes
propagate up the food chain, causing a general change in the ecosystem.
  
As a result of less water exchange with the sea, the average salinity inside the basin
decreases, also affecting the ecosystem. "Tidal Lagoons" do not suffer from this problem.
  
  
Estuaries often have high volume of sediments moving through them, from the rivers to the
sea. The introduction of a barrage into an estuary may result in sediment accumulation within
the barrage, affecting the ecosystem and also the operation of the barrage.
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Fish may move through sluices safely, but when these are closed, fish will seek out turbines
and attempt to swim through them. Also, some fish will be unable to escape the water speed
near a turbine and will be sucked through. Even with the most fish-friendly turbine design,
fish mortality per pass is approximately 15%
 
Tidal energy has an efficiency of 80% in converting the potential energy of the water into
electricity, which is efficient compared to other energy resources such as solar power or fossil
fuel power plants.

  
‡No pollution
‡Renewable resource
‡More efficient than wind because of the density of water
‡Predictable source of energy vs. wind and solar
‡Second generation has very few disadvantages
±Does not affect wildlife
±Does not affect silt deposits
±Less costly ± both in building and maintenance
   
‡Presently costly
±Expensive to build and maintain
±A 1085MW facility could cost as much as 1.2 billion dollars to construct and run
‡Connection to the grid
‡Technology is not fully developed
‡Barrage style only produces energy for about 10 hours out of the day
‡Barrage style has environmental affects
±Such as fish and plant migration
±Silt deposits
±Local tides change- affects still under study



A proposal for the Severn Barrage, if built, has been projected to save 18 million tonnes of
coal per year of operation. This decreases the output of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
If fossil fuel resource is likely to decline during the 21st century, as predicted by Hubbert
peak theory, tidal power is one of the alternative source of energy that will need to be
developed to satisfy the human demand for energy.
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