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HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT (OBH-313)


Q.1.Imp Define Manpower Planning. What are the activities involved in manpower
planning? Explain the importance of macro level manpower planning in India.

Ans. Definition: Manpower planning is a primary resource without manpower resources,


Physical and financial etc. cannot be put into use. Manpower Planning is also known as
Human Resource Planning.

According to Strainer “Manpower Planning is the strategy for the acquisition movement and
preservation movement and preservation of an organization’s human resources.”

Activities required for Manpower Planning: Manpower planning consists of a series of


activities, listed as following ways.

1. Forecasting future manpower requirements: Forecasting future based on


judgmental estimates. Mathematical projections are done extrapolating factors like
Economic environment, development trends in industry etc. On the other hand
Judgmental estimates are done depending on the specific future plans of a company by
managerial discretion which is based on past experience.
2. Preparing an inventory of present manpower: Such inventory contains data about
each employee’s skills, abilities, work preferences and other items of information.
3. Anticipating problems of manpower: This can done by projecting present
resources into the future and comparing the same with the forecast of manpower
requirements. This helps in determine the quantitative and qualitative adequacy of
manpower.
4. Meeting Manpower requirements: This can be achieved through planning,
recruitment and selection, training & development, introduction and placement<
promotion and transfer, motivation and compensation to ensure that future manpower
requirements are correctly met.
5.
HRP are both macro and micro level issues. Macro level includes demographic changes, legal
central, policies and markets technology etc. Micro level includes organizational restructuring,
skill, strategic objective, trade unions etc.
Macro is uncontrollable factor and Micro level is controllable factor.
Macro Level plays an important level in India. Development of human resources is one of
the important objectives of any country for long term economic growth. For a developing
economy like India such important is for more. This is more visible from our economic planning
as governments over the years have been giving increasing priority to population planning and
control, education, health, housing etc.

1) Population Planning and control: To enforce control over population explosion to


q Economic imbalances, population planning and control measures have been
initiated by the Government. Unless such control is enforced in a planned manner in a
planned manner, no amount of institutional support can sustain this resulting in
generation of unproductive population which will remain a drain on our national
resource.
2) Literacy and Education: To develop human resource at the macro level, the
Government of India has adopted a National Policy on Education in 1986. The policy
provides a broad framework for complete eradication of illiteracy in the country by
declaring basic primary level education up to standard V, free and compulsory to
strengthen institutional infrastructure for education, the policy emphasizes on increased
government and non-government expenditure.
3) Health and Medical-care: health sector reforms are another required initiative de
human resources at the macro level. In this respect, India has recorded disparity and
regional balances. Although there is an increased allocation of 36.9% in 2000-2001 over

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1999-2000 for central sector health services, at the state level the situation is very
depressive. Few positive changes in life expectancy ratio, in fact mortality rate, child
mortality rate etc.
4) Housing: In housing, Government has renewed its efforts by adopting the National
Housing and habitat policy 1998. The basic thrust of this policy is to achieve sustainable
development of housing infrastructure through public -private partnership.
Macro level HRP is a complex and dynamic process and it requires longitudinal study to
understand the results of various policy measures and actions.

Macro level HRP Model divide in two parts:


i. The manpower requirement approach (MRA)
ii. The rate of return approach (RRA)
RRA is also known as cost benefit analysis of Human Capital.
By establishing a linear relationship between the manpower category in different industry
groups and their output, MRA helps us to project the demand for manpower at the macro
level.
Rate of Return Approach (RRA): RRA analysis of human capital is applied to decide the
aggregate investment requirement for different skill development.
Conclusion: Manpower is a very important source.

Q.2: Explain:
a) HRP Process outline.
b) Labour Market Analysis.
c) HR Strategies

Ans: a) HRP = Human Resource Planning. Human resource planning processes divide into
four different stages as under:-
i. Investigation: It sis the primary stage of HRP in any organization try to develop their
awareness about the detailed manpower scenario with a holistic v iew looking at their
current manpower. In investigation SWOT analysis plays a very important role.
ii. Forecasting: The next process is forecasting based on manpower analysis of demand
and supply. In forecasting Internal and External factors include – In Internal factors is
career planning, development, training and succession plan, policies procedure etc. In
external factor – Political, Technical, Economic, Social etc. Forecasting means what is to
be done.
iii. Planning and Control of Manpower: third stage is very important. HRP related
issues like recruitment, training and development. While going for recruitment it is
necessary to understand the job description, which proceed job analysis & job role
under planning important in skills, knowledge etc. under controlling include Important
judgment technique – Delphi, Nominal etc.
iv. Utilization: HRP process success is measured in terms of achievement trend, both
quantitatively and qualitatively. While quantitative achievement is visible from
productivity trend, manpower cost etc. Qualitative achievement is a subjective appraisal
on achievement of organizational objectives.

Imp. b) Labour Market Analysis: Demand, supply and institutions interact in labour markets
and labour economics studies the operation of labour market considering all these iss ues.
Analysis of labor markets are carried out for different occupational segments markets for blue -
collar workers, markets for white-collar workers, markets for professional etc.
Investigating markets for knowledgeable and skilled workers, differentiating supply and
demand forces in the market, geographic and industrial mobilities, wage pattern etc. are the
areas for studying the labour markets.
Recently, however macro changes in wages and unemployment over a given period of time,
both with in the country and across countries are also studied to synthesize the facts of the
labour market with the basic principles of economics.

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Some Important Techniques:


i. Wastage Analysis: Manpower wastage is an element of labour turnover. In
wastage include voluntary retirement, normal retirement, resignation, death &
dismissals.
Labour Turnover = No. of Employees learning
Average no. of employees employed *100

ii. Cohort Analysis: means homogeneous groups. It analysis takes into account the
length of service. Which is an important variable of wastage analysis?
iii. Census Analysis: can eliminate problem, taking into account a cross-section of the
organization i.e. all the age specific wastage rate at given time and apply ing a
smoothing algorithm to the resulting data to identify a general pattern.
d) HR Strategies: Strategies a course of action through which an organization
relates itself with env ironment so as to achieve its objectives. Strategic Human
Resource is based approach for management of HR. Framing HR Strategy is
based on vision, mission, Goals, objectives, policy, strategy etc.

HR Strategy factors as under:


i. Recruitment and Selection: includes out sourcing, direct recruitment, payroll, multi-
skill attributes etc.
ii. Career development: include career mapping, succession planning etc.
iii. Performance Appraisal: include training needs, promotion, transfer etc.
iv. Training and Development: include Role Models for evaluating training, training
budgets etc.
v. Compensation designing: include incentive schemes etc.
vi. HRP: include HR information system, Audit, mapping etc.

Levels of Strategy: divide into three parts:-


a) Corporate level –corporate level strategy formulated by top management. In
corporate level include –overall scope of an organisation.

b) Competitive or business strategy –These strategies are adopted in order to


strengthen the position of the organisation in the market. how to compete in
a market, customer need.

c)
Operational Strategies/functional level- formulated for a specific functional
areas to implement corporate or business level strategy.
Conclusion-Strategy is the direction of an organisation.

Ques 3:-Imp. Write short notes on the following:-


(a) Human Resource Information System
(b) Quality Of work life and Management of Change
(c) Human Resource Valuation Accounting & Audit

Ans:- (a) Human Resource Information System:- Human Resource Information


System is the system to acquire store, manipulate, analyse, interpret & disseminate relevant
information on Human Resource.

Objectives of MRIS:-
Effective Planning & policy formation means include micro & macro levels.
Monitoring & evaluation means analysis demand & supply, policy utilization of HR.
Providing inputs to strategic decision include technology etc.

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HRIS Model:-
HR System

- HRD
- Recruitment
- Selection
- T&D
- Compensation Mgt.
Environment - Employee Service General Information
-Economic with in Organisation.
- Legal
- Political Strategic Information
- Social - Redundancy
General Information – - Growth
- Technological
Outside the
HRIS Change
Organisation

Main 3 Stage in HRIS:-

1. EDP = Electronic Data Processing


2. MIS = Management Information System
3. DIS = Decision Support System

Some Important HRIS below:-


CSS Horizon TM, Genesys TM, VIP Manager, SAP@,
Pro Act, Oracle, Labour Com Tm

(b) Quality of Work life and Management of Change:- The conditions under which the
workers work and live, assume the form of another important factor contributing to workers
satisfaction or otherwise and consequently the job satisfaction. In order of priorities it comes
next to the earnings of a worker in the Indian contact, For an employee to be able his best, it is
necessary to understand that inadequate working and liv ing conditions produce adverse mental
& physical effect on the employee, ultimately causing decline in the efficiency.

The HRD system takes care of employee health & well being of their families by providing them
with better working and liv ing conditions, which generally promote a healthy atmosphere of
development & motivation among employees.

Management of Change:- Management Organisational Change is a complex process.


Change in organisation does not occur instantaneously. It requires considerable planning &
efforts on the part of management.
Process of Managing Change include step:-
1. Identifying need for change.
2. Define the elements to be changed.
3. Planning the change.
4. Assessing change forces.
5. implementation the change.
6. Follow-up and feed back.
Change is inev itable and it effects all types of organisation.

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Ans ( C) :- Human Resource Valuation Accounting & Metyhod:-


Human Resource Valuation:- it divides into 2 categeories
(I) Non-monetary measurement:- Such method in value the classification of HR in
terms of skills, performance evaluation, development, attitude survey etc. Skill is a
coordinates series of actions to attain some goal. Operationally skills are defined
widely as overt responses and controlled stimulation. Overt responses either verbal,
perceptual.
(II) Monetry Measurement:- Such methods include number of techniques:
- Capitalisation of historical Cost Method.
- Replacement cost method.
- Economic value method.
- Opportunity cost method.
- Present Value method.
Human Resources Accounting:- HRA is the process of identify ing, measuring and
communication data about human resources – HRA maintain a information – Total value of HR,
categories, Grades, No. of Employees, Value per employee, cost, development etc.
Human Resource Audit::- is a systematic survey and analysis of different HRD functions
with a summarized statements of findings and recommendations for correction of deficiencies .
Main objectives of HR audit:-
- To determine the effectiveness of management programmes which facilitate the
development allocation and maintaining of HR
- To analyze the factors involved in HRD.

Ques 4:-Imp Define Career Planning and Career development. Why is it important
for an Organisation? What are the factors & steps, you consider important for
successful career planning?
Ans:-INTRODUCTION:- Career Planning & development is a holistic approach for
objective description of the career progression path for all levels of employees in an
organisation. Main two concepts are used with different in same organisations in same
organisation like, career planning for non-executive & managerial level for our purpose we have
considered both the terms more in two general, rather than specific sense.
Definition:-
Career Planning is a sequence of attitudes and behaviour associated with the
series of job & work related activities over a person’s life time. Career Planning evaluate one’s
abilities and interests, considering alternative career opportunities, establishing career goals
and planning practical development activities.
Career Development::- means the process of increasing an employee’s potential for
advancement and career change.
Career Planning is very important for an organisation.
(1) Proper Sequence:- It is a proper sequence of job related activ ities such job
related activ ities vis-à-vis experience include sale experience at different hierarchical
level of an indiv idual, which lead to an increasing level of responsibilities, s tatus power,
achievement & rewards.
(2) It may be include centered or Organisational-centered:- Individual centered career
is an indiv idually perceived sequence of career progression within an occupation.
For example-In medical profession, we have clearly defined stages of education, intership,
residency etc.
Similarly in college teaching we have stages like lectureship, readership and professorship.
(3) Integrated Pace:- It is better defined as an integrated pace of lateral management in
an occupation of an individual over his employment span.
(4) Progression:- Progression is very precious step in career planning because in
progression include improvement and development only step by step in logical form.
(5) Improvement:- In career planning improvement in morale, motivation, skills,
knowledge and ability.

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Important factors and steps in career planning


Factors:-
1. It is a continuous process.
2. It resources in organisation should also to be communicated to the employees from
time to time.
3. It is a dynamic process.
4. It increases in personal skills.
5. It increases to updating knowledge activity.
6. In increases in improving performance.
Steps/ Process in Career Planning
Career Planning involves different activities for successful organisation cover important
following steps:-
1. Preparing Personal Skills Inventories:- The first step is to prepare personal skills
inventories, which contains data or employee’s skill and career goals. In addition there
are required data banks, which prov ide the following information.
- The organisation structure and the persons managing different positions in the
organisation their age, education, experience, goals, authority and responsibility.
- The performance record and ratings, interpersonal abilities of the employees.
- Their preferred location, designs and constraints.
- Future impression of manpower for expansion or diversification of the company
or for natural
- wastages like death, disability, retirement, discharge and dismissal, resignation
etc.
In most of the organizations such information is computerized periodically rev ise
and updated. After preparation of personal skills inventories & additional data, it is
necessary to develop career path for employees.
2. Developing Career Paths:- Career Paths are logical mapping out of jobs, which
represent a potential progression that an employee may follow over time. Such mapping of job
progression are done in the firm of career ladders by clubbing together similar lives of
occupations in job families. Job families are group of homogeneous jobs i.e. jobs with similar
characters.
For example- Model of career paths for HR Manager

General Manager
(HR)

HR Executive HR Executive
Recruitment & Selection Training & Development

Trainee Trainee

Executives R & S / T & D


Personal Development

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3. Put the Right Man at the Right Place:- The third step in career planning process
is to identify suitable employees who have the ability, potential, willingness to take up
higher responsibilities and rise-up the organisation ladder for this most of the
organizations have performance appraisal and merit rating system. This system enables
organizations to compare the performance measures of different indiv idual in terms of
job requirement and helps in identifying training requirement, selecting for promotions
providing financial rewards etc.
Two main steps:-
- Impart Training
- Review & Counseling

Conclusion:- Career Planning & development is a holistic approach for objective description
of the career progression path for all levels of employees in an organisations.

Ques. 5:-Imp Write a short note:-


(a) Retention
(b) Succession Planning
(c) Management Development & Mgt. Dev. Planning

Ans:- (a) Retention:- Retention of the Key-performers is an important strategies issue for
organizations. It is best ensured for those organizations who have a well transparent career
planning and development initiative. Similarly for internal mapping of managerial vacancies,
organizations should also have appropriate succession planning. Succession planning succeeds
management & organisational development.
(b) Succession Planning:- Growth & Surv ival of the Organisation are the responsibilities of
the top management, to fulfill such responsibilities each organisation needs to plan
management succession. Succession Planning is done in different times frames to ensure the
availability of right managerial personal at the right time in right positions for continuing
organisational vitality & strength. Most of the Organizations plan for immediate requirements
matching with their budgets and business plans. This short sight ness leads them to an
alarming situation, when they find shortage of managerial manpower to man different position
on the organisation, resulting in organisational collapse. To avoid this good organisation try to
make succession planning in 3 different time frames:-
- Immediate (within 1 year)
- Intermediate (1 to 5 years)
- Long Range (beyond 5 years)
(C ) Management Development & Management Development Programme: -
Any succession planning initiative becomes ineffective with executives to enrich their
knowledge and skills so as to make them competent to manage their organizations effectively,
Unlike general purpose planning, management development programme aim at developing
conceptual and human skills of managers and executives through organized and systematic
procedures. In India, many professional institutes like Administrative staff college of India,
Management Development Institute, Indian Institute of Management, Quality Management
International.
Characteristics of Management Development:-
- Continues Process
- A knowledge updating activ ity
- A vehicle for attitudinal activ ity.
- A stimulant to higher competence
- A deficiency manpower
- A self-development process

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Steps of Development Management


MDP covers 3 important components selection, intellectual conditioning and superv ised
planning.
- To look at the Organizations objective.
- To ascertain the development needs
- To appraise the present performance of managerial stiff.
- To propose manpower Inventory.
- To plan & establish trainings development Programme.
- To evaluate different programmes as above.
-
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Ques 6:- What is manpower Demand and supply analysis? Discuss the models and
techniques relating to it. (Man Power Planning Model)

Ans:- Introduction:_ Manpower is primary resource without which other resources


physical & financial cannot be put into use. Manpower main aims at:
- Balancing Demand, Supply, distribution and allocation of manpower, controlling
cost of human resources, formulating policies on transfer, succession.
Demand Analysis:- It helps to identify ing work force of the future in line with the v ision,
mission, objectives, goals & strengths of an organisation. Critical inputs from demand analysis
contribute to development of competency model for work force of the future.
Supply Analysis:-It is done considering work force, demographic, occupations, grade,
structure, race, origin, gender, age, service experience, education, training, health status,
retirement time & similar other information trends and present workforce competencies. It
helps to understand the existing workforce status.
Techniques/ Modals:-
Analysis of manpower Supply techniques are:-
(A) Wastage Analysis---- manpower wastage is an element of labour turnover.
Therefore, it is not labour turnover per se, wastage is severance from the
organisation, which includes voluntary retirements, normal retirements,
resignations etc.
Different methods of Wastage Analysis:-
(i) Labour turnover Index:-
= Number of employees Leaving X 100

AVG. NO. OF EMPLOYEES Employed\

(ii) Stability Index:-


Number with more the 1 year service now X 100

Total employed one year ago

(B) Cohort Analysis:- Cohort means homogeneous groups. It takes into account
the length of service, which is an important variable of wastage analysis. It is
more accurate for a small homogeneous group.
(C) Census Analysis:- It can eliminate this problem, taking into account a cross-
section of the organisation, i.e. all the age specific wastage rates at a given time
and apply ing a smoothing algorithm to the resulting data to identify ing a general
pattern.
Under Census Analysis 3 sets of data:-
- The number of employees at the beginning of the census.
- The number of employees at the end of the census.
- The number of leavers during the census period.
MODELS

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(1) Manpower Planning Models:- Use of Mathematical Models for manpower planning dates
back 1779, when John Rowe developed an actuarial model for planning careers in the Royal
Marines (Johan 1964).
Manpower systems are described in terms of stocks and Flows.
Stocks are divided into = sex, age, length of service etc.
Flows are recruitment, promotion, wastage, transfers etc.
(a) Markov Models – Hierarchical systems:-In hierarchical systems routes for the
employers, which is the promotion ladder, are well defined. It means every employees elevates
himself in the organisation through a well-defined career path.
All employees start in an organisation at the bottom rung & climb – up the ladder one at a
time. Any wastage is falling off the ladder.

According to Young & Almond (1961) :- Devised a hierarchical manpower system,


framing sub-groups on the basis of salary grade and length of service.

(b Renewal Model:- This model is issued to predict the various flows in the organisation,
when size of the stocks is fixed in advance.

(c ) Cambridge Model:- This model concentrates steady-state age distribution i.e. staff
distribution by age which remains unchanged year to year.

(d) Simulation:- To simulate is to initiate. In general terms, simulation in values developing a


model of some real phenomenon and then performing experim ents on the model evlaved.
Four Phases of the Simulation Process
- Definition of the Problem & Statement of objectives
- Construction of an appropriate model
- Experimentation with the model constructed
- Evaluation of the results of simulation
(e) Replacement:- Replacement is called for whenever new equipment offer more
efficient or economical service than the old existing one. For example: The old equipment
might fail and work no more, or is worn out and needs higher expenditure on its maintenance.
The problem in such situations, is to determine the best policy to be adopted with respect to
replacement of the equipment.

Ques 7:- Imp Write short notes on:-


(a) HRD Climate Culture
(b) Performance Planning
(c) Potential Appraisal
(d) Forecasting HR/ Manpower Requirement

Ans:- (a) HRD Climate:-


HRD Climate is the perception of the employees about the
prevailing HRD Culture in the organisation to understand the HRD Climate, Organisation of ten
institutes a survey with a structured questionnaire. Analysing survey responses , it is possible to
map the HRD Climate, conveying all the enabling practices mentioned carrier.

HRD Culture:-
HRD Culture is the set of the important understandings that members of
a community share in common. It consists of patterned way of thinking, feeling and reacting
that one acquired by language and symbols that create distinctiveness among human groups.
HRD facilitates development of an enabling culture in an organisation. In a changing
environment, organizations are required to go for frequent reconstructing & re-designing of

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activities. HRD characterized OCTAPACE openness, Confrontation, Trust, Autonomy,


Proactiveness, Authencity, collaboration, experiments.
(B) Performance Planning:- Performance planning means the degree of extent with
which an employee applies his skill, knowledge and efforts to a job. Performance planning
analysis reviewer evaluation of performance or behaviour analysis an employee.
Functions of Performance Behaviour
- It helps in understanding the attributes & behaviours of employees.
- It helps to develop & justify a reward system, relating rewards to employee
performance.
- It helps to identify the strengths and well weakness of employees and to decide
on proper placement & promotion. (SWOT)
- It helps to develop suitable training and development programmes for enriching
performance of the employees.
( C) Potential Appraisal :- It is a holistic approach for studying wholesome qualities of an
employee with a given intellect, personality & character. Industry practices apply two widely
used approaches for potential appraisal i.e. Helicopter and Whale person qualities. Helicopter
method tries to measure the potentially of a person on large as well as specific issues. Whale
Persons qualities method measures the Wholesome qualities/ potentialities of a person with a
given set of variables, mentioned above, which are already determined for the person potential
appraisal data is extremely useful for career planning as the latent abilities of an indiv idual can
be captured and matched with the future role and responsibilities
(D ) Forecasting HR:- Forecast the manpower requirements at different points of time,
work looked analysis is extremely important. Analysis of present and future work load depends
on the possibility of qualifying the work content in every area of an organisational activ ity.
“Manpower requirements may change due to changes in output volume or mix, which calls for
analysis of performance.
STEPS
- Forecasting the number of jobs.
- Converting the projected jobs in man-hours.
- Converting the man-hours into manpower requirement.
Manpower demand forecasting is influenced by two important factor:-
- Volume of output.
- Level of productiv ity
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Ques. 8:- Imp.What is career development? Why is it important for an organisation?
Explain cycle/ stages of career development process.

Ans. Definition:- Career Development means the process of increasing an employee’s


potential for advancement and career change. It is a systematic process of guiding the
movement of human resource of an enterprise through different hierarchical positions.
Importance of Career Development
Career Development is very important for organisations:-

(1) Changing environment is now making jobs more complex. A suitable career
development programme enables employees to be better prepared for future position in
the organisation.
(2) Career development programme enables the organisation to receive maximum
contribution from employees. Since this helps employees to enhance their skills for
higher positions
Both under utilization of employer’s potential work energy and then underemployment
can be avoided.
(3) Career development makes employees more adaptable to changing requirements of the
organizations. The requirements may either change due to new technology computer,
numerically controlled technology etc.

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(4) It provides an objective basis to describe the steps of progression in a given


organisation and therefore, minimize unfair promotion practices of employees reducing
the chance of promotion by discretion.
(5) Women & other minority classes of employees now also manage most of the
organisations. A career development programme ensures equitable opportunity for
career progression of these classes of employees also. Thus it meets the requirements
of equal employment opportunities for all.
(6) A career development programme gives opportunities to employees to acquire more
skills, obtained desired jobs, share increased responsibilities, enjoy scope of job mobility
& derive increased job satisfaction.
Stages of Career Development Process
(1) Exploratory Stage:- The stage starts when a new employee joins an organisation. An
employee with his qualification and knowledge joins an organization and find himself in an
apparent mis-match condition which cannot be set right with the indication programme to the
organisation.
It is essential for the organisation to sustain the behaviour as well as
operational deficiencies to help him to develop in the course of time.
(2) Establishment Stage:- After a new entrant chooses his career from different given
alternatives, he needs to be provided with regular feedback on his performance. Such
performance feedback enables the new employees to understand the effectiveness of his
performance and at the same time he can also initiate required corrective action to overcome
his functional deficiencies.
A successful career development process at establishment stage, therefore is important to
retain employees in the organisat ion and at the same time to develop a sense of loyalty and
commitment to the organisation.
(3) Maintenance Stage:- This is a mid career stage for employees who strive hard to
retain their establishment name & fame. At this stage employees need to put their continuous
efforts for self-development. This stage is crucial and unless the organization adopts suitable
career development Programme it may face high employee turnover.
(4) Stage of Decline:- Employees at this stage being prepared for retirement, get scared from
the possible threat of reduced role of responsibilities in the organization. Career development
process at this stage. Therefore, should aim at helping the employees to get mentally prepared
for retirement rituals, particularly to prepare them to accept a reduced role & responsibilities,
so that they can accommodate with their family and the society in the later part of their life.

Ques 9:- Define Behaviour and Discuss behaviour factor in Human Resource Planning.

Ans:- Definition of Behaviour:- Behavior’s primarily concerned with that aspect of Human behaviour
which relevant for organizational performance. Behaviour is what a person does. More precisely it can
be defined as the observable and measurable activ ity of human beings. Activity of human beings the
observable that qualifies under this category shows great variety. It may include anything like decision
making, a mental processor handling a machine a physical process.
FACTORS
1. Understanding Human Behaviour:- Behaviour understanding human behaviour in the
organisation. Human Behaviour in organization div ide into two parts:-
(i)Individual Behaviour:- First Behaviour, it provides for analyzing why and how an Indiv idual
behaviour in a partial way.
(ii)Interpersonal Behaviour:- It provides means for understanding these interpersonal relationship in the
organization. Analysis of reciprocal relationship, role analysis, transactional analysis.
(iii)Group Behaviour:- Group behaviour in its norms, cohesion, goals, procedures, communication, leade rship.
(iv) Intergroup:- Intergroup relationship may be the form of cooperation.
2. Controlling and directing Behaviour:-(i) Organisational Climate:- it refers to total organizational
situations affecting human behaviour.
(ii) Communication:- It is a two way process. It is communication through which people come in contact
with others.
(iii) Leadership:- It identifies various leadership styles like autocratic, democratic, free-rain, expert.

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(iv) Power:- Power is referred the capacity of an indiv idual to take certain action and may be utilized in
many ways.
3. Organisation Adaptation:- Organisations have to adapt themselves to the environment changes
by making suitable internal arrangements. Management of Change is a self -perpetrating ever evaling
phenomenon.

Ques 10:-Imp Define HRD briefly discuss the objectives and Instrument (matrix) of HRD.
Difference between HRD and HRM. (Personal Management)

Ans:- Definition:- HRD is a continuous planned process. It means improving the existing capabilities of HR
in the organisational.
OBJECTIVES:-
1. To develop tem spirit.
2. To develop & maintain high motivation level of employees.
3. it strengthen superior relationships.
4. It develop capabilities of all such indiv iduals in relation to their future role.
5. To develop capabilities of all indiv iduals working in a organisation in relation to their present role.
6. To develop coordination among different units of an organisation.
7. Develop the Organisational health, culture & climate.
8. General systematic information about Human Resource.
HRD Instrument (Matrix)
1. Performance Appraisal:- It is the process of determining how well a worker is performing his job. It
produce a mechanism for identified qualities and deficiencies.
2. Potential appraisal:- It provides necessary data which helps in preparing career plans for indiv iduals.
3. Counseling:- It can be used to monitor indiv idual development and for identifying training needs.
4. Training:- It is a process that in valves the acquisition of skills, concept and attitudes in order to increase
the effectiveness of employees in doing particular jobs.
5. Career Planning:- It means helping the employees to plan their career in terms of their capacities within
the context of organisation needs.
Six other s Human Resource Planning:-----
- Job Rotation
- Quality Circle
- Reward System
- Organisation Development
- Quality of working life
- Recruitment, selection, placement & Induction.
Difference between HRM & HRD
HRM’s Definition:- It is the recruitment, selection , utilization, development “& motiv ation of Human resource
by organisation.
HRD’s Definition:- It is concerned withy the development of HR in an Organisation. It means improving the
existing capabilities of HR in the organisation.

HRM HRD

Orientation The traditional personal It is regarded as a proactive function.


Function is regarded as
mainly a service function
responding to the demands
of the organisation.
Mechanism HRM Mechanism considers HRD mechanism considers autonoums
salary and other economic work groups, job environment.
benefits, as important moti
-vator.
Emphasis on HRM culture is increasing HRD culture is OCTAPACE.

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Culture people’s efficiency.

Responsibility It’s responsibility is the It’s responsibility is regarded as the con


Personal development. -ern all managers in the organisation.

Ques. 11:- Discuss the Importance of HRP. Explain in emerging Trends and issues HRP.
Ans:- Introduction:- HRP is understood as the process of forecasting an organisation future demand for and
supply of the right type of people in the right number. It is only after this that the HRM department can
initiate a recruitment and selection process. HRP is a sub-system in the total Organisational planning.

Importance of HRP:-
Future Personal needs:- Planning is significance as it helps determine future personal needs. Surplus or
deficiency in staff strength is the result of the absence of a defective planning. All public sector enterprises
find themselves over staffed now as they never had only planning of their personal requirement.

1. Coping with Change:- HRP enables an enterprise to cope with changes in competitive force, markets,
technology, products and government regulations. Such Changes generate changes in job content,
skill demands and number and type of personnel.

2. Creating highly Talented personnel:- Jobs are becoming highly intellectual and incumbents are getting
vastly professionalized. L & T an engineering giant has MBA engineers and technicians who collectively
constitute to % of the total employee strength of 20,000. The HR manager must use his/her ingenuity
to attract & retain qualified and skilled personnel.

3. Protection of weaker section:- In matters of employment & promotions, sufficient represent need to be
given to SC/ST candidates, physically handicap and backward class citizen. There groups enjoy a given
% of jobs, now with standing the constitutional provisions which guarantees equal opportunities of all.
A well conceived personnel planning Programme would protect the interests of such groups.

4. International Strategies:- International Strategies depend upon HRP. The departments ability to fill key
jobs with foreign nationals and re-assignments of employees from within or across national borders is
a major challenge facing international business.

5. Foundation for Personnel function:- Manpower planning provides essential information for designing
and implementing personnel functions such as recruitment, selection, personnel movement, T&D.

6. Increasing Investments in HR:- It means improves in skills and abilities becomes a more valuable
resource.

7. Resistance to change and more:- There is a growing resistance among employees to change & more.
There is also a growing emphasis on self – evolution of loyalty & dedication to the Organisation. All
these changes are making it more difficult for the organisation to assume that it can mote its
employees around anywhere and anytime it wants thus, increasing the importance & necessity of
planning ahead.
Emerging Trends & Issues in HRP
HRP is a holistic process of organizational strategy to gain competitive advantage
a.)shortage of skills is now a global phenomena. While for the developed countries, this is primarily
because of ageing population, for developing countries like India; the problem is absence of prope r
initiative at the national level. Whatever is being done, now could have been done at least a decade ago.
The shift in skill requirements in India was witnessed from 1981 census reports. There was a massive shift
in employment from secondary & primary sectors to tertiary or science sector.
b.)Labour market authority in India on the lines of those prevailing in europe. The authority does the job
of matching labour requirement of firms & helping in placements, Such an authority would be useful and
could ensure that labour is not mismatched redundant.

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c.)The Institute of applied Manpower research under the ages of the planning commission has done same
studies in the same Sectoral and occupational categories. But these are far from adequate. Decision on
skill development at the national level cannot be taken in isolate social sector spending both planned non-
plan which includes spending an education also in India, ad %age of total expenditure shows a decline
trend. From 11.14 in 1996-97 to 10.72 in 2000-01.
d.)Initiative at the national level are reinforced by organisations at the micro level, through regular skills,
renewal efforts, we can’t achieve the desired results.
Another important aspect which deserves the attention of HRP is demographic change process.
d.)Indian Organisations are also witnessing a change process in systems, management culture &
philosophies and management practices. Apart from economic compulsion, such change process in
systems, management culture and philosophies and management practices. Apart from economic
compulsion such change process is the outcome of global aligning of Indian organization.
Other emerging issues like restructuring, TQM Practices, changing process, systems, culture &
management practices.

Ques 12:- short Note:-


(A) Mapping and Age Group Preference
(B) Competency Mapping
( C) Reduction & Retention

Ans:- (A) Mapping:- means linkage between two sets of Data. It can be “One to One”, one to many or
many to many.

Age Group Preference:- In many organizations, a particular age group is preferred to other age
groups for staffing vacancies. The idea of preference for a particular age group is based on following
considerations:-
(i) expected number of year of services.
(ii) Professional source of supply of required manpower in future.
(iii) Personally, dynamism, initiative, challenging attitude etc.

Age is used as an index of stamina and flexibility and fore determining the possible length of service before
retirement. Although no empirical support, as such is available to relate promotion to preference for age
group, many organisations as a matter of policy, follow some norms regarding age group v is -à-vis staffing of
certain vacancies from within. In some cases where the existing employees also contest with the outsiders for
a particular vacancy, some relaxation in age is given to them. Thus for the reasons stated earlier, preference
for age group also influence for age group also influence promotional decisions.

Ans-(B)Competency Mapping:- Comp. Mapping is a map to display a set of competencies. It is future


oriented & it helps to describe an ideal workforce. It is always done in the defined job context. Following is a
set of approaches like:-
a.)Workforce Skills Analysis:- Skill analysis helps to describe skills required o carry out a function.
However, this is a dynamic approach, as it also considers nature of work changes in an organisation.

b.)Job Analysis:- it focus on tasks, responsibilities, knowledge and skill requirements, which are required for
successful job performance.

c.)Supply and Demand Analysis:- Supply analysis is done considering work force demographic
occupations, grades, structure, experiment, race, origin, gender, age and present work force competence.
Demand analysis on the other hand helps to identify work force of the future in line with the v ision, mission,
objectives, goals & strategies of an organisation.

d.)Gap Analysis:- is done through solution analysis, taking into account both on going & planned changes in
the work force.

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e.)Situation analysis:- also weighs different options to get the work done, either considering institutional or
Conceptual employment.

(C.)Reduction & Retention:-


Definition:- employee separations occur when the employment relationship is ended & employees leave the
organization. Employee separations: office work, force reduction ( a decrease of employees) and employee
retention ( the characteristics of employees who are retained).

The nature of Internal Separations./ Retentions:-

The vast majority of research & practice has focused on the effects of internal staffing on either the
employees who move or the position into which they move. Usually, companies assume that if internal
staffing identifies & selects high performers for future jobs, then the internal employee selection implies an
internal employee separation from the employee’s original position.

Source of Internal Candidates Determinations of Internal Candidates

Pre-Internal movement Post of inte rnal staffing


workforce candidates
Internal separations retentions Internal recruiting selection

Selected internal
Retained work force
movers

The effects of the quantity and pattern of such internal separation retentions are expressed through the
effects on the quantity & quality of the retained work force source positions. Through formal attention to this
issue has only recently been advocated suggests.

GAP
-----------------------------------------------------

Current manpower position Future Manpower requirement


The HRP is the process of determining manpower needs in future and formulation plans & taking nec essary
action to meet the needs of human resources. The following are the basic characteristics of HRP:-
(a) Forward looking:- HRP is forward looking and is future-oriented as it estimate the manpower
requirements for future position in an organization.
(b) Primary Responsibility:- HRP is the primary responsibility of the management as the organization
requires human resource to run it. All the other factors of productions are put to use by humans.
(c) Continuo’s:- HRP is an on-going continuous process. The demand & supply of HR can never stay
constant. Thus regular updation is required to ensure availability of adequate manpower.
(d) Long term & short term plans:- The requirement & the availability of HR may be for a long term or the
study may be done for a short term plans generally are made of less then one year. These are
concerned with foiling up of the jobs existing suring this year. However, organization make long term
plans as well for a period ranging from one year to five years.
(e) Two-phased:- HRP involved two phases:-
Phase 1:- estimate the Demand for HR
Phase 2:- Study for human Resources

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Ques 13:-Imp. Human Resource Planning is a Pre – requisite for effective management of
Human resources” In the light of this statement, analyse the significance and process of human
resource planning.

Ans:- HRP:- The success or otherwise of an organization pargely depends upon the quantity and quality of
human resources, that it is able to attract & retain. The placement of right kind of people in right numbers, at
the right place and right time is the first operative function of human resources management. The process of
identify ing how many people to select, at what job and at what time is called human resource planning.
(A) Acc to Beach:- “HRP is the process of determining & assuming that the organization will have an
adequate number of qualified persons available at the proper lines, performing jobs which meet the
needs of the enterprise & which provide satisfaction for the indiv iduals involved.
(B) Acc to Stainer:- “Human Resource Planning is the strategy for the acquiaition movement &
preservation of an organiation’s human resource.
The basic idea of the function of HRP’s is to coordinate the requirements for & the availability of different
types of employees.
PROCESS OF HRP

Corporate Analysis

- Objectives & strategies


- Company Organisational Plans
- Production targets
- Marketing targets

Demand Forecast Supply forecast


- No. Of employees required - Current HR Inventory
- Skill required - Expected losses of
- Educational required additions
- Anticipated external supply

Estimating Manpower Gaps


- Surplus HR
- Shortage of HR

HR Action Plans

- Recruitment & Selection


- Training & Development
- Redeployment & Retrenchment
- Redundancy
- Retention
- Job Rotation

Monitoring & Control

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The major steps involved is HRP are:-


1. Analyzing Organisational Plans:- The very first step is to identify and analyse the
Organization’s future plans. It includes plans concerning all departments, all levels & all
units of the organization including plan for growth , expansion & diversification it. Lays
down the requirement which may indicate surplus or shortage of Human Resource.
2. HR Demand Forecasting:- On the basis of the corporate level plans as well as the
departmental plans an estimate of the total work load is estimated depending on the
decisions of the level of technology to be used make or buy decision, job contents etc.
A no. of techniques may be employed to forecast the human resource in an
organisation.
(a) managerial Judgment:- Experienced Managers estimate the manpower
requirements for their respective departments based on their knowledge &
expected future workload.
(b) Work study method:- Time & motion study are analyse & measure the work
being done. It helps in estimating the standard time required per unit of work.
The total work calculated is div ided by the productive hours per worker in one
year. This helps in estimating the number of employees required to perform the
estimated work load.
(c) Ratio-Trend Analysis:- Ratio between total output / no. of workers, volume/
no. of sales person etc. is calculated on the basis of post data.
(d) Mathematical Models:- Relationship between independent variables &
depended variables can be expressed using such models for eg. No. of
employees required depends upon the investment, production, sales etc.
3. HR supply Forecasting:- After estimating the HR requirements, an estimate of the
available human, resource is done. It helps in identifying the quantity & quality of
human resource available within the organization or which may be arranged from
external sources.
Supply of HR

Internal Sources External Sources


-Promotion - Campus
- Transfer - Competitors
- Job Rotation - Advertisement
- References - Placement agencies
For judging the internal availability of HR, an HR audit is done which contains
data relating to
- Total no. of employees
- Age wise classification
- Skill wise classification
- Sex wise classification etc.
Once the present resources are assessed, the changes expected due to resignations
- discharges
- deaths
- lay-off’s
- termination
- promotions
- transfers
- ill health
- deputations
- Absenteeism are evaluated.

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Feature Internal Supply of HR = Present Inventory of HR+ Potential additional-potential


losses.
4. Estimating Human Resource Gaps:- By comparing the demand forecasts & supply
forecasts, the human gaps may be identified.
Demand-Supply Shortage (knowledge/ skills/ aptitude)
Surplus

Demand > Supply = Shortage


Demand < Supply-=Surplus
5. Action Planning:- After identify ing the HR gaps, appropriate action plans are prepared to
bridge these gaps.

- Recruitment & Selection


Shortage - Training & Development
- Promotion & Transfers
- Retraining & new jobs
-Redundancy
- Retention plans
- - Retrenchment

Importance of HRP:-
1. Hrp ensures a smooth supply of right type & right number of employees with adequate
knowledge, experience and aptitudes at all levels and at all time.
2. It identifies HR gaps, if any, & helps in the implementation of corrective action plans to
avoid any loss of work or money to the organisation.
3. HRP helps in the optimum utilization of the available HR & helps reduce any wastage.
4. HRP anticipates any future manpower gaps & motivates the employees by chalking out
plans like a career planning & succession planning.
5. HRP also facilitate the prov isions the prov ision of infrastructure in the organization by
giv ing an estimate of the future head count.

Conclusion:- Today, Human Resource Planning is viewed as the way by which management can
overcome problems relating to HR by identifying the future requirements of HR of an
organization & the estimates of HR supply. An organization can ensure the smooth functioning
through placing the right man at the right time at the right job.

Ques 14:- What is the manpower planning? Discuss its characteristics, objectives,
importance & process.

Ans:- Manpower Planning:- M.P. or Human Resource Planning may be defined as the
process of Analysing and estimating the need for and availability of employees. It is essentially
the process of securing the service of qualified people for various positions in the organizations
at the right time. The major activities involved in manpower planning are:-
1. Forecasting future manpower requirements based on post experience and future plans.
2. Using the categories of the existing manpower employed and assessing the extend to
which they are employed to the best advantage of the organization.
3. Anticipating manpower problem in the light of the forecast of required for determine
their adequacy from the point of view of number & skills.
4. Planning the necessary programmes of recruitment, selection, training , development.
Motivation & Compensation, so that future Manpower needs are met.
Need & Importance of Manpower Planning
Manpower planning in a two way process by which management can project future manpower
requirement and develop manpower prove. It helps in proper recruitment & selection so that

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right types of people are available to various position in the organisation. The manpower
planning plays an important in the effective management of personnel.
Benefits:- 1. Shortage or surplus of manpower in various departments will be revealed by
manpower planning corrective steps can be taken in time.
2.Manpower forecasting provides a basis of recruitment transfer and training of employees.
3. It reduces labour costs availing surface of manpower.
4. It helps in identify ing talent in the organization training for promotion could be given to
the talented employed.
5. It leads to a greater awareness of the importance of sound manpower. Management
throughout the organisation.
6. It serve as a tool to evaluate the effect of alternative manpower actions & policies.

Objectives:- 1. To ensure optimum use of human resources currently employed.


2. To assess or forecast future skill requirements.
3. To provide control measures to ensures that necessary resource are available it and
required .
Process OR Steps in manpower planning

(!) Asserting current manpower Inventory:- Analysis of current Manpower supply may be
undertaken by department by
(ii) Planning Employment programme to meet human resource needs:- Long term employment
programme must be chalked out to deals with expected deficits of manpower. It will include
steps like recruitment, selection, placement, performance appraisal, transfer & promotion.
(iv) Training ?& development programme: the operative employee must be give n
appropriate training so that they may born the required skills, appropriate
development programmes, should also be designed for the executives so that the
required talents could be developed.
(v) Appraisal of Manpower Planning-effectiveness:- HR planning is closely linked to the
goals of human resource management & those of organization, shortage or surplus
of any level should be minimized. HR planning programme will be effective if it can
anticipate the deficiencies of various skills well in time so that steps are initiated for
recruitment of required human resources. Similarly, if some types of personnel are
surplus, they should be adjusted after given them appropriate training.

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