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Student Resource Building!

Student Resource Building Comfort and Energy Study Spring 2011

The

Michael Georgescu Bryan Eisenhower Igor Mezic

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Building Design Sustainability Features Hea3ng and Cooling Systems Facility Energy Usage Energy Visualiza3on Tools Recommenda3ons

Outline

General Information!
General StaBsBcs Name: Student Resource Building LocaBon: Santa Barbara Size: 68,413 Square Feet FuncBon: University Administra3on and Mul3-func3onal Spaces Levels: 3 Project Delivery Method: Design-Bid-Build ConstrucBon Dates: Spring 2005 November 2006 Cost: $18,986,000 The ConstrucBon Details Architect, Interiors and Landscape: Sasaki Associates, INC. Structural + MEP Engineering: ARUP

hYp://leadership.sa.ucsb.edu

General - Design Intent!


qThe SRB was designed to be a space where campus departments and organiza3ons could collec3vely assist students from a centralized loca3on
The
Departments in SRB
Campus Learning Assistance Services Disabled Students Program Educa3onal Opportunity Program Graduate Division Diversity, Recruitment, Reten3on Oce of Student Life Oce of Interna3onal Students and Scholars Oce of Judicial Aairs

Resource Centers in SRB


African and Diasporic Cultural Resource Center American Indian Resource Center Asian Resource Center

Chican@/La3n@ Resource Center Greek Student Resource Center Middle Eastern Resource Center Non-Tradi3onal and Re- entry Student Resource Center Resource Center for Sexual and Gender Diversity

Orienta3on Programs

Student Aairs Grants and Development Womens Center Images courtesy of Sasaki Associates, INC

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Building Design Sustainability Features Hea3ng and Cooling Systems Facility Energy Usage Comfort and Energy Visualiza3on Tools Recommenda3ons

Outline

Sustainability!
qReinforcing the Universitys demand for sustainable buildings, the SRB incorporates innova3ons in energy ecient design through green measures including:
v Building construc3on with materials containing few vola3le organic compounds v Mo3on operated ligh3ng controls to reduce energy usage v Low ow water xtures v Passive ven3la3on/cooling in many building areas v Real-3me energy use monitoring and metering The

qAs a result of these measures, the SRB has obtained LEED silver cer3ca3on from the United States Green Building Council

Images courtesy of Sasaki Associates, INC

Sustainability - Energy End Use!


qIn addi3on to sustainable building design, reducing energy usage is important in minimizing a buildings nega3ve environmental impact qIn most buildings, the largest form of energy consump3on is from ligh3ng, space hea3ng and cooling (blue and green above)
Already Op3mized Through Sustainability Measures

The

Room For Improvement Through BeYer Building Opera3on

hYp://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/ChartView.aspx?chartID=0

The focus of this project is to decrease energy usage while maintaining comfort by opBmizing the operaBon of the building

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Building Design Sustainability Features HeaBng and Cooling Systems Facility Energy Usage Comfort and Energy Visualiza3on Tools Recommenda3ons

Outline

Heating and Cooling!


q To gauge the eciency of the buildings thermal performance, analysis was performed on the components responsible for controlling the buildings temperature q The Student Resources Building has three dierent mechanisms to keep occupants comfortable 1. Radiant oor and baseboard panel hea3ng 2. Natural ven3la3on (through windows and Atrium) 3. Mechanical ven3la3on (through vents in non-perimeter rooms)

hYp://www.hgtvpro.com/hpro/photo_template/ar3cle/0,3140,HPRO_28216_5930262_06,00.html

Heating and Cooling - Radiant!


q In certain rooms, heat is introduced through hot water pipes: Radiant hea3ng occurs through the oor of the atrium and daycare center Convec3ve hea3ng takes place in baseboard heaters along the walls of oces in the buildings perimeter
Convec3ve Heater Baseboard

Radiant Floor Hea3ng

hYp://www.radianthea3ngsystem.net/2010/06/04/hydronic-radiant-oor-hea3ng/hydronic-radiant-oor-hea3ng/

Heating and Cooling - Natural!


qThe building perimeter and atria is cooled through natural ven3la3on qThe atriums height promotes natural airow by lemng hot air escape from the ceiling while cool air stays at ground oor qThis airow is enhanced by open windows and vents around the perimeter of the building
The Wind Diagram of the stack eect Windows Atrium

Heating and Cooling - Mechanical!


Recirculated Air Supply Air Outdoor Air
Cooling Coil Hea3ng Coil

Air Handling Unit


Outdoors

Room Vents
HeaBng and cooling equipment

Out

Building

q An air handling unit (AHU) is part of a buildings mechanical hea3ng and ven3la3on (HVAC) system and provides - Fresh outdoor air to improve air quality - Hea3ng/cooling for comfort q The air is ini3ally cooled on the roonop AHU and reheated as necessary just before entering each room

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Building Design Sustainability Features Hea3ng and Cooling Systems Facility Energy Usage Comfort and Energy Visualiza3on Tools Recommenda3ons

Outline

Energy Usage - Facility!


q The SRB consumes three forms of source energy: Electricity (red), Gas (Green), and Chilled Water (blue)
Site Energy Usage

q The amount of site energy usage is heavily inuenced by seasonal weather condi3ons

Metasys data

Electricity Consumption Intensity!


qElectricity consump3on intensity is a performance metric that measures energy usage rela3ve to building area qIt allows buildings of dierent size to be compared to each other

SRB

qThe SRB uses approximately 600,000 kWH of electricity each year qFor comparison, an average oce building of similar size uses 950,000 kWH*
*Based on CBECS average

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Building Design Sustainability Features Hea3ng and Cooling Systems Facility Energy Usage Comfort and Energy VisualizaBon Tools Recommenda3ons

Outline

Tools Current State of Affairs!

q Building opera3on is currently subop3mal (in general) En3re building is not analyzed at once Too much data, takes too long to obtain & process
For the SRB project, we have developed a toolkit that aggregates building-wide data with one push of the buYon

Tools Spatial Analysis!


Tradi3onal Analysis

Tradi3onal analysis looks at energy at the facility level In our approach, we look at opera3on at a ner scale
Finer Scale Analysis

Tools Spatial Analysis! ! North view


Floor 3

Floor 2

South view

Floor 1 Floor by oor layout

SRB Architectural Schema3c

qTo analyze sensor data at a ner scale, a visualiza3on tool was developed to spa3ally display informa3on qWith a oor by oor display of informa3on, area specic subop3mal performance is more easily iden3ed

Tools Previous Building Software!


qPrevious building management sonware is menu driven and text based qMuch naviga3on & 3me necessary just to plot measured data

Tools SRB Toolkit!


qIn contrast to current sonware building diagnos3c tools, the visualiza3on GUI developed is graphically based and can quickly display informa3on and iden3fy possible abnormali3es in building behavior

Tools Wireless Sensors!


q For detailed analysis, data was analyzed from room-level sensors q All non-yellow regions in the building previously had sensors installed. q To gain more informa3on, wireless sensors were installed in these yellow regions S

Receiver: Wireless Sensor:

SRB Floor Plan (3rd Floor)

Tools Temperature Sensors!

1st Floor

2nd Floor Legend


Shading Color

3rd Floor
DescripBon

qThe maps above illustrates the loca3on of these sensors qAddi3onal sensors (wireless) are being added in areas that have no sensing

Yellow Non-yellow Black

No current sensing Instrumented with sensors (temperature) Wireless Sensor

Tools - Thermostat Settings!

q Highlighted rooms are currently regulated to the temperature of the thermostat semng shown here q Throughout the building there is a 10 degree varia3on in thermostat semng temperature
*These thermostat plots represent semngs for early January

Tools - Local air reheating!


q Rooms requiring air warmer than what the air handling unit provides have in-vent heaters to reheat air before its delivered q In reheat gures as shown below, the magnitude of the air temperature dierence over the reheat coil is ploYed
E LiYle or no in-vent rehea3ng applied Large amount of in-vent rehea3ng

Reheat Plot

Tools Energy Modeling!


qThe sensor data from the building provides a limited picture of its behavior qAn energy model can be used to obtain informa3on about the physics of the building Unmeasured comfort & energy usage Inves3ga3ng opera3on alterna3ves Detailed analysis of current design Retrot designs considera3ons

Tools - Energy Modeling!


q Energy models capture both the architectural components of the building as well as its thermal physics q Typical sonware contains front-end for drawing purposes, with mathema3cal engine for computa3on

Student Interns

Ryan

Casey

Erika

Building design

Equa3ons / Physics / etc.

Tools - SRB Model!


The SRB Energy Model captures weather, building design and opera3on to predict thermal performance
North

Tools - Model vs. Data Comparison!


Model Vs. Data Energy Usage

These are only iniBal results!

Building Data

Model

qComparison is during working hours of the month of July qModel results is on similar order with data qModel does not include baseboard hea3ng since it is occupant controlled and usage is dicult to predict, but if it were included, electricity and gas usage would increase qChilled water (cooling) consump3on is en3rely modeled and model results closely match building data

Tools - Overview!
q SoWware Tools u Building Energy Model Predicts characteris3cs of building opera3on Helpful in studying building behavior for dierent opera3ng condi3ons u Visualiza3on GUI Allows quick display of informa3on from sensors or model data q Measurement Tools u Metasys Sensors Senses environment in areas containing HVAC equipment u Wireless Sensors Allows measurement of temperature in naturally ven3lated areas q Analysis Tools u Spa3al Temperature Distribu3ons Temperatures from Metasys and wireless sensors Highlights areas of discomfort or subop3mal HVAC opera3on u Spa3al Reheat Plot Visualizes ne detail energy usage of HVAC system Illustrates inter-room interac3ons of mechanically ven3lated areas and instantaneous hea3ng / cooling demand

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Building Design Sustainability Features Hea3ng and Cooling Systems Facility Energy Usage Comfort and Energy Visualiza3on Tools RecommendaBons

Outline

Aner crea3ng the comfort and energy visualiza3on tools, the SRB data was studied in great detail and recommenda3ons were created to improve comfort and energy eciency
Data Tools RecommendaBons

Case Number ObservaBon


1 (mul3- purpose room)

Case Studies & Recommended Improvements


ResulBng behavior Excessive hea3ng and cooling Excessive hea3ng and cooling Excessive hea3ng Uncomfortable temperatures Uncomfortable condi3ons at night Excessive energy use SuggesBon Remove or reset one thermostat Remove or reset one thermostat Relocate thermostat Change cooling schedule and capacity Match schedules to occupancy Reset boiler schedule Match schedules to occupancy Unusual hea3ng paYern in adjacent rooms

2 (DSP center) Unusual hea3ng paYern in adjacent rooms 3 (CLAS oce) Unresponsive hea3ng

4 (Comp. lab) Inadequate cooling 5 (AHU) 6 (Boiler) 7 (mul3- purpose room) Improper HVAC scheduling Excessive boiler opera3on

HVAC prematurely shut down Uncomfortable condi3ons

Case 1: Excessive heating / cooling!

Summer

Reheat Plot Summer

Winter

q The local climate is such that most rooms in the SRB should only require hea3ng in the winter months q A room displaying reheat in the summer and no reheat in winter is abnormal and can indicate improper HVAC opera3on for that rooms thermostat

Case 1: Excessive heating / cooling!

Hea3ng

72 F Room A Room B 67 F F

Cooling Reheat Plot

Thermostat SeYngs

q In the building design Rooms A and B appear to be separated and use two dierent thermostats q In reality, these rooms are not separate, yet due to dierent thermostat semngs, a conict is made q The rooms use extra hea3ng and cooling to compensate for the interference each room has on the other

Sugges3on: Change sonware to use only one thermostat (large room)

Case 2: Excessive heating / cooling!


qDue to the mixing of air in a building, many factors inuence a rooms temperature including the temperature of adjacent rooms qIf a rooms temperature is more eected by an adjacent room rather than its own ven3la3on, August the adjacent room may impede a thermostats opera3on qThis interference is exhibited when a room uses more reheat in the summer rather than the winter
Reheat Plot

Case 2: Excessive heating / cooling!


Room B
67 F

75.7 F Room A

Reheat Plot

Thermostat SeYng

q Aner construc3on, Rooms A and B were originally separated by a wall q From remodeling, the two areas are now a single room with two thermostats q If the rooms two thermostat set points are dissimilar, they will interfere with each other by introducing air at dissimilar temperatures q In the worst case: half the room is being heated and the other half is being cooled

Sugges3on: Change sonware to use only one thermostat (large room)

Case 3: Unresponsive heating!

August

Summer

Reheat Plot

Winter

qUnder normal circumstances, a room that is con3nuously being heated indicates that a thermostats set point is not being reached and that the heat supplied is not suciently eec3ng the temperature of the room

Case 3: Unresponsive heating!

Atrium

December Mean Temperature F Thermostat Loca3on q Rooms near the atrium can have their thermostat skewed if placed too close to atrium opening q If thermostat semng is too high, room will con3nually be heated q This hea3ng is wasted as hot air ows into atrium and escapes the building
Thermostat SeYng of Room Mean Atrium Temperature

75.7 deg. F

69.6 deg. F

Sugges3on: Move thermostat away from Atrium

Case 4: Inadequate cooling!


July August September

qMechanically ven3lated rooms which overheat are not August being supplied enough cool air to condi3on the space qThe circled room above contains many computers which generate a lot of heat qThis is the hoYest ven3lated room in the building because there is insucient cool air being supplied
Sugges3on: Increase airow provided to the computer lab by adjus3ng the air damper.

Case 5: Improper HVAC scheduling!


The AHUs should be scheduled to operate only when needed to save energy and keep occupants comfortable

AHU1

q Yellow por3ons illustrate when the AHU is opera3ng and not needed q Maroon por3ons illustrate when the AHU is not opera3ng but needed (i.e. in the overhea3ng computer room)
Sugges3on: Reduce energy waste by turning o AHUs during yellow regions. Increase comfort by con3nuing to operate AHUs during maroon por3ons.

Case 6: Excessive boiler operation!


qThe SRBs boiler operates needlessly during the late night qHot water consump3on for building hea3ng accounts for 20% of the total building energy usage

Sugges3on: Turn boiler o during unoccupied hours for 15-20% reduc3on in building HVAC hea3ng water usage

Metasys data

Case 7: HVAC prematurely turned off!


Many occupants of the SRB mul3purpose (oval) room have experienced discomfort during evening hours

AHU1

q Maroon por3ons illustrate when the mul3purpose rooms AHU is not opera3ng but needed uHypothesis: Occupants are uncomfortable because there is no temperature regula3on during nights and weekends
Sugges3on: Increase comfort by con3nuing to operate AHUs during 3mes highlighted in maroon

Case Number

Conclusions and Ac3ons


ObservaBon ResulBng behavior ResoluBon

1 (mul3- purpose room)

Unusual hea3ng paYern in adjacent rooms

Excessive hea3ng and cooling

Will be addressed during Facili3es reprogramming project of SRB thermostats Will be addressed during Facili3es reprogramming project of SRB thermostats Under observa3on by Facili3es Under observa3on by Facili3es Schedule adjusted Schedule adjusted Schedule adjusted

2 (DSP center)

Unusual hea3ng paYern in adjacent rooms

Excessive hea3ng and cooling

3 (CLAS oce) 4 (Computer lab) 5 (AHU) 6 (Boiler) 7 (mul3- purpose room)

Unresponsive hea3ng Inadequate cooling Improper HVAC scheduling Excessive boiler opera3on HVAC prematurely shut down

Excessive hea3ng Uncomfortable temperatures Uncomfortable condi3ons at night Excessive energy use Uncomfortable condi3ons

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Building Design Sustainability Features Hea3ng and Cooling Systems Facility Energy Usage Comfort and Energy Visualiza3on Tools Recommenda3ons Future Research

Outline

Future Work!

q The work we have done and recommenda3ons we have provided primarily focus on iden3fying energy waste and solu3ons based on the opera3on of the building q Occupants in por3ons of the SRB are s3ll uncomfortable which drives down morale and produc3vity A more detailed study of air-ows (natural cooling) within the building will help to op3mize the free cooling Integra3on of the comfort / energy visualiza3on at the desktop level will provide users with beYer understanding of how they inuence their own comfort

Tools - Overview!
q SoWware Tools u Building Energy Model Predicts characteris3cs of building opera3on Helpful in studying building behavior for dierent opera3ng condi3ons u Calibrate Energy Model u Visualiza3on GUI Allows quick display of informa3on from sensors or model data u Desktop ImplementaBon of InteracBve VisualizaBon & Comfort Tool q Measurement Tools u Metasys Sensors Senses environment in areas containing HVAC equipment u Wireless Sensors Allows measurement of temperature in naturally ven3lated areas q Analysis Tools u Spa3al Temperature Distribu3ons Temperatures from Metasys and wireless sensors Highlights areas of discomfort or subop3mal HVAC opera3on u Spa3al Reheat Plot Visualizes ne detail energy usage of HVAC system Illustrates inter-room interac3ons of mechanically ven3lated areas and instantaneous hea3ng / cooling demand u Expand visualizaBon tool to be interacBve with user feedback u Perform analysis of interacBon of natural & mechanical ows in the building

* Future opportunity

Improving Airow!
qMany factors contribute to air ow in the SRB including: u Flow due to HVAC opera3on u Natural Ven3la3on u Air ow from occupant travel qThese modes of air transport operate independently The qLiYle is understood of how these factors can impede or enhance a buildings opera3on qCoopera3vely controlling these system has the poten3al to both improve comfort and reduce consump3on

Wind Windows Atrium

Interactive Visualization Tool!

Possible SoluBon: Web Based Dashboard


qDevelop no3ca3on system that instructs occupants when its benecial to open windows in addi3on to other building sta3s3cs qInclude feedback so occupants can also communicate level of comfort produced by control algorithm
NoBcaBon system in place in an elementary school in Virginia Open Windows

Picture: William Wordsworth, Nature As the Teacher, 2010

Tools - Overview!
q SoWware Tools u Building Energy Model Predicts characteris3cs of building opera3on Helpful in studying building behavior for dierent opera3ng condi3ons u Calibrate Energy Model u Visualiza3on GUI Allows quick display of informa3on from sensors or model data u Desktop ImplementaBon of InteracBve VisualizaBon & Comfort Tool q Measurement Tools u Metasys Sensors Senses environment in areas containing HVAC equipment u Wireless Sensors Allows measurement of temperature in naturally ven3lated areas q Analysis Tools u Spa3al Temperature Distribu3ons Temperatures from Metasys and wireless sensors Highlights areas of discomfort or subop3mal HVAC opera3on u Spa3al Reheat Plot Visualizes ne detail energy usage of HVAC system Illustrates inter-room interac3ons of mechanically ven3lated areas and instantaneous hea3ng / cooling demand u Expand visualizaBon tool to be interacBve with user feedback u Perform analysis of interacBon of natural & mechanical ows in the building

* Future opportunity

PresentaBon Appendix

Case 6 Savings Calculation Method!


qDaily HVAC hot water consump3on shown qDuring this month, the boiler was con3nuously opera3ng qPredicted energy savings calculated by summing hot water consump3on during unoccupied building hours (12:00am to 5:00am) qConsump3on during night hours was measured to be 20% of Decembers HVAC hot water consump3on
December HVAC Hot Water ConsumpBon Energy ConsumpBon (kBtu)

Day of Month

Boiler OperaBng Schedule

Metasys data