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Trng cao ng ngh cng nghip thanh ha

Khoa

c kh

Li ni u
Cng ngh hn ngy cng c s dng rng ri trnh cng nghip v dn dng, giao

trong nhiu ngnh cng nghip nh ch to my, xy lp cng thng vn ti v ha cht Cn c vo chng trnh khung ca Tng cc dy ngh v iu kin thc t ging dy ca nh trng. Gio trnh hn p c bin son theo hng tch hp gia l thuyt v thc hnh. Gip cho Hc sinh Sinh vin vn dng ngay l thuyt vo thc tin. Gp phn nng cao cht lng o to. Gio trnh c bin son trn c s la chn cc kin thc trong cc ti liu chuyn ngnh song vn m bo tnh k tha nhng ni dung ang c ging dy trng. Ni dung gio trnh gm nhng kin thc c bn v k thut hn p, quy trnh th t cc ng hn, nhng khuyt tt ca chi tit p vv... Mc d c nhiu c gng trong qu trnh bin son, song chc chn khng th trnh c nhng thiu st. Chng ti rt mong c s ng gp kin ca ng nghip. Mi kin ng gp xin gi v: T Cng ngh hn Khoa C kh trng Cao ng ngh cng nghip Thanh ha.
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Trng cao ng ngh cng nghip thanh ha

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Xin chn thnh cm n ! Thanh ha thng

7 nm 2009 T mn Cng ngh Hn

GIO TRNH M UN HN P M s m un: M24


Thi gian m un: 60 h; ( L thuyt: 15 h, Thc hnh: 45 h) I. V TR TNH CHT CA M UN - Hn p l mt trong nhng m un ca chng trnh o to ngh hn trnh lnh ngh. y l khi kin thc v k nng c bn ca ngh hn, bt buc i vi tt c mi ngi th hn.Thiu n ngi th hn s khng c nhng kin thc v k nng c bn ca ngh nghip, s gp kh khn trong qu trnh thc hin cng vic ca ngh hn cng nh s m bo an ton v sc khe ca ngi th.
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- V tr: M un ny c b tr sau khi hc xong cc mn hc

MH07 MH12 v M13 M22. - Tnh cht ca mun: L m-un chuyn ngnh bt buc. II. MC TIU CA M UN + Nhm trang b cho ngi hc c kh nng lm vic ti cc c s sn xut, hn phc hi cc chi tit my b mn nh trc my, bc lt, bnh rng hoc hn cc chi tit c b khuyt b r bng cc vt liu khc nhau nh thp cc bon thp, thp cc bon trung bnh, thp cc bon cao, thp hp kim thp, gang v hp kim ng trn cc thit b hn h quang tay, hn h quang trong mi trng kh bo v, hn t ng di thuc, m bo yu cu k thut, an ton v hiu qu + Hc xong m un ny ngi hc s c kh nng: - Chun b chi tit hn p sch ht cc vt bn, vt du m, vt -xy ho trn b mt, hn v cc vt nt trn chi tit cn hn p, xc nh c trng v i lng mn, ng thi xc nh loi vt liu ca chng. - Chn vt liu hn (que hn, dy hn, thuc hn, kh bo v) ph hp vi tng loi vt liu v phng php hn. - Tnh ton ch hn ph hp vi chiu dy, tnh cht nhit l ca tng loi vt liu - Hn p cc chi tit my bng cc thit b hn khc nhau m bo su ngu, khng r kh ngm x, t bin dng kim loi, lng d gia cng. - Kim tra nh gi ng cht lng mi hn.
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- Sa cha cc sai hng v kch thc, hnh dng, khuyt tt ca mi hn m bo yu cu k thut. - Lm vic trong cc c s sn xut c kh vi y kin thc v k nng hn c bn. - Hn phc hi cc chi tit dng trc, bnh rng, bc lt b mn ng kch thc bn v, lng d gia cng. - Sa cha cc sai hng ca vt c bng thp cc bon, thp hp kim, gang v hp kim ng. - Thc hin hn p trc, hn p mt phng bng cc thit b my hn h quang tay, my hn MIG, MAG m bo yu cu k thut. - Thc hin tt cng tc an ton v v sinh phn xng. III. NI DUNG M UN 1. Ni dung tng qut v phn phi thi gian: S TT 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tn cc bi trong m un Hn p mt phng bng my hn h quang tay Hn p trc bng my hn h quang tay Hn p chi tit my bng thit b hn kh Hn p mt phng bng my hn MAG, MIG Hn p (TIG) Kim tra m un Tng s 12 12 12 12 12
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Thi gian L Thc thuyt hnh 3 3 3 3 3 8 8 8 8 8

Kim tra*

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Trng cao ng ngh cng nghip thanh ha

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S TT

Tn cc bi trong m un Cng

Tng s 60

Thi gian L Thc thuyt hnh 15 40

Kim tra* 5

Bi1

HN P MT PHNG BNG MY HN H QUANG TAY

MD-24-01

Hn p chi tit my l mt bi tp c bn nm trong h thng cc bi hc thuc mun hn p trong chng trnh o to cng nhn lnh ngh, nhm cung cp nhng kin thc v k nng cn thit khi thc hin cng ngh hn p. Trong qu trnh hc, ngi hc nhn bit ng cc loi vt liu hn p, la chn cc phng php lm sch chi tit hn hp l, phi thc hin cng vic tnh ton ch hn hp l, hn p mt phng, hn p trc bng my hn h quang tay m bo yu cu k thut khng r kh ngm x, t bin dng, lng d gia cng. A. Mc tiu ca bi:. Sau khi hc xong bi hc ny ngi hc s c kh nng: - Tnh ton vt liu hn p.
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- Chun b thit b, dng c hn, vt liu hn y an ton. - Chun b chi tit p m bo sch, x l ht cc vt nt m bo yu cu k thut. - Chn in p hn, cng dng in v tc hn, phng php chuyn ng que hn ph hp vi kch thc ca chi tit p v tnh cht ca vt liu. - Thc hin hn p mt phng, bng phng php hn h quang tay m bo ng kch thc, lng d gia cng c, t bin dng. - Sa cha c cc sai hng v kch thc, hnh dng, r, khuyt cnh t yu cu k thut. - Thc hin tt cng tc an ton v v sinh phn xng. Ni dung ca bi: Thi gian: 12 h (LT:3 h, TH:9 h) 1: Chun b chi tit hn p. Thi gian:2 2: Chun b thit b, dng c, vt liu hn p. Thi gian:0,5 3: Xc nh ch hn p. Thi gian:0,5 4: K thut hn p mt phng. Thi gian:8 5: Kim tra sa cha sn phm sau khi hn. Thi gian:0,5 6: An ton lao ng - v sinh phn xng. Thi gian:0,5 1.1 : Cng tc chun b: 1.1.1.Vt liu: Vin hn quc t phn loi vt liu hn p cho tt c cc phng php hn p. s phn loi da theo thnh phn ho hc ca kim loi p. Nhiu nc trn th gii da vo cch phn loi ni trn phn loi vt liu hn p chng hn nh Lin x c phn li que hn p theo 8 loi sau y:
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+) Que hn p thp hp kim thp cha t hn 0,4%C l que hn H-15 3-40, H-18 4-35, H-20 4-40, H-14 2X-30. Que hn thp cc bon thp Cb-08 hoc Cb-08A, thuc bc floruacanxi, dng hn p cc chi tit thp cc bon thp b mi mn, cng ca lp kim loi p tu thuc vo kiu que hn nm trong gii hn 25-40HRC +) Que hn p lp thp hp kim thp cha ln hn 0.4%C c ba kiu: H-60X2CM-50, H-80X4C -55 v H-60X2CM-50. Li que hn bng thp Cb-08 hoc Cb-08A thuc bc floruacanxi. cng ca lp kim loi p 40-58HRC. Dng hn p cc chi tit b mn nhanh nh khun dp, li gt my i vv... +) Qe hn p lp thp crm. l que hn kiu H-25X12-40, H-70X11H3-25, T-546A, c li bng thp cc bon thp hoc thp hp kim v thuc bc floruacanxi cng kim loi hn p 2555HRC.Dng hn p khun my dp nng v ngui, cc chi tit mn nhanh, ghi g ng ray v cc chi tit thp mangan cao -13. +)Q hn p lp thp ct gt tc nhanh. Li que hn lm bng cc loi thp khc nhau. Thuc bc floruacanxi. cng lp p 50-60HRC. l que hn kiu H-80B18X4 -60, dng hn p dng c ct gt kim loi v hn p khun dp nng ti trng nng. +) Que hn p lp gang c bit crm cao. l kiu que hn H-Y30X28C4H4-50, H-Y30X25PC2 -60 v H-Y3023PC2T 55. Kiu que hn H-Y30X28C4H4-50 Li que hn bng thp hp kim, thuc bc floruacanxi, dng phc hi v sn xut nhng chi tit chng mi mn ca my bm li tm, my khai thc du.vv..Hai M un hn p Bin 7 son: Nguyn c

Trng cao ng ngh cng nghip thanh ha

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kiu que hn. H-Y30X25PC2 -60 v H-Y3023PC2T -55 lm t li Cb-08 hoc Cb-08A, thuc bc floruacanxi, dng hn p cc chi tit bng gang chng mn, cng lp p 59-60 HRC. +) Que hn p lp thp crmvonfram chu nhit. Que hn kiu H-30X3B8-40 lm bng li thp H -60X3B10 thuc bc floruacanxi. Dng hn p cc b mt chng mn nh khun dp nng, dng c p, dao, cnh qut my khuy .vv.. cng kim loi hn p 54HRC. Que hn c li thp Cb-08 thuc bc floruacanxi. Dng hn p lp thp crmvonfram cha cc bon cao trn cc chi tit lm vic chu nhit ti 6000. cng lp p 54HRC. +) Que hn p lp hp kim cban vi crm v vnfram. l que hn kiu H-Y18k62X30B5C2-40. Li que hn bng thp hp kim B3K. Thuc bc floruacanxi, thc hin bng phng php nhng mt hoc hai lp. Que hn dng vo vic hn p cc chi tit t thep austenit cromniken lm vic nhit cao ti 6000 v p sut ti 800Kg/cm2 v trong mi trng xm thc. cng lp hn p 45 HRC. Chu mi mn rt cao k cac khi chi tit lm vic nhit bbnh thng v nhit cao. +) Que hn p kiu khc. l H-08X17H7C5 2-30, BCH6, H-Y10 5X7C-25, HX -10, Y -30X-10 10.c im chung ca cc kiu l thuc bc nhm floruacanxi, li que hn lm t nhiu loi thp hp kim khc nhau, cng lp p tu thuc vo tng loi que hn nm trong phm vi 20-55HRC.Cng dng ca que hn cng khc nhau chng hn que hn H-08X17H7C5 2-30 dng hn p cc chi tit ng lm vic nhit ti 5800 v p sut ring hn 800kg/cm2, que hn BCH-6 dng hn p cc chi
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tit thp cc bon v thp t l mangan cao lm vic trong iu kin chu ti trng va p mnh v mi mn, vv... bi tp ny thc tp hn p thp cc bon thp v thp hp kim thp thuc nhm thp d hn do vic hn p c thc hin bng phng php thng thng v iu kin bnh thng. Hn p mth phng phi 250 80 10mm v hn p trc phi 20 250mm 1.1.2.Thit b v dng c - My hn in h quang tay - Knh hn. Ba g x. - Bn chi st. - Dng o. - Thc dt - Ba ngui. 1.1.3. iu kin an ton - Mt bng thc tp b tr gn gng, ni lm vic c nh sng, h thng thng gi, ht bi hot ng tt - My hn phi c y dy tip t. - Bo h lao ng y 1.2: Trnh t thc hin: 1.2.1.c bn v

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Hinh 1-1; Hn p mt phng 1.2.2. Chun b chi tit hn p: Hu ht cc chi tit my a phc hi u rt bn, b mt lm vic b bm du m, han r. Nu hn p ln nhng chi tit nh vy mi hn s khng ngu, r kh v nhng tp cht phi kim loi khc. Bi vy trc khi hn p chi tit hn cn c lm sch cn thn, sau phn loi v xc nh phng php phc hi. Phng php ty sch chi tit bng tia la nhit hay trong l nung c hiu qu v tin li nht. Cht bn khng nhng b t chy khi b mt m cn khi c nhng ch him hc hay nt rn ca chi tit. Tip mui than v -xt kim loi c lm sch bng chi thp. Tuy nhin khng phi chi tit no cng c th ty sch bng phng php trn chng hn nhng chi tit bng thp mangan cao khng c php lm sch bng cch nung nng m phi ra sch trong dung dch xt 5% ri sau ra bng nc nng. Tri li nhng chi tit bng thp cc bon hay thp hp kim m cng ngh
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hn p phi ng dng gia nhit trc th vic ty sch du m v cc cht bn khc th hin ngay trong qu trnh gia nhit . Chng ta cng c th lm sch cc chi tit my bng my mi hoc chi thp, thit b phun ct vv.. Sau khi lm sch xong ta loi tr cc vt nt trn chi tit, i vi vt nt ln ta hn v trc khi hn p, i vi cc vt nt nh ta loi b bng my mi cm tay. Tm li, cng tc chun b chi tit trc khi hn p bng cc phng php hn khc nhau nhng u mang tnh cht chung v ng vai tr rt quan trng. N quyt nh phn ln cht lng lp hn p. Bi vy khng c coi thng m phi thc hin tt v y tt c cc cng vic cn thit ca qu trnh chun b. 1.2.3. Chn ch hn: Gia chiu dy lp kim loi p , ng knh que hn, s lp hn p v cng dng in hn c quan h nh sau: Chiu dy lp p mm ti 1,5 ti 5 ln hn 5 ng knh que hn mm 3 4-5 5-6 S lp p, lp 1 1-2 2 v hn Cng dng in A 80- 100 130-180 180-240 1.2.3. K thut hn p mt phng thp cc bon thp v thp hp kim thp: Hn p mt phng: Thp cacbon thp v thp hp kim thp thuc nhm thp d hn, do vic hn p c thc hin bng phng php bnh thng v trong iu kin bnh thng. Trong khi hn p que hn nghing vi mt phng ng mt gc 15-200. Nu
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que hn v tr thng ng th kim loi v x s chy trn ra phn cha c nung chy dn n mi hn khng ngu, ln x. C th chuyn ng que hn theo ng thng hoc hnh rng ca. Khi chuyn ng que hn theo ng thng(Hnh3a) chiu rng mi hn bng khong 1,5 ln ng knh que hn . Khi chuyn ng que hn theo hnh rng ca(Hnh 3b) ph thuc vo bin dch ngang ca que hn, bin ny thng thng bng 1,5-2 ln ng knh que hn. Trong hn p mt phng ngi ta t s dng phng php hn theo ng thng, v trong trng hp nyvng hn b, ng c nhanh, cc cht kh kh thot khi kim loi mi hn, mi hn do thng b r. trnh hin tng ny ngi ta thng chuyn ng que hn theo hnh rng ca khi que hn chuyn ng ra cnh ca ng hn th dng li my t cho mi hn ngu tt hn, khng b khuyt cnh, ng thi cc cht kh c iu kin thot khi mi hn, cht lng mi hn p nhn c tt nht khi chiu rng mi hn bng 2,5 ln ng knh que hn.

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Hnh 1-2: Phng php chuyn ng que hn a: phng php chuyn ng que hn theo ng thng b: Phng php chuyn ng que hn theo hnh rng ca

Vic hn p mt phng thc hin vi chiu di h quang ngn, cc ng hn phi xp th t sao cho ng hn sau phi lm nng chy 1/3-1/2 chiu rng ca ng hn trc. Lng d gia cng c 2-3mm, c th ly ht cc rnh ngn cch gia cc ng hn.
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Sau mi ng hn phi nh sch x v cc ht kim loi bn to xung quanh mi hn ri mi hn tip ng hn tip theo. 1.3. Cc dng sai hng khi hn p chi tit my bng h quang tay v bin php phng nga: 1.3.1 Chi tit hn b cong vnh: 1.3.1.1 Nguyn nhn: Do phn b cc ng hn khng hp l, khng g kp chc chn trong qu trnh hn. 1.3.1.2 Bin php khc phc: Thng xuyn kim tra chi tit sau mi lp hn, thc hin th t cc ng hn, lp hn ng quy trnh k thut, c th tin hnh nn nng khi chi tit b cong vnh. 1.3.2 Mi hn ln x: 1.3.2.1.Nguyn nhn: Chn cng d dng in qu b, khng chp hnh cng tc lm sch trc khi hn c sau mi ng hn, phng php chun ng que hn khng thch hp. 1.3.2.2 Bin php phng nga: Chn cng dng in thch hp, chp hnh trit cng tc lm sch, chn phng php chuyn ng que hn hp l. 1.3.3.Mi hn r kh: 1.3.3.1: Nguyn nhn: Que hn b m, khng lm sch phi hn. 1.3.3.2: Bin php phng nga:

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Chp hnh vic sy kh que hn v lm sch phi hn trc khi hn.

Bi 2

HN P TRC BNG MY HN H QUANG TAY

MD-24-02

A. Mc tiu ca bi: Sau khi hc xong bi hc ny ngi hc s c kh nng: - Tnh ton vt liu hn p. - Chun b thit b, dng c hn, vt liu hn y an ton. - Chun b chi tit p m bo sch, x l ht cc vt nt m bo yu cu k thut. - Chn in p, cng dng in v tc hn, phng php chuyn ng que hn ph hp vi ng knh chi tit p v tnh cht ca vt liu. - Thc hin hn p cc chi tit trc, bng phng php hn theo ng sinh hoc ng trn ng kch thc, m bo su ngu, lng d gia cng c, t bin dng. - Sa cha c cc sai hng v kch thc, hnh dng, r kh, ln x, khuyt cnh t yu cu k thut. - Thc hin tt cng tc an ton v v sinh phn xng B. Ni dung ca bi: Thi gian: 12 h (LT:3 h, TH:9 h) 1: Chun b chi tit hn p. Thi gian:2 2: Chun b thit b, dng c, vt liu hn p. Thi gian:0,5
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3: Tnh ton ch hn p. 4: K thut hn p trc. 5: Kim tra sa cha sn phm sau khi hn. 6: An ton lao ng - v sinh phn xng.

Thi gian:0,5 Thi gian:8 Thi gian:0,5 Thi gian:0,5

2.1 : Cng tc chun b: 2.1.1.Vt liu: Vin hn quc t phn loi vt liu hn p cho tt c cc phng php hn p. s phn loi da theo thnh phn ho hc ca kim loi p. Nhiu nc trn th gii da vo cch phn loi ni trn phn loi vt liu hn p chng hn nh Lin x c phn li que hn p theo 8 loi sau y: +) Que hn p thp hp kim thp cha t hn 0,4%C l que hn H-15 3-40, H-18 4-35, H-20 4-40, H-14 2X-30. Que hn thp cc bon thp Cb-08 hoc Cb-08A, thuc bc floruacanxi, dng hn p cc chi tit thp cc bon thp b mi mn, cng ca lp kim loi p tu thuc vo kiu que hn nm trong gii hn 25-40HRC +) Que hn p lp thp hp kim thp cha ln hn 0.4%C c ba kiu: H-60X2CM-50, H-80X4C -55 v H-60X2CM-50. Li que hn bng thp Cb-08 hoc Cb-08A thuc bc floruacanxi. cng ca lp kim loi p 40-58HRC. Dng hn p cc chi tit b mn nhanh nh khun dp, li gt my i vv... +) Qe hn p lp thp crm. l que hn kiu H-25X12-40, H-70X11H3-25, T-546A, c li bng thp cc bon thp hoc thp hp kim v thuc bc floruacanxi cng kim loi hn p 25M un hn p

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55HRC. Dng hn p khun my dp nng v ngui, cc chi tit mn nhanh, ghi g ng ray v cc chi tit thp mangan cao -13. +)Q hn p lp thp ct gt tc nhanh. Li que hn lm bng cc loi thp khc nhau. Thuc bc floruacanxi. cng lp p 50-60HRC. l que hn kiu H-80B18X4 -60, dng hn p dng c ct gt kim loi v hn p khun dp nng ti trng nng. +) Que hn p lp gang c bit crm cao. l kiu que hn H-Y30X28C4H4-50, H-Y30X25PC2 -60 v H-Y3023PC2T 55. Kiu que hn H-Y30X28C4H4-50 Li que hn bng thp hp kim, thuc bc floruacanxi, dng phc hi v sn xut nhng chi tit chng mi mn ca my bm li tm, my khai thc du.vv..Hai kiu que hn. H-Y30X25PC2 -60 v H-Y3023PC2T -55 lm t li Cb-08 hoc Cb-08A, thuc bc floruacanxi, dng hn p cc chi tit bng gang chng mn, cng lp p 59-60 HRC. +) Que hn p lp thp crmvonfram chu nhit. Que hn kiu H-30X3B8-40 lm bng li thp H -60X3B10 thuc bc floruacanxi. Dng hn p cc b mt chng mn nh khun dp nng, dng c p, dao, cnh qut my khuy .vv.. cng kim loi hn p 54HRC. Que hn c li thp Cb-08 thuc bc floruacanxi. Dng hn p lp thp crmvonfram cha cc bon cao trn cc chi tit lm vic chu nhit ti 6000. cng lp p 54HRC. +) Que hn p lp hp kim cban vi crm v vnfram. l que hn kiu H-Y18k62X30B5C2-40. Li que hn bng thp hp kim B3K. Thuc bc floruacanxi, thc hin bng phng php M un hn p Bin 17 son: Nguyn c

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nhng mt hoc hai lp. Que hn dng vo vic hn p cc chi tit t thep austenit cromniken lm vic nhit cao ti 6000 v p sut ti 800Kg/cm2 v trong mi trng xm thc. cng lp hn p 45 HRC. Chu mi mn rt cao k cac khi chi tit lm vic nhit bbnh thng v nhit cao. +) Que hn p kiu khc. l H-08X17H7C5 2-30, BCH-6, H-Y10 5X7C-25, HX -10, Y -30X-10 10.c im chung ca cc kiu l thuc bc nhm floruacanxi, li que hn lm t nhiu loi thp hp kim khc nhau, cng lp p tu thuc vo tng loi que hn nm trong phm vi 20-55HRC.Cng dng ca que hn cng khc nhau chng hn que hn H-08X17H7C5 2-30 dng hn p cc chi tit ng lm vic nhit ti 5800 v p sut ring hn 800kg/cm2, que hn BCH-6 dng hn p cc chi tit thp cc bon v thp t l mangan cao lm vic trong iu kin chu ti trng va p mnh v mi mn, vv... bi tp ny thc tp hn p thp cc bon thp v thp hp kim thp thuc nhm thp d hn do vic hn p c thc hin bng phng php thng thng v iu kin bnh thng. Hn p mth phng phi 250 80 10mm v hn p trc phi 20 250mm 2.1.2.Thit b v dng c - My hn in h quang tay - Knh hn. Ba g x. - Bn chi st. - Dng o.
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- Thc dt - Ba ngui. 2.1.3. iu kin an ton - Mt bng thc tp b tr gn gng, ni lm vic c nh sng, h thng thng gi, ht bi hot ng tt - My hn phi c y dy tip t. - Bo h lao ng y 2.2: Trnh t thc hin: 2.2.1.c bn v

Hnh 2-1: hn p trc

2.2.2. Chun b chi tit hn p Hu ht cc chi tit my a phc hi u rt bn, b mt lm vic b bm du m, han r. Nu hn p ln nhng chi tit nh vy mi hn s khng ngu, r kh v nhng tp cht phi kim loi khc. Bi vy trc khi hn p chi tit hn cn c lm sch cn thn, sau phn loi v xc nh phng php phc hi. Phng php ty sch chi tit bng tia la nhit hay trong l nung c hiu qu v tin li nht. Cht bn khng nhng b t chy khi b mt m cn khi c nhng ch him hc hay nt rn ca chi tit. Tip mui than v -xt kim loi c lm sch bng chi thp.
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Tuy nhin khng phi chi tit no cng c th ty sch bng phng php trn chng hn nhng chi tit bng thp mangan cao khng c php lm sch bng cch nung nng m phi ra sch trong dung dch xt 5% ri sau ra bng nc nng. Tri li nhng chi tit bng thp cc bon hay thp hp kim m cng ngh hn p phi ng dng gia nhit trc th vic ty sch du m v cc cht bn khc th hin ngay trong qu trnh gia nhit . Chng ta cng c th lm sch cc chi tit my bng my mi hoc chi thp, thit b phun ct vv.. Sau khi lm sch xong ta loi tr cc vt nt trn chi tit, i vi vt nt ln ta hn v trc khi hn p, i vi cc vt nt nh ta loi b bng my mi cm tay. Tm li, cng tc chun b chi tit trc khi hn p bng cc phng php hn khc nhau nhng u mang tnh cht chung v ng vai tr rt quan trng. N quyt nh phn ln cht lng lp hn p. Bi vy khng c coi thng m phi thc hin tt v y tt c cc cng vic cn thit ca qu trnh chun b. 2.2.3. Chn ch hn: Gia chiu dy lp kim loi p , ng knh que hn, s lp hn p v cng dng in hn c quan h nh sau: Chiu dy lp p mm ti 1,5 ti 5 ln hn 5 ng knh que hn mm 3 4-5 5-6 S lp p, lp 1 1-2 2 v hn Cng dng in A 80- 100 130-180 180-240 2.3. K thut hn p trc thp cc bon thp v thp hp kim thp:
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K thut hn p trc cng tng t nh k thut hn p mt phng v gc nghing que hn, phng php chuyn ng que hn v ng hn sau cng phi lm nng chy 1/3-1/2 b rng ca ng hn trc. Khi hn p nhiu lp cn phi lm sch x hn ca lp hn trc , v din tch nung nng ln v s ln nung nng tng i nhiu nn d sinh ra bin dng ln. lm phn tn nhit v kh ng sut bin dng th th t cc ng hn p trc thc hin nh hnh v (Hnh2-2)

Hnh 2-2: Trnh t hn p trc cn i gim bt s bin dng, c th nhn lc cn nng dng ba tay g nh vo lp hn p. p ng yu cu gia cng c cn phi hn p vi lng d t 3-5mm 2.4. Hn p bng hp kim cng: Vic hn p bng bt hp kim cng thc hin bng h quang vi cc n than hoc in cc grapht ngun in xoay chiu hoc mt chiu. Ngun in mt chiu cho h quang n nh hn. m bo cho mi hn ngu ttv in cc tiu hao t ngi ta hn bng in cc m. in cc c ng knh 8-25mm v chiu di
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khong 300mm. Dng in cc grapht c in tr nh, t chy khng to ra bt th tt hn l dng in cc than. Trc khi hn p u in cc cn c vt nhn chiu cao phn cn bng 2-3 ln ng knh in cc. Kp in cc trong km sao cho chiu di u ngoi cng n v tr kp ca km khng qu 70-80mm. Cng dng in c chn theo chiu dy chi tit ti ch hn p. cc ch hn c cho trong bng sau, bng 1.

Chiu dy ng Chiu Cng Tn hp kim chi tit knh in di h dng in hn cc quang A mm Mt Xoay chiu chiu Vka Ti 10 8-10 3-5 140160ln hn 10 12-18 3-5 160 180 160180200 240 Stalinit v 3-5 8-10 4-8 8090BCXOM-9 6-15 10-12 4-8 100 120 Ln hn 16-20 4-8 12014015 140 160 160180180 230 Hn hp Ti 10 10-12 4-6 160190borua x v Ln hn 12-15 4-6 190 210
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k x

170220210 250 Nu din tch b mt hn p qu ln th phi hn nhiu lt. Ngi ta chia mt hn ra nhiu mnh dc hoc ngang vi mi mnh khng qu 40-50mm. Hn p trn mnh qu rng s khng m bo tt cht lng lp p v kim loi vng hn ngui qu nhanh. Bt hp kim cng phi c kch thc u v khng cha bi. Bi lm chy cc nguyn t hp kim trong khi hn gy r mi hn. Bt hp kim phi sy kh trc khi hn. B dy lp bt hp kim ph ln b mt chi tit ph thuc vo loi hp kim v chiu dy lp p.Chng hn chiu dy lp hn bng bt stalinit v BCXOM-9 bng 35-40% chiu dy lp bt ph, voka 50-65% v b rt crom 20-30%. nhn c lp p c mn cn thit v khng b r kh ta dng bt hn hoc bt nhm. Thuc hn thng dng nht l borc. Thuc hn a vo hp kim cng bng hai phng php: Hoc ph mt lp mng (0,1-0,2mm) ln b mt chi tit trc khi ph bt hp kim cng, hoc trn trc tip vi bt hp kim cng. Trong trng hp th hai thuc hn chim 2-5% trng lng bt hp kim cng. Trong khi hn p, mp chi tit hn c bo v khi chy bng cc thanh chn grapht hoc ng . Thanh chn c tc dng to hnh cho lp hp kim nng chy, nh vy mp hn p nhn c phng v sch.

10

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Hnh 2-3:Hn p h quang bng bt hp kim cng


1. Bt hp kim cng ;2.in cc than; 3.Lp hn p; 4.5.Thanh chn

Vic hn p thc hin t "trong ra" ngha l bt u t mp pha ngi th hn. H quang mi bn cnh lp bt ca hp kim, sau chuyn dn ti lp bt hp kim. in cc nghing v pha th hn mt gc khong 10-150 so vi mt phng ng (Hnh 5). u in cc khng t hng ln mt m t xuyn qua lp hp kim theo chiu ct vt. Trong khi hn in cc di chuyn theo hnh rng ca theo chiu rng ca lp hn p. Tc di chuyn phi bo m sao cho kim loi v tr h quang lun trng thi lng. Bt hp kim ng vi tc hn chn ca in cc phi chy hon ton. Qu trnh hn p phi lin tc. Trng hp phi ngt h quang th sau khi ngt th phi ph kn ming hn bng bt hp kim cng. i vi nhng chi tit c hnh dng phc tp hn ch bin dng nn nung nng ton b trc ti 500-6000C. Sau khi hn p M un hn p Bin 24 son: Nguyn c

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c kh

gi cho chi tit ngui dn bng cch ph n bng ct kh nng, tro hoc amiang. Trong trng hp hn p hai lp, sau khi hn p lp th nht cn phi nh sch mi hn bng chi thp, tip ph lp hp kim cng ri hn theo cng ngh nh lp th nht. tng gin v tng giai va p ca kim loi lp p c th hn bng in kim loi (que hn thuc bc nhm ion ho). Trong trng hp ny, in cc kim loi nng chy to vi bt hp kim v kim loi c bn mt lp kim loi p c th chu mi mn kh tt v t gin hn, phng php ny ng dng vo vic phc hi nhng chi tit lm vic trong iu kin chu ti trng ng. N cng c dng hn p cc lp th nht v th hai khi phi hn p nhiu lp. Chiu dy lp bt hp kim cng khi hn bng in cc kim loi ph thuc ng knh in cc v loi hp kim. Theo tnh ton, trng lng ca lp bt hp kim phi bng 30-40% trng lng li in cc kim loi. Hn p bng ngun in xoay chiu cng dng in 180-190A vi que hn ng knh 4mm , in p h quang 24-26v. 2-5. Cc dng sai hng khi hn p chi tit my bng h quang tay v bin php phng nga: 2.5.1 Chi tit hn b cong vnh: 2.5.1.1 Nguyn nhn: Do phn b cc ng hn khng hp l, khng g kp chc chn trong qu trnh hn. 2.5.1.2 Bin php khc phc:

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Thng xuyn kim tra chi tit sau mi lp hn, thc hin th t cc ng hn, lp hn ng quy trnh k thut, c th tin hnh nn nng khi chi tit b cong vnh. . 2.5.2 Mi hn ln x: 2.5.2.1.Nguyn nhn: Chn cng d dng in qu b, khng chp hnh cng tc lm sch trc khi hn c sau mi ng hn, phng php chun ng que hn khng thch hp. 2.5.2.2 Bin php phng nga: Chn cng dng in thch hp, chp hnh trit cng tc lm sch, chn phng php chuyn ng que hn hp l. 2.5..3.Mi hn r kh: 2.5.3.1: Nguyn nhn: Que hn b m, khng lm sch phi hn. 2.5.3.2: Bin php phng nga: Chp hnh vic sy kh que hn v lm sch phi hn trc khi hn. Bi 3 HN P CHI TIT MY BNG THIT B HN KH
MD 24-03

Gii thiu: Hn p chi tit my bng thit b hn khi l bi tp c bn nm trong h thng cc bi thuc mun hn p, trong chng trnh o to cng nhn lnh ngh, nhm cung cp nhng kin thc v k nng cn thit khi thc hin hn p chi tit my bng thit b hn kh trong qu trnh hc, ngi hc phi tip thu kin thc v vt liu
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hn, cng ngh hn p bng thit b hn khi, an ton v v sinh mi trng, phi thc hin cc thao tc hn trn cc vt liu m phng, hon thin cc bi tp v thc hin cc cng vic hn p cc chi tit my thnh tho m bo yu cu k thut. A-Mc tiu thc hin: Hc xong bi hc ny ngi hc s c kh nng: - Trnh by khi nim chung v hn p bng phng php hn kh. - Chun b chi tit hn sch ht du m, vt bn, lp -xy ho, khng cn vt nt. - Chn vt liu hn ph hp vi tng loi vt liu chi tit hn p. - Chn ch hn ph hp vi chiu dy v tnh cht ca vt liu. - Hn p trc, p mt phng m bo yu cu k thut. - Thc hin tt cng tc an ton v v sinh cng nghip. B- Ni dung chnh: - Khi nim chung v hn p - Chun b phi hn p - Dng c thit b hn p - Hn p kim loi mu - K thut hn p hp kim cng - An ton khi vn hnh s dng thit b hn p 1. Khi nim chung v hn p kim loi bng phng php hn kh:

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Hn p l qu trnh bi p mt lp kim loi que hn ln kim loi c bn b t nng chy ti mt chiu su nh. Hn p c dng phc hi cc chi tit b mn v p ln b mt mt lp kim loi c nhng tnh cht c bit nh bn chng n mn, cng, bn chng mi mn vv...Hn p thc hin bng cc kim loi c cng thnh phn nh kim loi c bn, hoc khc thnh phn ho hc vi kim loi c bn. Trn cc chi tit bng thp v gang, ngi ta hn p bng kim loi mu (ng, ng thau, ng thanh), thp hp kim, gang v c cc hp kim khc na. c chiu su nng chy cn thit phi iu chnh mc t nng kim loi hn p v kim loi c bn. Khi hn p bng ngn la hn kh th d dng iu chnh mc nung nng kim loi c bn v kim loi p nh vic t nng chng ring bit. Ngn la xy- kh chy cng bo v kim loi nng chy khi b -xy ho bi -xy ca khng kh v trnh cho cc yu t thuc thnh phn c bn khng b bay hi. Nhc im chung ca hn p bng ngn la hn kh l nng sut thp hn so vi hn p bng h quang v vng nung nng ca kim loi c bn qu rng, do c th xut hin ng sut d v bin dng ca cc chi tit. V vy hn p bng ngn la kh dng cho cc chi tit c kch thc khng ln. 2.Chun b phi hn p: Cng ging nh cc phng php hn p khc cc chi tit a vo hn p iu phi c lm sch, ht du m, lp -xy ho trn b mt, phi x l ht cc vt nt bng phng php hn, mi, chi tit p c lm sch cho sng nh kim loi.
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3. Thit b dng c hn p bng phng php hn kh: Thit b dng c hn kh bao gm chai cha - xy, chai cha a-xty-len, van gim p, ng dn kh , m hn kh, knh hn, ngun la, g, dng c o, dng c lm sch vv... 4. K thut hn p kim loi mu: Hn p bng kh dng cho hn ng thau th rt u vit. ng thau c hn p ln cc chi tit to ra cc b mt kn kht trong cc thit b ng kn. Khi hn p ng thau ln kim loi en thng phi dng thuc hn, thng thng hn p thng s dng phng php hn tri v tr hn sp. hn ch s bc hi ca km khi hn p ng thau ngi ta dng ngn la cc bon ho . Kh hn thng dng l kh a-x-ty-len, prpan-butan v kh thin nhin. lm vt liu hn ngi ta dng tt c cc nhn ng thau cha khng qu 0,1%km. Khi hn p ln cc chi tit ln, ngi ta t nng chng ti nhit 5000C. Cng sut ngn la hn v ng knh qua hn c ly tu theo chiu dy lp p theo bng sau.

Chiu dy lp p mm 3-4 5-6 6-9

ng knh que hn mm 4-6 8-10 10-12

Cng sut ngn la ax-ty-len m3/h 400-700 600-1100 1050-1750

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Hn p c th mt lp hoc nhiu lp. Khi hn p cc lp sau, phi t nng chy lp trc su ti gn 30% chiu dy ca n, rc thuc hn vo b hn p. Phi t nng b mt kim loi ti nhit 900-9500C. Sau khi rc thuc hn th tin hnh hn p, lp p dy 0,3-0,5mm. K thut hn p ng thau ln thp, gang v c bn ging nhau. Khi hn p gang cn lu rng khi t nng gang n nhit 900-9500C th trn b mt n grapht b chy, sn phm do grapht chy to nn s gy cn tr cho vic xm nhp vo gang, do lc u, ngi ta t grapht t b mt hn p, dng ngn la xy ho ca m hn t. Sau b mt cn p c lm sch cn thn bng bn chi kim loi..khi hn p gang bng ng thau th cng c kh nng lm cho gang ho trng. Hn gang bng ng thau c dng thuc hn bt c s dng trong cc trng hp rt hn ch. Khi hn p gang v thp bng kh v thuc hn th chi tit c t nng n gn 7000C bng m hn. Nung nng ti 5000C c thc hin khng dng thuc hn trong ngn la m hn, Ch sau mi dng thuc hn. S hn p c th hin hnh 28.

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Hnh 3-1: S hn p bng hn kh c thuc


1. kim loi hn c bn; 2. Lp p; 3. B hn; 4. thuc hn; 5.mi hn

B mt hn p c t nghing mt gc 00-100 so vi ng nm ngang. Hn p c tin hnh theo cch hn tri t di ln, gc nghing ca u m vi ng nm ngang l 30-600 gc gia u m v que hn l 900-1100. u que hn c nhng vo b kim loi lng. Trong qu trnh hn p bnh thng, km khng bc hi, vt hn p c t nguyn vn, phn b hn khng chu tc ng ca ngn la th b ph bi mt lp mng x dy c, khi hn p, cc lp hn p tip sau c thc hin theo cng s , ch c gc nghing ca u m vi kim loi c bn l c th tng thm. V hn p bng thuc hn kh c thc hin nhit thp, nn khi hn p gang, grapht khng b chy. Khi hn p cc lp sau khng cn ty sch v rn cc lp trc. 5. Hn p hp kim cng:
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Hn p bng hp kim cng c dng cho cc b mt lm vic chu mn. Cc chi tit l cc dng c khoan l, rng ca gu my xc, cc chi tit my cn v my ko dy, li cy, van, mi tm my tin, khun dp v c dng c ct nh dao tin, mi khoan dao phay. Hn p hp kim cng thc hin cho cc chi tit bng thp. Hn p hp kim cng tt nht l bng thp cc bon cha khng qu 0,6% cc bon v c chi tit bng thp crm-niken v thp vanai. Chn vt liu cho chi tit ph thuc vo iu kin lm vic ca sn phm. Hn p cho thp cc bon cao, thp mangan, thp crm-mlpen, c khuynh hng d b ti v c gang na, i hi nhng bin php c bit . Trc khi hn phi t nng chng, sau khi hn p phi ngui chm. dng lm vt liu hn khi hn p hp kim cng ngi ta s dng cc dng ht v bt, hp kim c thnh thanh, dy thp hn p, thanh ng hn p. Khi hn p bng ngn la hn kh ngi ta dng bt c nhn -XH80CP-2, -XH80CP-3 v x6-2 cc phn t ca bt phi c kch thc t 40-100 m . Cc cht bt cha silic v bo lm tng tnh cht nng chy ca n. Trong cc hp kim mi mn, c dng nhiu nht l stalinil, (stalinil l hn hp bt gm st, cc bon, man gan, silic v crm) Hp kim cng c c sn xut di dng thanh. dng lm hp kim c ngi ta dng stelit v xocmai (stelit l dung dch rn crm trong st v niken. Hp kim c c nhit nng chy 1260 0C-13000C. Hp kim trn c s st (xocmai) khng thua stelit v cng, nhng r tin hn.
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Sitelit c tnh cht hn p tt hn xocmai. Thnh phn ho hc ca stelit v xocmai c tra trong bng sau: Thnh phn ho hc ca Stelit v xocmai Nhn hp kim C Stelit B2K B3K Xocmai s 1 Xc mai s 2 1,8-2,5 1,0-1,5 2,5-3,3 1,5-2,0 Thnh phn ho hc, % Fe Si Mn di 2 di 2 cn li cn li 1,0-2,0 2,5 2,8-4,2 1,5-2,2 1,0 1,5 1,0 Ni di 2 di 2 3,0-5,0 1,3-2,0

Nhn hp kim Cr Stelit B2K B3K Xocmai s 1 Xc mai s 2 27-33 28-32 25-31 13-17,5

Thnh phn ho hc, % Co W Tp cht 47-53 58-62 13-17 4,5-5,0 di 1,5 di 1,5 di 1-1,5 di 1,5

cng HRC lp hn p

49-54 45-45

lm vt liu hn p cc chi tit lm vic nhit cao, ngi ta dng Stelit, cn xocmai c dng cho cc chi tit lm vic nhit bmh thng v hi cao. Xocmai c sn xut di dng cc thanh c ng knh 67mm, di 400-450mm.
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Vt liu ng hn p c sn xut di dng ng st v ng ni ken cha y cht bt cacbua vonfram v cc vt liu kh chy khc. Khi hn p ch c ng l chy ra, cng bt th ho ln vo th khi chung ca ch hn p, kt qu ch hn p c cng HRC85, vt liu ng hn p c s dng cho cc chi tit lm vic trong iu kin mn c hc. Nu chi tit b mn qu mc, th trc khi p hp kim cng ngi ta p bng dy hn cc bon thp phc hi hnh dng ban u sau lm sch ht vy, st, x ch hn p tin hnh vt mp hoc khot rnh. Chiu su vt mp i vi xocmai s 1 l 0,5-2,5mm vi xocmai s 2 l 1,5-3,5mm, chiu rng mp vt 5-10mm. Hn p thc hin bng ngn la a-x-ty-len, -xy tha d a-x-ty-len. i vi cc chi tit ln, khi hn p phi t nng trc bng ngn la khi n nhit 500-7000C v ngui dn trc khi hn p. bo v lp nng chy, ngi ta dng thuc hn c cc thnh phn sau y: borc nung nng- 20%, axtbric -68%, fluorit(hunh thch)-12%; borc-50%, bicacbnat natri-47%, xitsilic-3%, loi thuc hn th nht nn dng hn p stelit, loi th 2 dng cho xocmai. Qu trnh hn p c tin hnh theo t th hn sp bng c hn phi hoc hn tri. sau khi hn p, cho chi tit ngui chm dn trnh nt ch kim loi p.

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Bi 3

HN P CHI TIT MY BNG H QUANG TRONG MI TRNG KH BO V

MD 24-03

Gii thiu: Hn p chi tit my bng h quang trong mi trng kh bo v l bi tp c bn nm trong h thng cc bi thuc mun hn p, trong chng trnh o to cng nhn lnh ngh, nhm cung cp nhng kin thc v k nng cn thit khi thc hin hn p chi tit my bng h quang trong mi trng kh bo v. Trong qu trnh hc, ngi hc phi tip thu kin thc v vt liu hn, cng ngh hn p bng h quang trong mi trng kh bo v, an ton v v sinh mi trng, phi thc hin cc thao tc hn trn cc vt liu m phng, hon thin cc bi tp v thc hin cc cng vic hn p cc chi tit my thnh tho m bo yu cu k thut. Mc tiu thc hin: Hc xong bi hc ny ngi hc s c kh nng: - Trnh by ng nguyn l v c im ca hn p bn t ng trong mi trng kh bo v. - Chun b chi tit hn sch ht du m, vt bn, lp -xy ho, khng cn vt nt. M un hn p Bin 35 son: Nguyn c

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- Chn vt liu hn ph hp vi tng loi vt liu chi tit hn p. - Tnh ton ch hn ph hp vi chiu dy v tnh cht ca vt liu. - Hn p trc, p mt phng m bo yu cu k thut. - Thc hin tt cng tc an ton v v sinh cng nghip. Ni dung chnh: - Nguyn l v c im ca hn p h quang trong mi trng kh bo v. - Vt liu hn p bng h quang trong mi trng kh bo v - Dng c thit b hn p - Chun b phi hn p - Chn ch hn p - K thut hn p mt phng, hn p trc. - An ton khi vn hnh s dng thit b hn p 1 :Nguyn l v c im: 1.1 Nguyn l: Hn p trong kh bo v khc vi cc phng php hn p khc l y h quang chy trong lung kh bo v, kh bo v y khng kh khi vng h quang chy ng thi bo v kim loi lng khi -xy v nit ca khng kh trong s cc cht kh bo v ngi ta dng kh tr v loi kh hot tnh hoc hn hp ca chng, ngy nay ngi ta s dng nhiu phng php hn v hn p trong mi trung kh bo v nh hn tay, hn bn t ng v hn t ng bng dy nng chy hoc khng nng chy.(Hnh 6)

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1. H quang in ; 2.Kh bo v ; 3. Dy hn nng chy; 4. Ming phun kh 5.C cu cp dy hn

H 6: S nguyn l hn p h quang trong mi trng kh bo v 1.2. c im ca hn p bng h quang trong mi trng kh bo v: Hn p bng h quang trong mi trng kh bo v n c s dng rng ri nht, n cho php c kh ho v t ng ho qu trnh hn bt k v tr no trong khng gian thch hp vi b mt ca chi tit hn p k c hn trn, chng ta cng c th c kh ho c vic hn p cc chi tit nh. iu lm tng nng sut lao ng ln ti 3-5 ln so vi hn h quang tay. Vic quan st d dng h quang v s hnh thnh mi hn cho php s dng phng php hn p trong moi trung kh bo v phc hi nhng chi tit phc tp nh khun dp. Thao tc hn n gin, cht lng lp kim loi hn p cao. 2: Cng tc chun b: 2.1. Kh bo v : Trong cc cht kh bo v ngi ta dng agn, cacbnic, h li, nit v mt s cht kh khc. Song thng dng nht l agon v cacbnic. M un hn p Bin 37 son: Nguyn c

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Agn l kh tr nguyn t. Agn tinh khit khng lin kt ho hc vi kim loi, khng ph thuc vo nhit nung nng. Bi vy trong hn v hn p thnh phn ho hc kim loi ch thay i do cc nguyn t b bay hi. Khi lng ring ca agn l 1,78g/l. Trong hn v hn p ngi ta dng agn c trn ln mt s cht kh khc. Agn cha trong bnh trng thi kh di p sut 150at. Bnh dung tch 40lt cho mt lng agn khong 6m3. Agon khng chy v khng to vi cc cht kh khc thnh cc hn hp d n. Agonnng hn khng kh bi vy n bo v kim loi vng hn khi khng kh, agon dng hn v hn pcc chi tit thp khng r, chu nhit v kim loi mu. Khi nit hoc hirm nhp vo vng hn th kim loi hn p s b r, bi vy ngi ta thng trn vo agon mt lng 5-10% hoc 10-20% kha cacbnic. Hn trong mi trng kh nh vy cho h quang n nh v ngn nga c hin tng to r kh. Trong trng hp ny dy hn phi tng lng cc nguyn t hp kim b tr phn bay hi do tc dng ca -xy hoc kh cacbnic. Trong hn p bng in cc nng chy ngi ta dng hn hp kh agonv cacbnic. Nh vy lng tiu th kh agon gim 5-6 ln. Cacbnic l kh hot tnh, dng hn p cc chi tit my bng thp cacbon, thp hp kim thp v mt s loi thp hp kim trung bnh. Cacbnic l kh r, r hn kh agon 12-14 ln, sn v c hiu qu khi hn p cc loi thp ni trn. Vng hn nh v tc dng lm ngui ca lung kh cacbnic cho php s dng phng php hn p mi v tr trong khng gian v m bo mi hn hnh thnh tt. Vng nh hng nhit b hn 3-4 ln so vi hn xy, aM un hn p

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x-ty-len, do ng sut v bin dng gim ng k. Khi lng ring ca kh cacbnic tng i ln( Ln hn khng kh 1,5 ln) to iu kin tt bo v kim loi lng khi nit ca khng kh, ng thi tng tnh n nh ca n khi b khng kh thi. Kh cacbnic dng hn p c th nhn t phn ng ho hc gia axt sunfuaric vi phn, khi nung vi, s chy ca than cc, than ngtraxt... Axtcacbonic c th trng thi rn, lng hoc kh, dng thun tin nhtl trng thi lng. Khi bay hi, 1 lt a xtcacbnic lng 00C v p sut 670mm Hg cho 506,8 lit cacbnic. Trong bnh tiu chun thng np c 22 lit a xit cacbnic lng v nh vy khi bay hi cho 12,5m3 kh. Bnh cha CO2 c sn mu en v vit ch mu xanh, kh dng hn c tinh khit 99,5%. 2.2. Dy hn: hn p trong kh cacbnic ngi ta dng dy thp cacbon v thp hp kim ng knh t 0,5-2,5mm v dy bt c ng knh 2,5- 3mm. Dy c dng knh t 0,8-1,6mm thng dng hn p nhng chi tit c mn nh v nhng chi tit hnh tr b, chiu dy ln nht ca mt lp p l 1-2,5mm. Dy hn phi sch khng r. Thnh phn ho hc ca dy hn phi m bo kh nng kh -xy ca vng hn, hp kim ho n v nhn lp kim loi hn p bn chc. Khi kh cacbnic qu m v cha nhiu nit, v kh bo v vng hn khng tt, cht kh -xy khng th trong b hn s hnh thnh nhiu kh chy khng kp thot khi vng hn v to thnh r kh trong lp hn p. Ngi ta dng silic v mangan lm cc cht
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kh o-xy khi hn p, cc chi tit bng thp cc bon v thp hp kim thp. ngn nga r kh ngi ta cho vo vng hn khong 0,8%silic v 1% mangan. iu ny ngn chn c s to thnh v thot o-xt cc bon trong khi hn p cng nh ti thi im kt tinh ca kim loi vng hn. v vy dy hn dng hn p nhng loi thp ni trn phi cha 0,8-1,2% silic v1,0-1,5%mangan. S to thnh r kh trong lp hn p cn l do c hyr trong vng h quang. Ngun hyr thng l hi nc trong kh cacbnic v trong li ca dy bt, r trn b mt dy hn v chi tit hn p. loi tr r kh do hyr gy ra trong thnh phn dy hn cn c khong 0.5% silic florua , n s kt hp vi hr i vo x. Hin nay cc nc ngoi ta dng nhiu loi dy hn p trong kh ccbnic Lin x thng dng nht l dy nhn hiu Cb12C, Cb08C, Cb082C, X13, X17, Cb-06X19HT, Cb-18XMA, Cb-08X20H9 7T. vv... Ngi ta cn dng dy bt nhn hiu -P18T, -P9T, -4X2B8T, -X12B T, -Y4525 6T v mt s loi khc. nhng dy ny dng p thp hp kim cao, trong thnh phn ca dy bt c 1,0-2%Titan. S c mt ca titan trong dy hn lm gim ng k s bay hi ca crm, vonfram, vanadi v lng kim loi bn tung to. Kim loi hn p nhn c cu trc ht mn, khng c r kh v vt nt. Vi ch hn thng thng, kim loi hn p c thnh phn ho hc tng ng vi thp P18, P9, 3X2B8, X12B c thm 0,2- 0,4%titan. S mt mt do bay hi v bn tung to chim 10-15% v h s hn p l
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15-18g/Ah. hn p trong mi trng kh tr ngi ta dng in cc khng nng chy bng Vonfram nguyn cht v thori-Vonfram . Hai loi u dng hn p bng ngun in xoay chiu, loi th ba hn p bng ngun in mt chiu cc thun. 2.3.Vt liu: bi tp ny thc tp hn p thp cc bon thp v thp hp kim thp thuc nhm thp d hn do vic hn p c thc hin bng phng php thng thng v iu kin bnh thng. Hn p mt phng phi 250 80 10mm v hn p trc phi 20 250mm 2.3.Thit b v dng c: - My hn bn t ng - Bn gh hn, g hn - Knh hn - Ba ngui - Gia - Km ct y hn - Bn chi st - Ba g x - Thc l - Dng kim tra mi hn 2.4. iu kin an ton - Mt bng thc tp b tr gn gng, ni lm vic c nh sng, h thng thng gi, ht bi hot ng tt - Nn xng kh ro, thit b hn c dy tip t, h thng cp kh m bo kn.
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- Bo h lao ng y 3: Trnh t thc hin: 3.1.Lm sch phi: Nn phng phi, kim tra kch thc phi, lm sch ht cc vt bn v lp -xy ho trn phi, nhng chi tit b nt ln th phi hn v vt nt, vt nt nh th x l bng my mi 3.2 Chn ch hn: Khi hn p bng h quang trong kh cacbnic bo v, loi dng in v cc tnh, mt dng in, in p h quang, ng knh dy hn v tm vi ca n, tc hn p v tc cp dy l nhng yu t quan trng nht ca k thut hn p. Hin nay ngi ta hn p bng dng in mt chiu cc nghch. Cng hn p lin quan vi mt dng in, ng knh dy hn, chiu su ngu ca mi hn, tc cp dy hn v chiu di h quang. Trong hn p khng th nhn c chiu su ngu ln, bi vy yu t c bn l tnh n nh ca h quang, nng sut hn p v cht lng ca cng tc hn p. m bo h quang n nh, bo v tt vng hn, kim loi t b bn to nn chn cng dng in hn, lng kh tiu hao theo cc s liu sau y: Bng 1-1 ng knh 0,5 dy hn, mm Cng 30dng in 100
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1,0

1,2

1,6

2,4

60150

80180

90270
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hn p, A Lng kh 8-9 CO2 tiu hao l/pht

8-9

8-9

9-12

12-15 15-18 18-20

Trng hp khng mun chiu su ngu ln nn s dng cng dng in nh v tc cp dy nh. Thay i cng dng hn v tc cp dy nh hng ti in p h quang. in p h quang l yu t quan trng ca ch hn p. Tng in p h quang lm tng chiu rng mch hn p, tng lng kim loi mt mt do bn to, bay hi v -xy ho, lm gim cht lng hn p, mi hn cha r kh. Bi vy cn gi in p h quang vi cng hn xc nh theo cc s liu di y, Bng 1-2 Cng 60 80 100 120 140 160 200 250 300 400 500 hn p A inbj p 17-19 18-19 18-20 19-20 19-21 20-23 28-34 28-37 h quang V 20-25 21-27 26-30 3.3. K thut hn p bng h quang trong mi trng kh bo v: 3.3.1. Tm vi in cc: Tm vi in cc nh hng rt ln n tnh n nh ca qu trnh hn p. Tm vi in cc ln lm cho u hn qu nng v chy mnh. Tm vi n cc nh, qu trnh hn kh thc hin.

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Hnh 7: Tm vi in cc C th chn tm vi in cc theo cc s liu thc nghim sau y: Bng 1-3 ng 0,5 knh dy hn mm Tm vi 6-8 in cc mm 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,6 2,0 2,5

6-12

7-13

8-15

13-20 15-25 15-30

3.3.2 Gc nghing m hn:

Hnh 8: Gc nghing m hn

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Trong qu trnh hn p gi gc nghing m hn so mt phng hn, ngc vi hng hn mt gc 70-800. Khng cm m hn nghing sang tri hoc sang phi. 3.3.3. Cch gy h quang khi hn p:

Hnh 9: Cch gy h quang khi hn p Gy h quang cch im bt u ca mi hn 10-20mm sau ko di h quang ri y v v tr cn hn. 3.3.4.X l im kt thc mi hn: n im kt thc mi hn t t y ngc m hn v pha sau mt khong 5-10mm

Hnh 10: X l im kt thc mi hn Sau khi ngt h quang khng di chuyn m hn khi v tr rnh h quang ngay m phi gi m hn ti v tr trong khong 10s v trong thi gian kh CO2 vn tip tc phun bo v vng hn.
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Khi hn p cc loi vt liu mng, chi tit hn p nh th chuyn ng m hn theo ng thng khng cn giao ng ngang. Khi hn p cc tm vt liu dy hoc cc trc c ng knh ln ta tin hnh hn p ging nh hng p bng hn h quang tay que hn c thuc bc.

Hnh 11: Phng php chuyn ng que hn C th chuyn ng que hn theo hnh rng ca hoc hnh bn nguyt c dng li cnh mi hn phng khuyt cnh. ci thin kh nng bo v ca kh khi hn p cc chi tit trn, b mt ming phun khi cn c hng dng thch hp vi mt hn p. Khi hn p, chn bc hn sao cho ng hn sau m ly ng hn trc 1/3 chiu rng mi hn. Cc chi tit t thp cc bon cao v thp hp kim cn nung nng trc khi hn, ng thi kh bo v cng cn c nung nng ti nhit cao hn. Trong trng hp ngc li, kim loi vng nh hng nhit s b tri, dn n nt t vi gy kh khn cho qu trnh gia cng c kh sau khi hn. khi hn p nhiu lp, c bit l cc chi tit nh, chi tit hn c th qu nng (trn 500-6000) h quang mt n nh v kim loi bn tung to nhiu. Trong trng hp ny cn gim ng knh dy hn v cng hn, ng thi tng lng kh bo v. M un hn p Bin 46 son: Nguyn c

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4. An ton khi hn h quang trong mi trng kh bo v: - S dng kh phi ng loi, trnh ng c, chy n, khu vc kh phi thong gi, xa ch hn ch ct v cc ngun nhit khc, trnh va p bnh. - Bnh kh phi g chc chn, khng ni c nhit cao trn 500. - Kim tra cht kn ca ng dn kh - Khng ng dn kh i qua cc ch lm vic trnh lm hng ng. - Khng dng ph kin khng ph hp vi tng loi kh. - Khng m van bnh trc khi lp van gim p. - M van kh t t. - Nu h phi ng van bnh trc khi s l. - eo knh thch hp chn h quang. - Bo h lao ng hp l.

Bi 4

MD 24-04 HN P CHI TIT MYBNG THIT BHN T NG DI LP THUC Gii thiu: Hn p chi tit my bng thit b hn t ng di lp thuc bo v l bi tp c bn nm trong h thng cc bi thuc mun hn

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p, trong chng trnh o to cng nhn lnh ngh, nhm cung cp nhng kin thc v k nng cn thit khi thc hin hn p chi tit my bng thit b hn t ng di lp thuc bo v. Trong qu trnh hc, ngi hc phi tip thu kin thc v vt liu hn, cng ngh hn p bng thit b hn t ng di lp thuc bo v, an ton v v sinh mi trng, phi thc hin cc thao tc hn trn cc vt liu m phng, hon thin cc bi tp v thc hin cc cng vic hn p cc chi tit my thnh tho m bo yu cu k thut. Mc tiu thc hin: Hc xong bi hc ny ngi hc s c kh nng: - Trnh by ng nguyn l v c im ca hn p t ng di lp thuc bo v - Chun b chi tit hn sch ht du m, vt bn, lp -xy ho, khng cn vt nt. - Chn vt liu hn ph hp vi tng loi vt liu chi tit hn p. - Chn ch hn ph hp vi chiu dy v tnh cht ca vt liu. - Hn p trc, p mt phng m bo yu cu k thut. - Thc hin tt cng tc an ton v v sinh cng nghip. Ni dung chnh: - Nguyn l v c im ca hn p bng thit b hn t ng di lp thuc. - Vt liu hn p bng thit b hn t ng di lp thuc. - Dng c thit b hn p - Chun b phi hn p
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- Chn ch hn p - K thut hn p mt phng, hn p trc. - An ton khi vn hnh s dng thit b hn p 1 :Nguyn l v c im: 1.1 Nguyn l: Cng nh hn p h quang tay, trong hn p t ng di lp thuc h quang chy gia in cc kim loi (dy hn) v kim loi c bn(Chi tit p). s khc nhau c bn gia hn p h quang tay v hn p t ng l s c kh ho, t ng ho qu trnh hn. Qu trnh hn bt u t khi pht h quang. Vng hn c to thnh sau khi h quang pht sinh. Ti y dy hn, thuc hn v kim loi c bn nng chy. ng thi di p sut kh gia kim loi v thuc hn to thnh mt mng kn bao bc ly h quang v vng hn. Thnh ca mng ny c to bi thuc hn nng chy.

Hnh 12: Qu trnh hn p di lp thuc 1.Dy hn ; 2.Thuc hn ; 3. kim loi c bn; 4.x lng; 5. Bt kh Bi vy qu trnh nng chy xy ra trong mng kn tch ri khng kh (hnh 12), ngoi ra n cn c ph bng lp thuc nn bng mt thng khng th nhn r lp trong vng hn, trong qu trnh hn thuc hn c cung cp lin tc v u xung vng hn. M un hn p Bin 49 son: Nguyn c

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Thuc nng chy to thnh x hn. phn thuc khng nng chy c thu li v s dng tip. Phn ln chi tit my phc hi l nhng chi tit c b mt lm vic phng hoc tr. Khi hn p mt phng, thng thng chi tit hn ng yn cn u hn p chuyn ng thng trn chi tit, sau mi ng hn u hn c a v v tr ban u. hn tip ng th hai, phi dch u hn theo phng chuyn ng ngang mt khong cch nht nh gi l bc tin ca ng hn (Hnh 13a). Qu trnh hn p t ng trn chi tit tr trn l ph kn b mt ca chi tit bng mt ng hn xon xp cnh nhau. ng xon ni trn c to thnh t hai chuyn ng(hnh 13b)

Hnh 13: Nguyn l hn p mt phng (a) v mt trn(b) Qu trnh hn p t ng trn chi tit tr trn l ph kn b mt ca chi tit bng mt ng hn hnh xon xp cnh nhau. ng xon ni trn c to thnh nh hai chuyn ng, chuyn ng ca phi quay quanh trc ca n v chuyn ng tnh tin ca u hn dc theo dc theo trc phi. Nhng chuyn ng trn l nhng chuyn ng u v lin tc. M un hn p Bin 50 son: Nguyn c

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qu trnh hn tin hnh mt cch t ng v lin tc th dy hn phi chuyn ng lin tc v u n v lin tc xung vng hn, ng thi thuc hn cng phi chy u n bo v h quang. 1.2 c im ca hn p t ng di lp thuc bo v: So vi hn h quang tay, hn p t ng c nhiu u im. Trong hn p t ng c th hp kim ho ti 30%, do c tnh ca lp hn p c ci thin v tng tnh chng mn ca chi tit sau khi khi phc. Vic hp kim ho trong hn p t ng r hn so vi hn tay. Nmg sut hn p tng r rt, iu kin lao ng v cht lng hn p c ci thin, in nng v kim loi p gim. 2. Vt liu hn p: Vt liu hn p t ng di thuc bao gm thuc hn v dy hn. 2.1. Thuc hn: Vai tr ch yu ca thuc hn trong hn p t ng l lm mng ngn cch l hc ca vng hn khi tc dng ca khng kh, n nh h quang, iu chnh thnh phn ho hc ca lp hn p v to dng mi hn. Tc dng lm mng cch ca thuc ph thuc vo kch thc ht v cu trc vt l ca chng. Cu trc ht cng mn v kch thc ht cng nh th kh nng bo v ca mng cng tng. Chiu dy ca lp thuc ph ln trn b mt cng lm nh hng n kh nng lm mng cchs ca n. Chiu dy cn thit ca thuc hn ng vi cc dng in khc nhau, bng 4-1. Chiu dy thuc hn trn b mt vt hn Bng 4-1

Cng dng in 130-200 200-400 400-800 800M un hn p

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hn, A Chiu dy thuc hn, 20-25 mm

25-35

35-45

1200 45-60

Thnh phn ho hc ca lp hn trong hn tay ch yu ph thuc vo trnh tay ngh ca ngi th hn. Song trong hn t ng di lp thuc, do cc thng s hn khng thay i trong qu trnh hn, thnh phn ho hc ca mi hn n nh hn. Thnh phn ho hc ca lp hn khng nhng ph thuc vo thmh phn ho hc ca dy hn v kim loi c bn m cn ph thuc nhiu vo thuc hn. Trong khi hn mt phn cc nguyn t ca thuc hn chuyn vo mi hn lm thay i c tnh cht cng ngh v tng c tnh ca lp p. Cc nguyn t nh hng ln l mangan v silic. S hnh thnh mi hn ph thuc vo nht ca thuc hn nhit cao v c im v nh hng nhit ca n. Ngoi ra n cn ph thuc nhiu vo ch cng ngh hn, trc ht l cng dng in hn, bng 5-1. Bng 5-1 Quan h gia kch thc ht v cng hn Cng hn, A Ti 600 T 600 n 1200 Trn 1200 Kch thc ht B nht Ln nht 0,25 1,6 0,4 2,5 0,6 3,0

Da vo lng man gan, c thuc hn khng c man gan, thuc hn mangan trung bnh v thuc hn mangan cao; theo cng dng

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c thuc hn cc bon thp, thuc hn hp kim, thuc hn baz v thuc hn axt . Trong lnh vc phc hi ngi ta phn loi thuc hn p nng chy theo cng dng. Chng hn cng ho dn ch c thuc hn nng chy Pie 18 UPACr6 dng hn p thp hp kim cao bng cc dy hn tng ng. Mi hn c hp kim ho bng silic,mangan v Crm. Thuc c dng hn p bnh cut trc cu xch, g bnh tau hovv... Ba lan c bn loi thuc hn p nng chy: TNA.St.1; TA.St.3; TA.St.9 v TA.St.11CrNi (theo tiu chun PN73/M-69355) vi thnh phn ho hc ca chng nh sau: Bng 6-1. Thnh phn ho hc ca thp nng chy (Ba lan)
Loi thuc Thnh phn ho hc,% SiO2 Al2O3 CaO MgO 14-17 4 6 1923 5 2832 1619 CaF2 4-6 5-7 MnO FeO S Khng qu 8-11 Fe2O3<1 0,05 1,5 1,5 0,1 0.1 P 0,05 0,1 0,1

TNA.St.1 2933 TA.St.3 3844 TA.St.9 4550

4045 1,5-5 4-17

Thuc TA.St.11.CrNi.c thnh phn ho hc (%): SiO2: 20-26; Al2O3: 26-32; MgO: 15-20; Cr2O3:2-4; CaF2: 17-23; CaO: 8; ZrO2:2-6; Na2O: 2-6; K2O: 1-2; FeO 1 Cc loi thuc hn Lin x, tiu chun v thnh phn ho hc: -Thuc AH-8 OCT 9087-69 c thnh phn ho hc (%) SiO2:33-36; MnO:21-28; CaO:4-7; MgO:5-7,5; Al2O3:11-15;
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CaF213-19; Fe2O3 khng qu 1,5-3,5; S khng qu 0,15; P khng qu 0,15. -Thuc AH-15M MTY-1-1014-70 c thnh phn ho hc (%): SiO2:6-10; MnO: ti 2; CaO:29-33; MgO:ti 1; Al2O3:36-40; CaF216,6-20; NaF: 2-6; Fe2O3 khng qu 0,8; S khng qu 0,07; P khng qu 0,05. - Thuc AH-20 OCT 9087-69 c thnh phn ho hc (%): SiO2:19-24; MnO: 0,5 ; CaO:3-9; MgO:9-13; Al2O3:27-32; CaF225-33; NaF: 2-3; Fe2O3 khng qu 1; S khng qu 0,08; P khng qu 0,05. -Thuc AH-22 OCT 9087-69 c thnh phn ho hc (%): SiO2:18-21,5; MnO: 7-9; CaO:12-15; MgO:11,5-15; Al2O3:19-23; CaF220-24; NaF: 1-2; Fe2O3 khng qu 1; S khng qu 0,05; P khng qu 0,05. - Thuc AH-26 OCT 9087-69 c thnh phn ho hc (%): SiO2:29-33; MnO: 2,5-4; CaO:4-8; MgO:15-18; Al2O3:14-23; CaF220-24; C 0,066:; Fe2O3 khng qu 1,5; S khng qu 0,1; P khng qu 0,1 - Thuc hn AH-60 OCT 9087-69 c thnh phn ho hc (%): SiO2:42,5-46,5; MnO: 36-41; CaO:3-11; MgO:0,5-3; Al2O3: 5; CaF2 54-8; :; Fe2O3 khng qu 1,5; S khng qu 0,15; P khng qu 0,15. - Thuc hn AH-348-AOTC 9087-69 c thnh phn ho hc (%): SiO2:41-44; MnO: 34-38; CaO: 6,5; MgO:5-7,5; Al2O3: 4,5; CaF2: 4-5; Fe2O3 khng qu 2,4; S khng qu 0,15; P khng qu 0,12.
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-Thuc hn O -6 c thnh phn ho hc (%): SiO2: 4; CaO:16-23; MgO: 3; Al2O3:20-27; CaF2:45-60; Fe2O3 khng qu 1,5; S khng qu 0,025. - Thuc hn O -10 c thnh phn ho hc (%): SiO2:9-12; MnO:11-14; CaO: 8; MgO: 0,3; Al2O3:28-34; CaF2:35-46; Fe2O3 khng qu 1; P khng qu 0,025. - Thuc hn OC-45 OCT 9087-69 c thnh phn ho hc (%): SiO2:34-38; MnO:38-44; CaO: 6,5; MgO:2,5; Al2O3: 5; CaF2:6-9; Fe2O3 khng qu 2; S khng qu 0,15; P khng qu 0,1. Thuc TA.St.1 dng hn p thp cc bon v thp hp kim thp. Thuc TA.St.3 dng hn p cc chi tit thp cc bon thp. Thuc TA.St.9 hn p vo dy kiu 35XCA phc hi trc cn, bnh cn cu, bnh tu ho vv... Thuc TA.St11CrNi dng hn p cc chi tit thp cc bon v thp hp kim ca my in v ho hc. Lin x c 10 loi thuc hn p nng chy trn c ng dng rng ri, cng dng ca cc loi thuc trn nh sau. Thuc A-H8 hn v hn p in x thp cc bon v thp hp kim thp vi dy hn thp cc bon v thp hp kim thp. i tng phc hi l cc my luyn kim, cn v rn dp. Thuc AH-15M: Hn v hn p t ng cc chi tit thp hp kim cao nh cc loi trc, c trc cn vv... Thuc AH-20: Hn v hn p t ng cc lp thp hp kim k hiu CbX20H10 7T. Thuc AH-22: Hn in x v hn p t ng thp hp kim vi dy hp kim cao k hiu CbX20H10 7T.
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Thuc hn AH-26: Hn v hn p t ng thp khng g v thp chu nhit nh cnh tuabin nc, cc chi tit my bm, my in v ho hc. Thuc AH-60: Hn v hn p thp cc bon v thp hp kim thp bng dy thp cc bon v thp hp kim thp, hoc ai thp hp kim trung bnh v cao. Hn p trc cn nng, dao ct kim loi nng, cc chi tit t kim loi mu trn nn ng. Thuc AH-348A: Hn v p t ng thp cc bon v thp hp kim thp bng dy thp cc bon v thp hp kim thp: bnh cn cu, cc chi tit my ko, t tu thu. Thuc O -6: Hn v hn p t ng thp hp kim thp chng r, chu nhit. Thuc O -10: Hn p thp hp kim v hp kim thp bng ai v dy nhn hiu Cb-10X16H.25AM6, Cb-03X24H132, 04X1911M3 v cc loi khc. Thuc C-45: Hn v hn p thp cc bon v thp hp kim thp bng dy thp cc bon v thp hp kim nhn hiu H 30X CA, Cb-102C v cc loi khc. Tip Khc c ba loi thuc hn p nng chy: VUZ-3P, F205(VUZ4BaC) v F-624(VUZ-IN). Thuc VUZ-3P v F-205 dng hn p cc chi tit thp khng r v chu nhit bng dy hn k hiu X18H10 v X25H13. Thuc hn F-624 dng hn p t ng cc chi tit thp hp kim cao v thp hp kim bng dy hn tng ng.
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Vit Nam c thuc hn TH-36-42 thuc c tnh cng ngh c bn ging AH-348A. 2.2. Dy hn p: B mt mi mn ca cc chi tit my ngi ta hn p bng dy thp cc bon, dy thp hp kim hoc dy hn p chuyn dng. Lp hn p bng dy cc bon khng c c chu mn cao, tng chu mn phi hp kim ho lp hn p bng dy hp kim, dy bt hoc thuc gm. Khi chn dy hn cn ch n thnh phn ho hc ca kim loi c bn, c tnh v dng ti trng ca n, nguyn nhn v lng mi mn, mi trng lm vic v cc yu cu t ra i vi chi tit phc hi. Lp p c hp kim ho bng dy hp kim c thnh phn ho hc chnh xc hn. V th hp kim ho bng cch ny tuy t xong vn dng ph bin. Lin x c hn 40 loi dy hn p phn thnh hai nhm k hiu bng hai ch H, v nhm k hiu bng hai ch Cb, thnh phn ho hc, phm vi ng dng ca dy v cng lp p. V d: Dy hnH -25 c thnh phn ho hc (%): C:0,22-0,3; Mn:0,5-0,8; Si:0,17-0,37; Cr 0,25; Ni 0,3 S khng qu 0,04; p khng qu 0,04. cng sau khi p160-229HB. Phm vi ng dng Hn p trc, trc chnh. Dy hn H -65 c thnh phn ho hc (%): C:0,6-0,7; Mn:0,9-1; Si:0,17-0,37; Cr 0,3; Ni 0,3; S khng qu 0,03; P khng qu 0,04. cng sau khi p220-300HB.phm vi ng dng hn bnh cn cu trc cn trc cn thp. Dy hn Cb-08 c thnh phn ho hc (%): C: 0,1; Mn:0,350,6; Si: 0,03; Cr 0,15; Ni 0,3. cng sau khi p 120-160HB.
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Phm vi ng dng dng hn p trc , con ln gi my ko, tay hm. Dy hn Cb-10X17 c thnh phn ho hc (%): C: 0,12; Mn: 0,7; Si: 0,8; Cr 16-18; Ni 0,6; Ti:0,2-0,5. cng sau khi p 160-190HB. Phm vi ng dng dng hn p cc chi tit my hi nc lm vic trong mi trng chu nhit ti 4500C. Ba lan c hai loi dy hn p di thuc. Dy Sp 40G-2S1H1 hn p di thuc TA.St3v TA.St6 cho lp p c cng 300HB, chu mi mn v kh nng chng va p tt. Dng vo vic hn p trc cn, vnh ai tu ho v cc chi tit khc. Dy hn Sp24H14 dng hn p cc chi tit lm vic trong iu kin mi mn do ma st xm thc nhit bnh thng v cao nh ng van dn, xu pp hi vv...Lp p c cng 420500HB, chu mi mn tt, c kh nng chng r trong mi trng nc bin v hi nc. Cng ho dn ch c c 21 loi dy hn p dng vo vic phc hi cc chi tit khc nhau. Tip khc thng dng dy thp hn A-102( theo CH055376) hn p. cng HB ca lp p di thuc FK-502, FK-503, FK-504, FK-541 tng ng l 300, 450, 500 v 350. Dy dng hn dp bnh cn cu c trc v cc chi tit khc. 3. Cng ngh hn p: 3.1. Chun b chi tit hn p:

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Vic chun b cho hn p t ng cng ging nh hn p th cng, tt c cc l rnh cn bo v phi bt bng thp, ng hoc bt Graphit, bt bng bt graphit t hn c v d thc hin cht lin kt thng dng nht l thu tinh nc vi t l 15% trng lng so vi graphit.

Hnh 14: Phng php bt l (a), rnh rng (b) Mc tiu ca vic bt cc rnh, l trn b mt chi tit m bo cho qu trnh hn p tin hnh c lin tc v d gia cng c sau khi hn. i vi nhng l, rnh ln ,nu bt bng graphit c th lm mt n nh h quang khi n qua ch bt, trong trung hp ny c th kt hp c hai phng php bt bng thp v graphit (Hnh 14) 3.2. K thut hn p: 32.1. nh hng ca cc yu t cng ngh hn i vi hnh dng ca mi hn. Bin

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Hnh dng ca mi hn c c trng bi cc kch thc sau (Hnh 15)

Hnh 15: Cc kch thc c trng ca mi hn p b - chiu rng mi hn. h - Chiu su ca mi hn. c - Chiu cao ca mi hn. Nhng yu t cng ngh c nh hng ln nht n hnh dng ca mi hn l cng dng in (Ih), in p h quang (Uh ) v tc hn (Vh). Tip n l: ng knh in cc, gc nghing in cc i vi b mt ca chi tit hn v gc nghing ca chi tit hn vi mt phng nm ngang. nh hng ca cng dng in v ng knh ca in cc. Vi ng knh in cc (dy hn) khng i vic tng cng dng in lm tng nhit to ra h quang. Do lm nng chy kim loi c bn nhiu hn. Nmg lng h quang ln thi kim loi lng v pha ngc li vi chiu hn kt qu h quang n su hn vo kim loi c bn, ng thi thuc hn chy t hn. Mi hn ngui nhanh, khng pht trin c b rng v to b mt cao (hnh.16)

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Hnh 16: nh hng ca cng dng hn i vi hnh dng mi hn. nhn c mi hn c hnh dng thch hp cn tng in p h t l vi mt dng in. Khi cng dng in khng i, vic thay i ng knh in cc, tc thay i mt dng in s nh hng n hnh dng mi hn. Gim ng knh in cc lm tng mt dng in, mi hn n su v hp. nh hng ca in p h quang. Thay i in p h quang trc ht lm thay i chiu rng chiu cao mi hn (hnh 17)

Hnh 17: nh hng ca in p h quang i vi hnh dng mi hn. Khi in p h quang ln, h quang hu nh chy trong thuc v t ab vo kim loi c bn. Trong iu kin nh vy thuc hn chy nhiu mi hn ngui chm. Kt qu mi hn rng v nng. nh hng ca tc hn. Thay i tc hn lm thay i tit din ca mi hn (hnh 18)

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Hnh 18: nh hng ca tc hn i vi hnh dng mi hn. Gim tc hn nh hng ging nh tng in p h quang. Vi tc hn qu nh (khong 10m/h) mi hn rt rng v n su tng i t, cng tng tc mi hn cng c hnh dng van chiu rng v chiu su thay i, gim bt chiu cao mi hn khi hn vi tc ln cn tng in p h quang. nh hng ca gc nghing in cc v vt hn. C th hn vi in cc t vung gc hoc nghing mt gc so vi b mt chi tit. t vung gc khi hn vi tc hn nh v trung bnh. Khi tc hn ln (ti 80m/h) in cc t nghing v chiu ngc vi chiu hn (hnh 19a). in cc t nghing theo chiu hn (hnh 19b). Ni chung khng lm thay i hnh dng mi hn. Song hn vi in cc t nghing v pha ngc vi chiu hn th

Hnh 19: in cc t nghing: a) v pha ngc chiu hn; b) V pha chiu hn


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mi hn s rng v su hn (hnh 20), h quang t thi kim loi lng pha di n. Nghing in cc v pha ngc li vi chiu hn khong 40-500 s lm gim chiu su mi hn ti 50% v mi hn s rng ra khong 50 %.Chiu cao mi hn cng gim ng k. V th khi hn vi tc ln. gim chiu cao mi hn cn nghing cc hn v pha ngc vi hng hn.

Hnh 20: Hnh dng mi hn khi hn vi in cc t nghing ngc chiu vi chiu hn: nh hng ca gc nghing vt hn cng ging nh gc nghing in cc: Khi hn ln (hnh 21a) ngoi lc in ng ca h quang cn c trng lc tc dng ln vng hn, kim loi lng b chy v kt qu chiu su v chiu cao mi hn tng.

Hnh 21: a) Hn ln; b) Hn xung Khi hn xung (hnh 21b) kim loi lng vt trc h quang lm gim su ca mi hn trong hn p t ng cc chi tit
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phng khng nn vt nghing so vi mt phng ngang. Gc nghing cho php l 80. 3.2.2 K thut hn p t ng mt phng di lp thuc nng chy. Vic hn p c thc hin theo tng ng dc hoc ngang b mt chi tit ( gim thi gian ch i g x cn hn theo tng phn mt (hnh 22a) th t thc hin cc ng hn c ch bng cc con s. X hn ca ng 1 v 2 g trong khi hn ng 4; ca ng 3 g trong khi hn ng 5 vv...Khi chiu rng mt hn p khng rng lm th cc ng 1,2,3,4 vv...(hnh 22b) c thc hin theo khong cch bng hai ln bc tin ca mi hn. Sau khi hn xong lt th nht, g x ri hn tip lt th hai theo cc ng 8,9 vv... Nu u hn c trang b thm c cu di chuyn ngang th c th hn p vi mi hn rng (hnh 22c) chiu rng ca n ph thuc vo ch hn p. Chiu su ca mi hn iu chnh bng ch hn p. Ch hn p phi chn sao m bo cho lp p khng c vt nt, r kh hoc cc khuyt tt khc vt hn t b bin dng, vng nh hng nhit b.

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Hnh 22: Th t hn p mt phng: a) Hn p theo tng phn I-IV; b) Hn p cch ng c) Hn p theo gii ngang t c mc ch cn dng dy hn ng knh nh, mt dmg in nh. Khi mn ca chi tit ti 2-3mm th hn p bng dy hn c ng knh 2mm, ngun in mt chiu, vi dng in hn 200A, tc hn 20-25m/h, in p h quang 30-32V. Trng hp mn ti 3-4mm vn dng dy hn 2mm nhng ch hn khc, dng in hn340-350A, tc hn 25m/h, in p h quang 32-34V, c th dng dng xoay chiu hoc mt chiu. Vi mn ln hn 5mm ngi ta hn p bng dy ng knh 5mm, dng in hn 650-700A, tc hn2430m/h, in p h quang 34-36V.
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Mun nhn lp p rng v thp cn t nghing in cc hn so vi mt phng ngang mt gc 40-500. Trong trng hp ny chiu su mi hn gim khong 2 ln v chiu rng ca n ln gp i so vi hn bng in cc t vung gc. p cc mp ca vt hn phng v y n cn chn trc bng nhng tm ng hoc thuc hn mn trn vi nc thu tinh v hn vi mt thp v in p thp so vi bnh thng. 3.2.3 K thut hn p t ng mt trn di lp thuc nng chy: Trong hn p t ng cc chi tit hnh tr iu kh khn nht l gi thuc hn vng h quang v thuc lng c bit l cc chi tit c ng knh nh hn 60mm v vic g x khi ng hn. Vic gi thuc hn trn mt chi tit c ngha ht sc quan trng, khi mun nhn mi hn p c cht lng cao. Nu cung cp thuc hn qu nhiu v nhanh s lm tt h quang v qu trnh hn p s b gin on. Bi vy s dng tt c cu gi thuc s to iu kin thun li cho qu trnh hn p thc hin d dng. Trn hnh v 23 l cu to ca c cu d thuc trong qu trnh hn p cc chi tit hnh tr khng c g khi thuc hn c d tt th d c x vng hn.

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Hnh 23: C cu d thuc hn cho vic hn p hnh tr di 1: Phu; 2: Tu hn; 3:Dy hn; 4: ng dn thuc; 5: Lp thuc hn; 6: X; 7: Mi hn p Cng dng in hn v ng knh dy hn c chn tu theo ng knh chi tit hn p, i vi nhng chi tit hnh tr c th xc nh gn ng cng dng in theo th (hnh 25)

Hnh v 25: th xc nh dong in hn theo ng knh chi tit hn p. Phn gch cho l gii hn ca cng dng in hn c th chn ng knh dy hn theo s liu sau, bng 1-6. Bng 1-6 Cng 90-200 120dng in 300 hn ng knh 1,2 1,6 dy hn mm
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Bc tin hn p ph thuc vo ng knh dy hn v cng dng in hn thng t 3,5 n 9 mm/vg, s lp p ph thuc vo mn ca chi tit v lng d gia cng c kh. Lng d gia cng c kh ph thuc vo cht lng lp hn p, thng bng 1,5-2mm v mt pha. Vic hn p nhng chi tit mn theo dng hnh cn hoc hnh lng mng ni chung khng kh khn lm, nu gc cn to vi trc ca chi tit khng qu 200. Cc ng hn thc hin

Hnh 26: Th t thc hin cc ng hn khi hn p hnh cn hoc lng mng t di ln, u hn c nng dn ln theo tng chu k 1-2 lp. Hn p nhng g nhng mng ng phc tp hn. Hin nay ngi ta p dng hai phng php, th nht l hn v tr nm ngang i vi trc quay. thc hin ta g vt hn ln g quay thch hp. Vic gi thuc hn kim loi lng v x lng thc hin bng c cu gi thuc

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Hnh 27: Hn p thnh ng v tr ngang i vi trc quay 1. C cu gi thuc; 2. dy hn; 3.thuc hn; 4.thanh ng 5.b hn; 6.kim loi lp p; 7. dy amiang; 8. u hn Thng thng ngi ta cun sn bng aming, hn p bng dng in nh, in p thp v tc cao to ng hn thp. Phng php ny tng i n gin, ch dng hn p nhng chi tit c g thp vi chiu dy lp p b nh b bnh my cu, bnh t xe xch v nhng chi tit tng t.

Bi 5 HN P (hn TIG) MD 24-05 Mc tiu ca bi: Sau khi hc xong bi hc ny ngi hc s c kh nng: - Trnh by khi nim v hn p, phm vi ng dng hn hn p bng phng php hn TIG. - Chun b dng c, thit b, vt liu hn y an ton.
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- Chun phi hn ng kch thc bn v, m bo yu cu k thut. - Chn ch hn (Ih, Uh, Vh, dq) v lu lng kh bo v thch hp vi chiu dy tnh cht ca vt liu. - G phi hn chc chn. - Xc nh ng gc nghing m hn, tm vi in cc, phng php chuyn ng que hn, m hn khi hn p. - Hn p mt phng m bo su ngu, khng r kh, ln x, t bin dng. - Hn p trc, bc m bo trn u ng tm, lng d gia cng c. - Lm sch, kim tra, nh gi ng cht lng mi hn. - Thc hin tt cng tc an ton v v sinh phn xng. Ni dung ca bi: Thi gian: 12 h (LT:3 h, TH:9h) 1: Chun b phi hn. Thi gian:1 2: Dng c hn thit b, vt liu hn. Thi gian:0,5 3: Chn ch hn. Thi gian:0,5 4: G phi hn. Thi gian:1 5: K thut hn p mt phng, hn p trc. Thi gian:8 6: Kim tra mi hn. Thi gian:0,5 7: An ton lao ng v v sinh phn xng Thi gian:0,5 I- Nguyn l , c im cng dng ca hn TIG Phng php ny c pht trin t nhng nm 1930 bng h quang heli hoc hn h quang kh tr, v c dng hn cc kim loi khng c cha st, c bit mangan v nhm, v cc mi ghp kim loi kh hn. Mt s tn gi ca phng php hn TIG thng gp: - Theo ISO gi l TIG (Ttungsten Inert Gas) ky hiu l: 141
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- Theo tiu Chu u n c gi l WIG (Wonfram Inert Gas) - Theo AWS gi l GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) Hn TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) l qu trnh hn bng in cc khng nng chy Vonfram trong mi trng kh tr bo v. Kh tr Ar, He hoc Ar + He c tc dng ngn cn nhng tc ng c hi ca xy v nit trong khng kh v n nh h quang. Vng h quang c nhit rt cao, c th t ti 61000C. Kim loi mi hn c th ch do kim loi vt hn to nn (khi hn lin kt gp mp) hoc c b sung t kim loi ph. Ton b vng hn c bao bc bi kh tr thi ra t chp kh. 1.1 Nguyn l:

Hnh 5.1 - S phng php hn GTAW

1.2- c im : a. u im - To ra mi hn c cht lng cao i vi hu ht kim loi v hp kim. - Mi hn khng phi lm sch sau khi hn. - H quang v vng hn c th quan st c trong khi hn.
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- Khng c hin tng bn te kim loi khi hn. - C th hn mi v tr trong khng gian. - Nhit tp trung cao cho php tng tc hn, gim bin dng. - N c th s dng hn hu ht cc loi kim loi, k c cc lin kt kim loi khng ng nht. - C th t ng ha khi hn. b. Nhc im Tuy phng php hn ny c nhiu u im, song n cn tn ti mt s nhc im sau: - Km kinh t so vi hn h quang in cc nng chy khi hn cc tm dy hn 10mm. - Kh bo v vng hn trong mi trng c gi. - Tc ng cng chm hn so vi cc phng php hn c in cc nng chy. - Th hn phi kho tay hn v phi hp nhp nhng hn so vi hn MAG hay khi hn h quang tay. - Nng sut hn thp. 1.3- Phm vi s dng : Hn TIG c p dng trong nhiu lnh vc sn xut, c bit rt thch hp trong hn thp hp kim cao, kim loi mu v hp kim ca chng. II. Cng tc chun b cho hn dp TIG 2.1. Thit b dng cho hn TIG. Thit b dng cho hn TIG c cc b phn chnh sau. - Ngun in hn , bao gm c h thng iu khin kh bo v, nc lm mt, dng in v in p hn.
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- M hn . - Chai cha kh tr v van iu khin lu lng kh.

Hnh 5.2. S thit b hn TIG 2.1.1. Ngun in hn Ngun in hn l thit b cung cp dng in xoay chiu hoc mt chiu hoc c hai. Ty ng dng, y c th l bin p, chnh lu, my phn hn. Ngun in hn c c tnh tuyn dc ( ging nh i vi hn h quang tay). tng n nh h quang, in p khng ti thng nm trong khong 70V 80V.

V d mt ngun hn cho dng xoay chiu v dng mt chiu


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H.5.3: S khi cu to my hn TIG + Li in: in p xoay chiu 220V hoc 380V + Bin p (Transformato): Bin i in p li thnh in p hn + Chnh lu ( Diode): Bin i dng xoay chiu thnh dng mt chiu. + Bn dn ( Transistor): C chc nng ging nh mt cng tc iu khin in t gip cho vic; iu chnh dng in hn v cp; iu khin t xa.... + Cun cn: Nhim v lm gim bn te khi hn + Tr gip chm h quang ( Thit b xung - in p cao): To kh nng chm h quang khng tip xc v gip cho h quang xoay chiu hnh thnh li khi dng in i qua im 0 dng in xoay chiu hnh sin. 2.1.2. M hn + M hn c chc nng dn dng in hn v dng kh bo v. in cc c kp cht trong ng kp c bt vt bn trong thn m hn. C cc kch thc ng kp khc nhau ph hp vi mi loi ng knh in cc. Kh bo v c a vo vng hn qua ming chp kh. Chp kh c vt cht vo u m hn, n khng ch dng chy v s phn phi kh bo v.
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Cu to ca m hn lm mt bng nc

H.5.4. S cu to ca m hn TIG lm mt bng nc

1- Chp kh ( lm bng s) 2- in cc 3- ng kp in cc 4- Chp hm 5- Kh bo v 6- Cng tc

7- ng dn kh bo v 8- ng dn nc vo 9- ng dn nc ra 10- Cp hn 11- Dy iu khin

Ty theo cng dng in hn ti a m c cc dng m hn sau:


Dng m hn Cch lm mt Dng in hn

Bnh thng

- Lm mt bng kh - Lm mt bng nc

- Dng hn < 200A - Dng hn > 160A

Dui thng - Lm mt bng kh Ngn - Dng hn < 200A

- Lm mt bng kh

- Dng hn < 200A Bin

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Ngoi cc b phn chnh nh trn cn c cc thit b ph tr khc nh: Cp hn, ng dn kh, kp mt, van gim p, lu lng k, sy kh... 2.2 Vt liu hn TIG. Vt liu s dng trong phng php hn TIG bao gm kh bo v , in cc volfram v que hn ph. 2.2.1. Ngun kh bo v- kh tr Kh bo v dng trong hn TIG l kh tr ( gm Argon, Heli,nit v h hp ca chng).Kh bo v c dng trong chai bng thp c dung tch 40 lt v p sut 150at.
- Ar ; l kh ciu ch t kh quyn bng phng php ha lng

khng kh v tinh ch n tinh kht 99,99% kh ny c cha trong cc bnh p sut cao hoc dng lng vi nhit di -1840C trong cc thng cha ln . - He ; c trng lng ring bng khong 1/10 so vi Ar c ly ra t kh t nhin , thng c cha trong cc binh di p sut cao. Sau khi ra khi chp kh m hn,Ar to thnh lp bo v pha trn vng hn. Do nh hn He c xu hng dng ln to thnh cun xoy xung quanh h quang . bo v hiu qu , lu lng He phi gp 2- 3 ln so vi kh Ar. c tnh quan trng khc ca He l i hi h quang cao hn vi cng chiu di h quang v dng in so vi Ar, He nng hn so vi Ar. He thng dng hn cc vt liu c chiu dy ln, c dn nhit cao ( nh ng ) hoc nhit nng chy cao. iu khc bit na l Ar cho tnh nh h quang nh nhau i vi dng in xoay chiu (AC) v mt chiu (DC) v c tc dng lm sch tt vi dng AC. trong lc He to h quang n nh vi dng DC, nhng tnh n nh h quang v tc dung lm sch vi
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dng AC tng i thp. Do khi cn hn Al, Mg bng dongAC nn dng Ar . Cc hn hp Ar v He vi hm lng He ti 75% c s dng khi cn s cn bng gia cc c tnh ca hai loi kh ny. Trong cc cht kh bo v ngi ta dng agn, h li, nit v mt s cht kh khc. Song thng dng nht l agon Agn l kh tr nguyn t. Agn tinh khit khng lin kt ho hc vi kim loi, khng ph thuc vo nhit nung nng. Bi vy trong hn v hn p thnh phn ho hc kim loi ch thay i do cc nguyn t b bay hi. Khi lng ring ca agn l 1,78g/l. Trong hn v hn p ngi ta dng agn c trn ln mt s cht kh khc. Agn cha trong bnh trng thi kh di p sut 150at. Bnh dung tch 40lt cho mt lng agn khong 6m3. Agon khng chy v khng to vi cc cht kh khc thnh cc hn hp d n. Agon nng hn khng kh bi vy n bo v kim loi vng hn khi khng kh, agon dng hn v hn p cc chi tit thp khng r, chu nhit v kim loi mu. 2.2.2. in cc Wolfram Wolfram clm in cc do c tnh chu nhit cao ( nhit nng chy l 34100C ), pht x in t tng i tt, lm ion ha h quang v duy tr tnh n nh ca h quang. Wolfram c tnh xy ha rt cao. Bng 5-1. thnh phn ha hc ca mt s loi din cc wolfram Theo tiu chun AWS-A5.12-80
Tiu chun AWS W(max)% Th % Zr % tng tp cht( max)%

EWP

99,5

77

0,5 Bin

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EWTh-1 EWTh-2 EWTh-3 EWZr

98,5 97,5 98,95 99,2

0,8- 1,2 1,7 2,2 0,35 0,5 -

0,15-0,40

0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5

Cc in cc wolfram c ng knh 0,25 6,4 mm vi chiu di 76 610 mm. Cc in cc wolframcos thm thori(Th) c tnh pht x in t , dn in v chng nhim bn tt, mi h quang n nh hn. Cc in cc wolfram c thm ziccon (Zr) c cc tnh cht trung gian gia in cc W v in cc W-Th Bng 5-2 Mu nhn din ca mt s loi in cc thng dng Theo tiu chun AWS K hiu EWP EWCe-2 EWLa-1 EWTh-1 EWTh- 2 EWZr-1 EWG Thnh phn Wolfram tinh khit 97, 3%W 2%xit ceri 98,3%W1%xit lantan 98,3%W1%xit thori 97,3%W2%xit thori 94,5%W Mu nhn din xanh l cy Da cam en Vng Xm

99,1%W0,25%xitzircon Nu

Mt s yu cu khi s dng in cc wolfram; - Cn chn dng in thch hp vi kch c in cc c s dng. Dng in qu cao s lm hng in cc, dng in qu thp s gy ra s n mn, nhit thp v h quang khng n nh - in cc phi c mi hp l theo cc hng dn km theo in cc.
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- in cc phi c bo qun cn thn trnh nhim bn. - Dng kh bo v phi c duy tr khng ch trc v trong khi hn m c sau khingt h quang cho n khi in cc ngui. - phn nh in cc pha ngoi m hn ( chp kh ) phi c gi mc ngn nht, ty theo ng dng v thit b, bo m c bo v tt bng dng kh tr. - Cn trnh s nhim bn in cc, s tip xc gia incc nng v kim loi mi hn. - Thit b c bit l chp kh, phi c bo v v lm sch. u chp kh b bn s nh hng ti kh bo v, nh hng ti h quang hn, do lm gim cht lng mi hn. 2.2.3. Que hn ph . Que hn ph c cc kch thc theo tiu chun theo ISO/R564 nh sau chiu di t 500mm- 1000mm vi ng knh 1,2 ; 1,6; 2,0; 2,4; 3,2mm. loi que hn ph gm c ; ng v hp kim ng, thp khng g Cr cao v Cr- Ni ; nhm v hp kim nhm ; thp cc bon thp, thp hp kim thp vv... 2.2.4.Thit b v dng c km theo: - ng h kh , chai kh Ar - Bn gh hn, g hn - Knh hn - Ba ngui - Gia - Bn chi st - Ba g x - Thc l - Dng kim tra mi hn 2.2.5. iu kin an ton
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- Mt bng thc tp b tr gn gng, ni lm vic c nh sng, h thng thng gi, ht bi hot ng tt - Nn xng kh ro, thit b hn c dy tip t, h thng cp kh m bo kn. - Bo h lao ng y III. Trnh t thc hin: 3.1.c bn v

Hinh 5-5; Hn p mt phng

Hnh 5.5 hn p trc 3.2. Chun b chi tit hn p:


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Hu ht cc chi tit my a phc hi u rt bn, b mt lm vic b bm du m, han r. Nu hn p ln nhng chi tit nh vy mi hn s khng ngu, r kh v nhng tp cht phi kim loi khc. Bi vy trc khi hn p chi tit hn cn c lm sch cn thn, sau phn loi v xc nh phng php phc hi. Phng php ty sch chi tit bng tia la nhit hay trong l nung c hiu qu v tin li nht. Cht bn khng nhng b t chy khi b mt m cn khi c nhng ch him hc hay nt rn ca chi tit. Tip mui than v -xt kim loi c lm sch bng chi thp. Tuy nhin khng phi chi tit no cng c th ty sch bng phng php trn chng hn nhng chi tit bng thp mangan cao khng c php lm sch bng cch nung nng m phi ra sch trong dung dch xt 5% ri sau ra bng nc nng. Tri li nhng chi tit bng thp cc bon hay thp hp kim m cng ngh hn p phi ng dng gia nhit trc th vic ty sch du m v cc cht bn khc th hin ngay trong qu trnh gia nhit . Chng ta cng c th lm sch cc chi tit my bng my mi hoc chi thp, thit b phun ct vv.. Sau khi lm sch xong ta loi tr cc vt nt trn chi tit, i vi vt nt ln ta hn v trc khi hn p, i vi cc vt nt nh ta loi b bng my mi cm tay. Tm li, cng tc chun b chi tit trc khi hn p bng cc phng php hn khc nhau nhng u mang tnh cht chung v ng vai tr rt quan trng. N quyt nh phn ln cht lng lp hn p. Bi vy khng c coi thng m phi thc hin tt v y tt c cc cng vic cn thit ca qu trnh chun b

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Nn phng phi, kim tra kch thc phi, lm sch ht cc vt bn v lp -xy ho trn phi, nhng chi tit b nt ln th phi hn v vt nt, vt nt nh th x l bng my mi 3.3. Chn ch hn: Khi hn p bng h quang trong kh bo v (hn TIG) gm b thng s cng ngh sau; - Cng dng in hn . - Thi gian tng cng dng in hn ln gi tr chn. - Thi gian gim cng dng in hn n khi tt h quang vi mc ch trnh lm cui ng hn . - Tc hn. - ng knh in cc W , que hn (dy hn ) ph. - Lu lng kh bo v v kch c chp kh. - Thi gian m v ng kh bo v trc khi gy h quang v t h quang . 3.3.1.Dng in hn , ng knh ming phun v lu lng kh. - La chn ngun hn cho vt liu; Ngun hn AC DC Hp kim nhm Ph hp Khng ph hp Thp khng g C th p dng ph hp Thp cc bon C th p dng Ph hp ng thau C th p dng Ph hp ng C tth p dng Ph hp - La chn ng knh ming phun v lu lng kh bo v; ng knh ming phun v lu lng kh bo v ty thuc vo dng in hn ;
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+ ng knh ming phun khng ph hp s gy nh hng n din tch v p sut ca dng kh bo v dn ti nh hng cht lng mi hn. + Lng kh bo v t s lm cho vic bo v mi hn khng y , khng kh bn ngoi xm nhp vo vng hn gy ra cc khuyt tt cho mi hn. Ngc li, lng kh bo v qu nhiu s gy lng ph ng thi s gy ra dng kh xoy ko theo khng kh bn ngoi vo vng hn. Hn dng mt chiu(DC) Dng in ng knh Lu lng hn (A) ming phun kh (l/ph) mm 10 100 4 9,5 4 5 101 150 4 9,5 4 7 151 200 6 13 6 8 201 300 8 13 8 9 301 500 13 16 9 12 ung knh in cc Dng in hn (A) Hn dng xoay chiu(AC) W ThW Hn dng xoay chiu(AC) ng knh Lu lng ming phun kh (l/ph) (mm) 8 9,5 6 8 9,5 11 7 10 11 13 7 10 13 16 8 15 16 19 8 15

0,5 1,0 1,6(1/16) 2,4(3/32)

5 15 10 60 50 100 100 160

5 20 15 80 70 150 140 235


83

Hn dng (DC) in cc ni vi cc m W, Th-W 5 30 15 80 70 150 150 250

mt chiu in cc ni vi cc dng W, Th-W 10 20 15 30 Bin

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3,2(1/8) 150 200 225 325 250 400 25 400 4,0(5/32) 200 275 300 425 400 500 40 55 4,8(3/16) 250 350 400 525 500 800 55 80 6,4(1/4) 325 475 500 700 800 1100 80 125 - in cc wolfram v dng in hn Ty thuc vo loi dng in hn , vt liu lm in cc, cch u in cc (hn DC) m khong dng in hn cho php ng vi mi loi ng knh vt liu c s khc nhau. Nu dng in hn vt qu gii hn cho php s lm cho in cc nhanh chng b mn hoc b mn trong qu trnh hn. 3.3.2 Vn hnh s dng dng c thit b hn TIG Thit b dng c; 1. M lt . 2; Tut l vt ; 3. Nc x phng ; 4. Bng dnh cch in . 3.3.2.1. Kim tra cc cp ni Kim tra ton b cc b phn ni cp v cp ni t, m bo cc u ni iu kin lm vic tt nht.

c kh

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H.5.7. Ni t cho my hn TIG

Kim tra ton b u ni ng dn kh, cp lp cng tc trn m hn, cp hp iu khin t xa ni vi my hn. Kim tra u dy ngun ra ng cha ( Cc m u vi m hn, cc dng + u vi vt hn) 3.3.2.2 Kim tra ng h p lc . Kim tra mc n nh ca ng h p lc lp trn chai kh v bnh cha kh Ar, kim tra cc u ni ca dy dn kh xi ng h v my hn. 3.3.2.3. Kim tra cp ra Kim tra ton b u ni ca ng dn kh, cp cng tc lp trn m hn , cp iu khin t xa ni vi my hn. Kim tra u dy ngun ra ng cha (-) ni vi m hn, cc dng (+) ni vi bn hn . 3.3.2.4 iu chnh cng tc chuyn i v v tr ph hp - t cng tc WELDING MODE v tr TIG
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- t cng tc GAS v tr AIR COOLED lm mt bng khng kh - t cng tc CRATER FILLER v tr OFF ch gi cng tc. - Chuyn cng tc chuyn i ngun sang v tr DC (hn thp khng g hoc hn thp ) AC (hn nhm hoc hp kim nhm) 3.3.2.5. Kim tra thn ng kp in cc Kim tra thn ng kp in cc xem c ph hp vi kch thc ca in cc s dng khng ( 2,4) ri lp vo trong thn m hn. 3.3.2.6. Kim tra chp kh Tho v kim tra chp kh sau lp tr li m hn. 3.3.2.7.Kim tra in cc Kim tra kch thc ( 2,4) v hnh dng ( gc ca u in cc t 500 n 600 in cc hp kim W( 2%Th) ri lp vo kp in cc 3.3.2.8. Lp in cc . Lp in cc v kp in cc vo thn m hn ri lp chp hm, bnh thng u in cc nh ra khi chp kh khong 5mm. 3.3.2.9.M van kh M van chai kh quan st ng h p lc bit c cn kh khng , dng nc x phng kim tra s r r kh cc ch ni. 3.3.2.10. Bt cng tc ngun ON- OFF v v tr ON 3.3.2.11. iu chnh lu lng kh Bt cng tc GAS v v tr CHECK m van iu chnh lu lng kh v iu chnh lu lng kh mc t 5 6 lt/ph 3.3.2.12.a cng tc kh v v tr WELD Sau khi iu chnh lu lng kh bt cng tc v v tr WELD chun b hn.
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3.3.2.13. iu chnh dng in iu chnh dng in hn hp iu khin t xa mc 70A 3.3.2.14. Mi h quang Mi h quang trn tm thp bng cng tc trn m hn. Khi mi h quang cn ch ; Ty chp kh ln tm kim loi hn c nh m hn u in cc cch b mt vt hn khong 0,5mm ( khng u in cc chm vo b mt hm) IV. K thut hn. 4.1. Cng tc chun b - Mi nhn in cc trn my mi 2 - Lp in cc vo m hn . Lp in cc vo m hn sao cho u in cc nh ra khi chp kh khong 5mm. - Kim tra cc cng tc v nm iu chnh, a v v tr - t cng tc chuyn i AC/DC sang v tr DC.
-

iu chnh dng in hn khong 80 90A .

- iu chnh lu lng kh mc 5lt /ph. - vch cc ng song song trn mt phi. - t chi tit ln bn .
-

Dng bn chi st nh dc theo ng hn v dng gi lau sch b mt phi. 4.2.Gy h quang

- Gy h quang ti im cch im u ca ng hn t10 15mm - Ko di h quang ri di chuyn v im u ca ng hn , rt ngn h quang v gi chiu di h quang trong khong t 3 5mm.
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- Hiu chnh sao cho m hn to mt gc t 70 800 so vi ng hn v pha ngc vi hng hn , ng thi to mt gc 900 so vi vi mt phng hai bn ng hn . - Nung chy im u ca ng hn. 4.3. Tin hnh hn - a que hn ph vo phn u ca b hn. - Sau khi b sung kim loi t que hn vo b hn, nhc que hn ln . - Khng a que hn ph ra khi vng hot ng ca kh bo v. - Que hn ph khi a vo b hn to vi b mt vt hn v pha trc mt gc t 10 150 - Quan st b hn b xung kim loi t que hn ph v iu chnh tc hn cho ph hp. - Tip tc nung chy kim loi ng thi di chuyn m hn v b xung kim loi cho n ht ng hn. 4.4. Kt thc ng hn C th s dng mt trong hai phng php sau kt thc ng hn ; -Dng phng php ngt h quang ng thi b xung kim loi t que hn ph ( lm nh vy t 2 3 ln ) - S dng lp rnh h quang trn myhn TIG. Sau khi kt thc ng hn, ngt h quang v gi m hn ti im cui cho n khi ngng phun kh bo v ( khong 10 giy ) Khi hn p cc loi vt liu mng, chi tit hn p nh th chuyn ng m hn theo ng thng khng cn giao ng ngang. Khi hn p cc tm vt liu dy hoc cc trc c ng knh ln ta tin hnh hn p ging nh hng p bng hn h quang tay que hn c thuc bc.
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C th chuyn ng que hn theo hnh rng ca hoc hnh bn nguyt c dng li cnh mi hn phng khuyt cnh. ci thin kh nng bo v ca kh khi hn p cc chi tit trn, b mt ming phun khi cn c hng dng thch hp vi mt hn p.

Hnh 5-8: Th t hn p mt phng: a) Hn p theo tng phn I-IV; b) Hn p cch ng c) Hn p theo gii ngang Khi hn p, chn bc hn sao cho ng hn sau m ly ng hn trc 1/3 chiu rng mi hn. Cc chi tit t thp cc bon cao v thp hp kim cn nung nng trc khi hn, ng thi kh bo v cng cn c nung nng ti nhit cao hn. Trong trng hp ngc li, kim loi vng nh hng nhit s b tri, dn n nt
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t vi gy kh khn cho qu trnh gia cng c kh sau khi hn. khi hn p nhiu lp, c bit l cc chi tit nh, chi tit hn c th qu nng (trn 500-6000) h quang mt n nh v kim loi bn tung to nhiu. Trong trng hp ny cn gim ng knh dy hn v cng hn, ng thi tng lng kh bo v. - hn p trc K thut hn p trc cng tng t nh k thut hn p mt phng v gc nghing que hn, phng php chuyn ng que hn v ng hn sau cng phi lm nng chy 1/3-1/2 b rng ca ng hn trc. Khi hn p nhiu lp cn phi lm sch x hn ca lp hn trc , v din tch nung nng ln v s ln nung nng tng i nhiu nn d sinh ra bin dng ln. lm phn tn nhit v kh ng sut bin dng th th t cc ng hn p trc thc hin nh hnh v (Hnh)

Hnh 5-9: Trnh t hn p trc cn i gim bt s bin dng, c th nhn lc cn nng dng ba tay g nh vo lp hn p. p ng yu cu gia cng c cn phi hn p vi lng d t 3-5mm 4.5. Kim tra
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- Kim tra s ng u v hnh dng mi hn . - Kim tra s ng u v chiu rng v chiu cao mi hn . - Kim tra shin tng chy chn v chy trn. - Kim tra im u in cui mi hn. - Kim tra s xi ha trn b mt mi hn. 4.6. An ton khi hn h quang trong mi trng kh bo v: - S dng kh phi ng loi, trnh ng c, chy n, khu vc kh phi thong gi, xa ch hn ch ct v cc ngun nhit khc, trnh va p bnh. - Bnh kh phi g chc chn, khng ni c nhit cao trn 500. - Kim tra cht kn ca ng dn kh - Khng ng dn kh i qua cc ch lm vic trnh lm hng ng. - Khng dng ph kin khng ph hp vi tng loi kh. - Khng m van bnh trc khi lp van gim p. - M van kh t t. - Nu h phi ng van bnh trc khi s l. - eo knh thch hp chn h quang. - Bo h lao ng hp l.

IV. iu kin thc hin m un *) Vt liu:


- Phi hn thp trn 20 30, thp tm S=810 M un hn p 91

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- Que hn: 1,5 5.

- Dy hn trn. - Kh bo v - Thuc hn. *) Dng c v trang thit b: - My hn h quang tay. - My hn bn t ng MIG, MAG. my hn TIG. - Thit b gia nhit. - Bn hn, g hn. - Ba ngui. - Km kp phi. - Ba g x. - Knh hn. - My chiu projector. *) Hc liu - a hnh. - Tranh, p phch treo tng. - Gio trnh. - Ti liu hng dn ngi hc. *) Ngun lc khc - Phng hc, xng thc tp - Cc c s sn xut c kh. - Cc ca hng kinh doanh vt liu hn. V. Phng php v ni dung nh gi - Kim tra nh gi trc khi thc hin m- un:
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c nh gi bng bi kim tra vit v thc hnh t cc yu cu ca m-un M23. -Kim tra nh gi trong khi thc hin m- un: Bng bi kim tra vit, kim tra vn p v thc hnh trong qu trnh thc hin cc bi hc c trong m-un v kin thc, k nng v thi . Yu cu phi t c cc mc tiu ca tng bi hc c trong mun. -Kim tra sau khi kt thc m- un: *) V kin thc: c nh gi bng bi trc nghim t lun, trc nghim khch quan t cc yu cu sau: - Tnh vt liu hn y chnh xc. - Tnh ch hn ph hp vi chiu dy vt liu. *) V k nng: c nh gi bng quan st c bng kim thang im, qua qu trnh thc hin, qua cht lng sn phm t cc yu cu sau. - Chun b phi hn sch, ng kch thc. - Hn phc hi chi tit m bo yu cu k thut, lng d gia cng c. - Hn p trc, hn p mt phng bng cc thit b hn khc nhau m bo su ngu, t bin dng, t khuyt tt. - Kim tra nh gi ng cht lng mi hn. - Sp xp ch lm vic gn gng khoa hc an ton.
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* ) V thi : c nh gi trong qu trnh hc tp, bng quan st c bng kim t cc yu cu sau: - C thc t gic, tnh k lut cao, tinh thn trch nhim trong cng vic, tinh thn hp tc gip nhau, cn thn, t m, chnh xc trong cng vic. VI. hng dn thc hin m un 1. Phm vi p dng chng trnh: - Chng trnh m un c s dng ging dy cho trnh TCN v CN, c th o to tng m un cho cc lp hc ngh ngn hn v chuyn i ngh. Ngi hc c th hc tng m-un hnh ngh v tch ly m- un nhn bng tt nghip. 2. Hng dn mt s im chnh v phng php ging dy m un: - Gio vin trc khi dy cn cn c vo ni dung tng qut ca m un v ni dung ca tng bi hc chun b y cc iu kin thc hin bi hc m bo cht lng ging dy. - Trong qu trnh ging dy gio vin dng phim trong, my chiu OVERHEAD, projector hoc tranh treo tng hoc cc on bng hnh thuyt trnh v. Cc sn phm ca hn p, chun b phi hn p k thut hn p.

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- Nhc li cc c trng ca ch hn kt hp vi t vn a ra c trng mi khi hn p. - Trong tng bi tp gio vin thao tc mu v k thut hn . - T chc hc sinh luyn tp theo nhm t, s lng hc sinh mi nhmtu theo s my thc c, Hng dn hc sinh t kim tra cht lng bi tp bng cch i chiu vi mi hn mu ca gio vin v sn phm mu. - Gio vin thng xuyn h tr k nng chng bin dng khi hn. 3. Nhng trng tm cn ch : - Cng tc chun b cho cng vic hn p - Tnh ton chn vt liu, chn thit b hn p - K thut hn p trc, p mt phng bng cc loi thit b hn khc nhau - Kim tra nh gi cht lng mi hn - An ton lao ng v v sinh phn xng 4. Ti kiu tham kho: [1]. Nguyn Vn Thng- Cc phng php hn v hn p phc hi chi tit-NXBKHKT- 1984. [2]. Hong Tng- S tay hn-NXBKHKT -2006. 1. . CC HNH THC HC TP CHNH TRONG M UN 1. Hc trn lp:
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Cc phng php lm sch chi tit trc khi hn p. Vt liu hn p. Tnh ton ch hn p. Xc nh quy trnh cng ngh hn p An ton lao ng v v sinh cng nghip 2. Hc ti phng hc chuyn mn ho: Cc c trng mn v i lng mn ca chi tit. Cc vt nt ca chi tit Cc dng khuyt tt ca mi hn p 3. Thc tp ti xng trng: Xem gio vin lm mu v cng tc lm sch chi tit, cc thao tc hn p. Luyn tp cc k nng chuyn ng que hn khi hn p. Luyn tp hn p trc, hn p mt phng bng cc thit b hn khc nhau. Thc hin cc bi kim tra nh gi v kt qu thc tp 4. Tham quan thc t ti cc c s sn xut: Cch t chc sn xut ca mt xng hn Cng tc an ton v v sinh mi trng ca xng sn xut Cc cng vic v cc loi sn phm ca cng ngh hn p

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YU CU V NH GI HON THNH M UN 1. KIn thc: Bng bi thi vit, vn p trc tip hoc trc nghim vi cc cu hi t lun t cc yu cu sau. Gii thch ng cc phng php lm sch chi tit hn. Trnh by y cc loi que hn, dy hn, thuc hn, kh bo v dng trong cng vic hn p. Tnh ton ch hn ph hp vi tng loi vt liu v chiu dy ca vt liu. Gii thch ng cc quy nh an ton v v sinh cng nghip trong hn p. 2. K nng: Bng quan st c bng kim thang im, bng cht lng ca sn phm t cc yu cu sau: Lm sch cc chi tit a vo hn m bo yu cu k thut Hn p cc chi tit m bo su ngu, t b khuyt tt t bin dng, lng d gia cng. 3.Thi : Bng kt qu theo di sut qu trnh hc tp, bng quan st c bng kim nh gi v thi t cc yu cu sau: thc t gic, tnh k lut, tinh thn trch nhim trong cng vic, tnh hp tc giu ln nhau, thc tit kim nguyn vt liu.
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Tnh cn thn, t m, chnh xc trong cng vic.

Gio trnh
M un: Hn p M s: MD-24

NGH HN
Trnh lnh ngh

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