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Mid Term Exam

By

Tammy Curtis

To summarize: Present the quantitative and qualitative viewpoints of the characteristic.

1. Data Collection Techniques Quantitative viewpoint The researcher counts and measures data that is collected. The researcher uses structured questions to generate predetermined response options. The researcher uses tools to collect data such as questionnaires, tests, and surveys. The reports generated by the researcher are measured objectively. Quantitative example A study was conducted to examine the causes of adolescent participation in risky behaviors. Three different populations were selected: rural public high school, for profit inner city high for troubled teens, and a detention facility. A six point-Likert-scale questionnaire was administered to collect quantitative data. Students were asked their intent to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and use drugs. The questionnaire examined students attitudes, perceptions, and demographic characteristics. Three multi-linear regression models were used to explore relationships between differential association, nonsocial reinforcement, and engagement in risky behaviors. The results of the study indicated that there was a significant association with differential association and nonsocial reinforcement with alcohol and drug use.

Qualitative viewpoint Qualitative researchers observe and interview participants and then report

personal interpretations, feelings, and behaviors of participants as data. The researcher becomes the human instrument for collecting data based on concepts and descriptions. The reports are interpreted by the researcher. Qualitative example The data collection technique for a qualitative study consisted of the researcher becoming the human instrument by conducting one-hour interviews exploring six university students' memories and perceptions of the impact of developmental mathematics two years after completing mandatory developmental courses. The purpose of the study was to determine if there was a more effective way to measure the impact of developmental education on under-prepared students entering higher education. During interviews, the students identified outcomes spanning the cognitive, affective, and psychosocial domains. The researcher concluded that students believed that they were more prepared than nondevelopmental students in subsequent math and math-related classes. Students also developed friends and support study groups as they progressed through the levels of mathematical classes. 2. Use of samples Quantitative viewpoint Some types of samples used for quantitative samples are Random sampling, Stratified sampling, Cluster sampling, and Systematic sampling. Quantitative researchers often sample individuals and sites randomly. These random samples can be generalized to represent populations from which they are drawn. Every member of the population has an equal opportunity to be included in the sample. Pure chance determines who is selected for studies. Stratified sampling selects participants in a way that subgroups will have a

sufficient number of participants selected from each group to represent the population. Systematic sampling selects participants from a predetermined sequence that allows only chance to determine participation in study. Quantitative example A study was conducted to determine the nutritional status of school-aged children living in an urban Pakistan settlement. Systematic random sampling was used to select 200 children from every fifth household between ages five and ten years. If no child in this age range lived in the fifth household, the next fifth house was selected. If there were more than one child in the age range, the children were assigned numbers and one child was randomly selected. Qualitative viewpoint The samples used for qualitative research are selected for their uniqueness to explain, understand, and yield information about expressive behavior or to represent the functioning of a social system. Samples are a selective small number of participants identified by the researcher. The researcher defines the perceptions, opinions and feelings of the group being observed. Groups consist of field studies, social communities, focus groups, individuals, and members of various types of groups. Qualitative example A qualitative sample of children and parents from Chicago, Illinois; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Richmond, Virginia were chosen to capture distinct population

demographics such as race, ethnicity, urban, suburban residence, and socioecononomic background. Parent-child pairs from each of the following three age groups: 6 to 7, 9 to

10, and 12 to 13 years were selected to reflect developmental stages that shape children's interests, abilities, and decision-making autonomy. The primary goal of this study was to qualitatively explore how a recommendation to limit television viewing might be received and responded to by a diverse sample of parents and their school-age children. 3. Role of researcher Quantitative viewpoint The researchers role for quantitative studies is detached, impartial, and objective. The goal of the researcher is to determine if preconceived theories are true. The researcher is not personally involved, and the researcher does not personally influence the subject being examined. Quantitative example A study was conducted to determine if there is a difference between students who respond to surveys and students who do not respond. An eighteen item questionnaire was given to students while they were standing in line during registration. The students were informed that they were not required to complete the survey. Out of 2114 students, 1618 actually completed the survey. The investigator also gathered existing data from student records to examine the students age, gender, ethnicity, and enrollment status. The investigator performed a chi square analysis to determine if there was a difference between the students by age. The investigator performed a chi square analysis to determine if there was a difference between the students by ethnicity. The investigator performed a chi square analysis to determine if there was a difference between the students by ethnicity. The investigator performed a chi square analysis to determine if there was a difference between the students by enrollment status. The results

of the study indicated that younger students were not likely to complete the survey but there was no significant difference. Similarly, there was no significant difference among age, gender, and enrollment status. The investigator was not personally involved with the students, and the investigator used a chi square analysis to examine preconceived theories. Qualitative viewpoint The researchers role for qualitative studies is subjective, exploratory, and open ended. The researcher collects, analyzes, and interprets data by observing people. The researcher is personally involved, partial, and empathic. The researcher is usually close to the situation and can observe the subjects in a natural manner. The findings of the research are based upon the researchers skills and experience. Qualitative example A qualitative study was conducted to examine the characteristics, beliefs, values, and intentions of what makes a physician an exemplary communicator with patients. The researcher interviewed and discussed videotaped scenarios among forty physicians in two separate groups. The researcher analyzed the results from the interviews and videotapes to determine the differences between groups. The inquiry noted differences in skills and identified capacities of empathy restricted to the exemplary group. 4. Types of Data Quantitative viewpoint Data is collected from a population, or large sample that represents the population. The data is converted to numerical indices. Standardized instruments are used to measure data outcomes.

Quantitative example A questionnaire was given to students taking an English course to determine if there was a significant difference between the performance of students taking the course online and the performance of students taking the conventional course. A Cronbach alpha was performed. The study found that the students taking the traditional course scored higher on their final exam than the online students; however, there was no significant difference between the students grades on papers submitted as an assignment. Qualitative viewpoint The type of data collected in qualitative research consists of observations, interviews, documents, and research instruments such as questionnaires, surveys, and cognitive tests. Data collected from a few selected participants. The researcher collects data from studying cases and gathering information through interviews, documenting, observations, drawings, video taping or photographs of focus groups. Qualitative example A qualitative study was conducted to assess students financial concerns associated with context placements as a component of medical, nursing, and allied health curricula. The type of data collected was discussions among small focus groups (n=17) and individual interviews (n=27). Results identified that cost associated with transport and placement location contributed to students financial burden as a result of placements.