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# Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 1

Queueing theory Queueing theory is the mathematical study of waiting lines, or queues. The theory enables mathematical analysis of several related processes, including arriving at the (back of the) queue, waiting in the queue (essentially a storage process), and being served at the front of the queue. The theory permits the derivation and calculation of several performance measures including the average waiting time in the queue or the system, the expected number waiting or receiving service, and the probability of encountering the system in certain states, such as empty, full, having an available server or having to wait a certain time to be served. Queueing theory has applications in diverse fields,[1] including telecommunications,[2] traffic engineering, computing[3] and the design of factories, shops, offices and hospitals.[4]

Overview The word queue comes, via French, from the Latin cauda, meaning tail. The spelling "queueing" over "queuing" is typically encountered in the academic research field. In fact, one of the flagship journals of the profession is named "Queueing Systems". Queueing theory is generally considered a branch of operations research because the results are often used when making business decisions about the resources needed to provide service. It is applicable in a wide variety of situations that may be encountered in business, commerce, industry, healthcare,[5] public service and engineering. Applications are frequently encountered in customer service situations as well as transport and telecommunication. Queueing theory is directly applicable to intelligent transportation systems, call centers, PABXs,networks, telecommunications, server queueing, mainframe computer of telecommunications terminals, advanced telecommunications systems, and traffic flow. Notation for describing the characteristics of a queueing model was first suggested by David G. Kendall in 1953. Kendall's notation introduced an A/B/C queueing notation that can be found in all standard modern works on queueing theory, for example, Tijms.[6] The A/B/C notation designates a queueing system having A as interarrival time distribution, B as service time distribution, and C as number of servers. For example, "G/D/1" would indicate a General (may be anything) arrival process, a Deterministic (constant time) service process and a single server. More details on this notation are given in the article about queueing models. History Agner Krarup Erlang, a Danish engineer who worked for the Copenhagen Telephone Exchange, published the first paper on queueing theory in 1909.[7]

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 2

David G. Kendall introduced an A/B/C queueing notation in 1953. Important work on queueing theory used in modern packet switchingnetworks was performed in the early 1960s by Leonard Kleinrock.

Application to telephony The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is designed to accommodate the offered traffic intensity with only a small loss. Theperformance of loss systems is quantified by their grade of service, driven by the assumption that if sufficient capacity is not available, the call is refused and lost.[8] Alternatively, overflow systems make use of alternative routes to divert calls via different paths even these systems have a finite traffic carrying capacity.[8] However, the use of queueing in PSTNs allows the systems to queue their customers' requests until free resources become available. This means that if traffic intensity levels exceed available capacity, customer's calls are not lost; customers instead wait until they can be served.[9] This method is used in queueing customers for the next available operator. A queueing discipline determines the manner in which the exchange handles calls from customers.[9] It defines the way they will be served, the order in which they are served, and the way in which resources are divided among the customers.[9][10] Here are details of four queueing disciplines: First in first out This principle states that customers are served one at a time and that the customer that has been waiting the longest is served first.[10] Last in first out This principle also serves customers one at a time, however the customer with the shortest waiting time will be served first.[10] Also known as a stack. Processor sharing Customers are served equally. Network capacity is shared between customers and they all effectively experience the same delay.[10] Priority Customers with high priority are served first.[10]

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 3

Queueing is handled by control processes within exchanges, which can be modelled using state equations.[9][10] Queueing systems use a particular form of state equations known as a Markov chain that models the system in each state.[9] Incoming traffic to these systems is modelled via a Poisson distribution and is subject to Erlangs queueing theory assumptions viz.[8]

Pure-chance traffic Call arrivals and departures are random and independent events.[8] Statistical equilibrium Probabilities within the system do not change.[8] Full availability All incoming traffic can be routed to any other customer within the network.[8] Congestion is cleared as soon as servers are free.[8]

Classic queueing theory involves complex calculations to determine waiting time, service time, server utilization and other metrics that are used to measure queueing performance.[9][10]

Queueing networks Networks of queues are systems which contain an arbitrary, but finite, number m of queues. Customers, sometimes of different classes,[11]travel through the network and are served at the nodes. The state of a network can be described by a vector , where ki is the number of customers at queue i. In open networks, customers can join and leave the system, whereas in closed networks the total number of customers within the system remains fixed. The first significant results in this area were Jackson networks, for which an efficient product form equilibrium distribution exists and the mean value analysis which allows average metrics such as throughput and sojourn times to be computed.[12]

Role of Poisson process, exponential distributions A useful queueing model represents a real-life system with sufficient accuracy and is analytically tractable. A queueing model based on thePoisson process and its companion exponential probability distribution often meets these two requirements. A Poisson process models random events (such as a customer arrival, a request for action from a web server, or the completion of the actions requested of a web server) as emanating from a memoryless process. That is, the length of the time interval from the current time to the occurrence of the next event does not depend upon the time of occurrence of the last event. In the Poisson probability distribution, the observer records the number of events that occur in a time interval of fixed length. In the

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 4

(negative) exponential probability distribution, the observer records the length of the time interval between consecutive events. In both, the underlying physical process is memoryless. Models based on the Poisson process often respond to inputs from the environment in a manner that mimics the response of the system being modeled to those same inputs. The analytically tractable models that result yield both information about the system being modeled and the form of their solution. Even a queueing model based on the Poisson process that does a relatively poor job of mimicking detailed system performance can be useful. The fact that such models often give "worst-case" scenario evaluations appeals to system designers who prefer to include a safety factor in their designs. Also, the form of the solution of models based on the Poisson process often provides insight into the form of the solution to a queueing problem whose detailed behavior is poorly mimicked. As a result, queueing models are frequently modeled as Poisson processes through the use of the exponential distribution.

Limitations of queueing theory The assumptions of classical queueing theory may be too restrictive to be able to model realworld situations exactly. The complexity of production lines with product-specific characteristics cannot be handled with those models. Therefore specialized tools have been developed to simulate, analyze, visualize and optimize time dynamic queueing line behavior. For example; the mathematical models often assume infinite numbers of customers, infinite queue capacity, or no bounds on inter-arrival or service times, when it is quite apparent that these bounds must exist in reality. Often, although the bounds do exist, they can be safely ignored because the differences between the real-world and theory is not statistically significant, as the probability that such boundary situations might occur is remote compared to the expected normal situation. Furthermore, several studies show the robustness of queueing models outside their assumptions. In other cases the theoretical solution may either prove intractable or insufficiently informative to be useful. Alternative means of analysis have thus been devised in order to provide some insight into problems that do not fall under the scope of queueing theory, although they are often scenariospecific because they generally consist of computer simulations or analysis of experimental data. See network traffic simulation.

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 5

Birthdeath process
The birthdeath process is a special case of continuous-time Markov process where the states represent the current size of a population and where the transitions are limited to births and deaths. Birthdeath processes have many applications in demography, queueing theory,performance engineering, or in biology, for example to study the evolution of bacteria. When a birth occurs, the process goes from state n to n + 1. When a death occurs, the process goes from state n to state n 1. The process is specified by birth rates and death rates .

Examples A pure birth process is a birthdeath process where A pure death process is a birthdeath process where for all for all . . for all

## A (homogeneous) Poisson process is a pure birth process where

M/M/1 model and M/M/c model, both used in queueing theory, are birthdeath processes used to describe customers in an infinite queue.

Use in queueing theory In queueing theory the birthdeath process is the most fundamental example of a queueing model, the M/M/C/K/ /FIFO (in completeKendall's notation) queue. This is a queue with Poisson arrivals, drawn from an infinite population, and C servers with exponentially distributedservice time with K places in the queue. Despite the assumption of an infinite population this model is a good model for various telecommunication systems.

M/M/1 queue

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 6

The M/M/1 is a single server queue with an infinite buffer size. In a non-random environment the birthdeath process in queueing models tend to be long-term averages, so the average rate of arrival is given as and the average service time as aM/M/1 queue when, . The birth and death process is

The difference equations for the probability that the system is in state k at time t are,

M/M/C queue The M/M/C is multi-server queue with C servers and an infinite buffer. This differs from the M/M/1 queue only in the service time which now becomes,

and

with

M/M/1/K queue The M/M/1/K queue is a single server queue with a buffer of size K. This queue has applications in telecommunications, as well as in biology when a population has a capacity limit. In telecommunication we again use the parameters from the M/M/1 queue with,

In biology, particularly the growth of bacteria, when the population is zero there is no ability to grow so,

Additionally if the capacity represents a limit where the population dies from over population,

The differential equations for the probability that the system is in state k at time t are,

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 7

Equilibrium A queue is said to be in equilibrium if the limit must be zero. exists. For this to be the case,

Using the M/M/1 queue as an example, the steady state (equilibrium) equations are,

If

and

for all

## (the homogenous case), this can be reduced to

Limit behaviour In a small time , only three types of transitions are possible: one death, or one birth, or no birth nor death. If the rate of occurrences (per unit time) of births is and that for deaths is , then the probabilities of the above transitions are , , and respectively. For a population process, "birth" is the transition towards increasing the population by 1 while "death" is the transition towards decreasing the population size by 1.

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 8

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 9

Protocol
E-mail Print A AA AAA LinkedIn Facebook Twitter RSS Reprints In information technology, a protocol is the special set of rules that end points in a telecommunication connection use when they communicate. Protocols specify interactions between the communicating entities.

Protocols exist at several levels in a telecommunication connection. For example, there are protocols for the data interchange at the hardware device level and protocols for data interchange at the application program level. In the standard model known as Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), there are one or more protocols at each layer in the telecommunication exchange that both ends of the exchange must recognize and observe. Protocols are often described in an industry or international standard. Networking Tutorials and Guides Telecom Routing and Switching IP Telephony Systems The TCP/IP Internet protocols, a common example, consist of:

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which uses a set of rules to exchange messages with other Internet points at the information packet level Internet Protocol (IP), which uses a set of rules to send and receive messages at the Internet address level Additional protocols that include the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and File Transfer Protocol (FTP), each with defined sets of rules to use with corresponding programs elsewhere on the Internet There are many other Internet protocols, such as the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

The word protocol comes from the Greek protocollon, meaning a leaf of paper glued to a manuscript volume that describes the contents.

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 10

OSI model OSI model 7. Application layer NNTP SIP SSI DNS FTP Gopher HTTP NFS NTP SMPP SMTP SNMP Te lnet DHCP Netconf RTP SPDY (more) 6. Presentation layer MIME XDR TLS SSL 5. Session layer Named pipe NetBIOS SAP PPTP SOCKS 4. Transport layer TCP UDP SCTP DCCP SPX 3. Network layer IP (IPv4, IPv6) ICMP IPsec IGMP IPX AppleTalk 2. Data link layer ATM SDLC HDLC ARP CSLIP SLIP GFP PLIP IEEE 802.2 LLC L2TP IEEE 802.3 Frame Relay ITU-T G.hn DLL PPP X.25 Network switch 1. Physical layer EIA/TIA-232 EIA/TIA-449 ITU-T V-Series I.430 I.431 POTS PDH SONET/SDH P ON OTN DSL IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.15 IEEE 802.16 IEEE 1394 ITU-T G.hn PHY USB Bluetooth Hubs

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 11

The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization. It is a prescription of characterizing and standardizing the functions of a communications system in terms ofabstraction layers. Similar communication functions are grouped into logical layers. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of that path. Two instances at one layer are connected by a horizontal connection on that layer.

History Work on a layered model of network architecture was started and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) began to develop its OSI framework architecture. OSI had two major components: an abstract model of networking, called the Basic Reference Model or seven-layer model, and a set of specific protocols. The concept of a seven-layer model was provided by the work ofCharles Bachman, Honeywell Information Services. Various aspects of OSI design evolved from experiences with the ARPANET, the fledgling Internet, NPLNET, EIN, CYCLADESnetwork and the work in IFIP WG6.1. The new design was documented in ISO 7498 and its various addenda. In this model, a networking system was divided into layers. Within each layer, one or more entities implement its functionality. Each entity interacted directly only with the layer immediately beneath it, and provided facilities for use by the layer above it. Protocols enabled an entity in one host to interact with a corresponding entity at the same layer in another host. Service definitions abstractly described the functionality provided to an (N)-layer by an (N-1) layer, where N was one of the seven layers of protocols operating in the local host.

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 12

The OSI standards documents are available from the ITU-T as the X.200-series of recommendations.[1] Some of the protocol specifications were also available as part of the ITU-T X series. The equivalent ISO and ISO/IEC standards for the OSI model were available from ISO, but only some of them without fees.[2]

Description of OSI layers According to recommendation X.200, there are seven layers, labeled 1 to 7, with layer 1 at the bottom. Each layer is generically known as an N layer. An "N+1 entity" (at layer N+1) requests services from an "N entity" (at layer N). At each level, two entities (N-entity peers) interact by means of the N protocol by transmitting protocol data units (PDU). A Service Data Unit (SDU) is a specific unit of data that has been passed down from an OSI layer to a lower layer, and which the lower layer has not yet encapsulated into a protocol data unit (PDU). An SDU is a set of data that is sent by a user of the services of a given layer, and is transmitted semantically unchanged to a peer service user. The PDU at a layer N is the SDU of layer N-1. In effect the SDU is the 'payload' of a given PDU. That is, the process of changing an SDU to a PDU, consists of an encapsulation process, performed by the lower layer. All the data contained in the SDU becomes encapsulated within the PDU. The layer N-1 adds headers or footers, or both, to the SDU, transforming it into a PDU of layer N-1. The added headers or footers are part of the process used to make it possible to get data from a source to a destination. OSI Model Data unit Layer 7. Application Function Network process to application

## Host Data layer s

Data representation, encryption and decryption, 6. Presentatio convert machine dependent data to machine n independent data 5. Session Interhost communication, managing sessions between applications End-to-end connections, reliability and flow control

Segments

4. Transport

Shashank Agnihotri

## Packet/Datagram 3. Network Media layer Frame s Bit 2. Data link 1. Physical

Some orthogonal aspects, such as management and security, involve every layer. Security services are not related to a specific layer: they can be related by a number of layers, as defined by ITU-T X.800 Recommendation.[3] These services are aimed to improve the CIA triad (confidentiality, integrity, and availability) of transmitted data. Actually the availability of communication service is determined by network design and/or network management protocols. Appropriate choices for these are needed to protect against denial of service.

Layer 1: physical layer The physical layer defines electrical and physical specifications for devices. In particular, it defines the relationship between a device and atransmission medium, such as a copper or fiber optical cable. This includes the layout of pins, voltages, cable specifications, hubs,repeaters, network adapters, host bus adapters (HBA used in storage area networks) and more. The major functions and services performed by the physical layer are:

Establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium. Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users. For example, contentionresolution and flow control. Modulation, or conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. These are signals operating over the physical cabling (such as copper and optical fiber) or over a radio link.

Parallel SCSI buses operate in this layer, although it must be remembered that the logical SCSI protocol is a transport layer protocol that runs over this bus. Various physical-layer Ethernet standards are also in this layer; Ethernet incorporates both this layer and the data link layer. The same applies to other local-area networks, such as token ring, FDDI, ITUT G.hn and IEEE 802.11, as well as personal area networks such as Bluetooth and IEEE 802.15.4.

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 14

Layer 2: data link layer The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer. Originally, this layer was intended for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint media, characteristic of wide area media in the telephone system. Local area network architecture, which included broadcast-capable multiaccess media, was developed independently of the ISO work in IEEE Project 802. IEEE work assumed sublayering and management functions not required for WAN use. In modern practice, only error detection, not flow control using sliding window, is present in data link protocols such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), and, on local area networks, the IEEE 802.2 LLC layer is not used for most protocols on the Ethernet, and on other local area networks, its flow control and acknowledgment mechanisms are rarely used. Sliding window flow control and acknowledgment is used at the transport layer by protocols such as TCP, but is still used in niches where X.25 offers performance advantages. The ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides high-speed local area networking over existing wires (power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables), includes a complete data link layer which provides both error correction and flow control by means of a selective repeat Sliding Window Protocol. Both WAN and LAN service arrange bits, from the physical layer, into logical sequences called frames. Not all physical layer bits necessarily go into frames, as some of these bits are purely intended for physical layer functions. For example, every fifth bit of the FDDI bit stream is not used by the layer.

WAN protocol architecture Connection-oriented WAN data link protocols, in addition to framing, detect and may correct errors. They are also capable of controlling the rate of transmission. A WAN data link layer might implement a sliding window flow control and acknowledgment mechanism to provide reliable delivery of frames; that is the case for Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) and HDLC, and derivatives of HDLC such as LAPB andLAPD.

IEEE 802 LAN architecture Practical, connectionless LANs began with the pre-IEEE Ethernet specification, which is the ancestor of IEEE 802.3. This layer manages the interaction of devices with a shared medium, which is the function of a media access control (MAC) sublayer. Above this MAC sublayer is the

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 15

media-independent IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer, which deals with addressing and multiplexing on multiaccess media. While IEEE 802.3 is the dominant wired LAN protocol and IEEE 802.11 the wireless LAN protocol, obsolescent MAC layers include Token Ring and FDDI. The MAC sublayer detects but does not correct errors.

Layer 3: network layer The network layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source host on one network to a destination host on a different network, while maintaining the quality of service requested by the transport layer (in contrast to the data link layer which connects hosts within the same network). The network layer performs network routing functions, and might also perform fragmentation and reassembly, and report delivery errors. Routers operate at this layer, sending data throughout the extended network and making the Internet possible. This is a logical addressing scheme values are chosen by the network engineer. The addressing scheme is not hierarchical. The network layer may be divided into three sublayers: 1. Subnetwork access that considers protocols that deal with the interface to networks, such as X.25; 2. Subnetwork-dependent convergence when it is necessary to bring the level of a transit network up to the level of networks on either side 3. Subnetwork-independent convergence handles transfer across multiple networks. An example of this latter case is CLNP, or IPv7 ISO 8473. It manages the connectionless transfer of data one hop at a time, from end system to ingress router, router to router, and from egress router to destination end system. It is not responsible for reliable delivery to a next hop, but only for the detection of erroneous packets so they may be discarded. In this scheme, IPv4 and IPv6 would have to be classed with X.25 as subnet access protocols because they carry interface addresses rather than node addresses. A number of layer-management protocols, a function defined in the Management Annex, ISO 7498/4, belong to the network layer. These include routing protocols, multicast group management, network-layer information and error, and network-layer address assignment. It is the function of the payload that makes these belong to the network layer, not the protocol that carries them.

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 16

Layer 4: transport layer The transport layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users, providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. The transport layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control, segmentation/desegmentation, and error control. Some protocols are state- and connection-oriented. This means that the transport layer can keep track of the segments and retransmit those that fail. The transport layer also provides the acknowledgement of the successful data transmission and sends the next data if no errors occurred. OSI defines five classes of connection-mode transport protocols ranging from class 0 (which is also known as TP0 and provides the least features) to class 4 (TP4, designed for less reliable networks, similar to the Internet). Class 0 contains no error recovery, and was designed for use on network layers that provide error-free connections. Class 4 is closest to TCP, although TCP contains functions, such as the graceful close, which OSI assigns to the session layer. Also, all OSI TP connection-mode protocol classes provide expedited data and preservation of record boundaries. Detailed characteristics of TP0-4 classes are shown in the following table:[4] Feature Name TP0 TP1 TP2 TP3 TP4

## Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Connectionless network

No No No No Yes

Error Recovery

No Yes No Yes No

## No No Yes Yes Yes

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 17

Retransmission on timeout

No No No No Yes

## No Yes No Yes Yes

Perhaps an easy way to visualize the transport layer is to compare it with a Post Office, which deals with the dispatch and classification of mail and parcels sent. Do remember, however, that a post office manages the outer envelope of mail. Higher layers may have the equivalent of double envelopes, such as cryptographic presentation services that can be read by the addressee only. Roughly speaking, tunneling protocols operate at the transport layer, such as carrying non-IP protocols such as IBM's SNA or Novell's IPX over an IP network, or end-to-end encryption with IPsec. While Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) might seem to be a networklayer protocol, if the encapsulation of the payload takes place only at endpoint, GRE becomes closer to a transport protocol that uses IP headers but contains complete frames or packets to deliver to an endpoint. L2TP carries PPP frames inside transport packet. Although not developed under the OSI Reference Model and not strictly conforming to the OSI definition of the transport layer, theTransmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) of the Internet Protocol Suite are commonly categorized as layer-4 protocols within OSI. Layer 5: session layer The session layer controls the dialogues (connections) between computers. It establishes, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. It provides for full-duplex, half-duplex, or simplex operation, and establishes checkpointing, adjournment, termination, and restart procedures. The OSI model made this layer responsible for graceful close of sessions, which is a property of theTransmission Control Protocol, and also for session checkpointing and recovery, which is not usually used in the Internet Protocol Suite. The session layer is commonly implemented explicitly in application environments that use remote procedure calls. On this level, Inter-Process_(computing) communication happen (SIGHUP, SIGKILL, End Process, etc.). Layer 6: presentation layer The presentation layer establishes context between application-layer entities, in which the higher-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation service provides

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 18

a mapping between them. If a mapping is available, presentation service data units are encapsulated into session protocol data units, and passed down the stack. This layer provides independence from data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating between application and network formats. The presentation layer transforms data into the form that the application accepts. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.[5] The original presentation structure used the basic encoding rules of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1), with capabilities such as converting an EBCDIC-coded text file to an ASCII-coded file, or serialization of objects and other data structures from and to XML. Layer 7: application layer The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. Application-layer functions typically include identifying communication partners, determining resource availability, and synchronizing communication. When identifying communication partners, the application layer determines the identity and availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit. When determining resource availability, the application layer must decide whether sufficient network or the requested communication exist. In synchronizing communication, all communication between applications requires cooperation that is managed by the application layer. Some examples of application-layer implementations also include:

On OSI stack:

FTAM File Transfer and Access Management Protocol X.400 Mail Common management information protocol (CMIP) Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

On TCP/IP stack:

Cross-layer functions This "datagram service model" reference in MPLS may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help clarify the "datagram service model" reference in MPLS;

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 19

suggestions may be found on the talk page There are some functions or services that are not tied to a given layer, but they can affect more than one layer. Examples include the following:

security service (telecommunication)[3] as defined by ITU-T X.800 Recommendation. management functions, i.e. functions that permit to configure, instantiate, monitor, terminate the communications of two or more entities: there is a specific application layer protocol, common management information protocol (CMIP) and its corresponding service, common management information service (CMIS), they need to interact with every layer in order to deal with their instances. Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) operates at an OSI-model layer that is generally considered to lie between traditional definitions of layer 2 (data link layer) and layer 3 (network layer), and thus is often referred to as a "layer-2.5" protocol. It was designed to provide a unified data-carrying service for both circuit-based clients and packet-switching clients which provide a datagram service model. It can be used to carry many different kinds of traffic, including IP packets, as well as native ATM, SONET, and Ethernet frames. ARP is used to translate IPv4 addresses (OSI layer 3) into Ethernet MAC addresses (OSI layer 2).

Interfaces Neither the OSI Reference Model nor OSI protocols specify any programming interfaces, other than as deliberately abstract service specifications. Protocol specifications precisely define the interfaces between different computers, but the software interfaces inside computers, known as network sockets are implementation-specific. For example Microsoft Windows' Winsock, and Unix's Berkeley sockets and System V Transport Layer Interface, are interfaces between applications (layer 5 and above) and the transport (layer 4). NDIS and ODI are interfaces between the media (layer 2) and the network protocol (layer 3). Interface standards, except for the physical layer to media, are approximate implementations of OSI service specifications. Examples

Shashank Agnihotri

## Signali ng Syste m 7[6]

AppleTalk

IPX

SNA

UMTS

Misc. examples

Application

NNTP, SIP, SSI,DNS, FTP, INAP,M AFP, ZIP,RTMP, FTAM, X.400,X.500, DA [7] Gopher, HTTP,NFS, NTP, D AP,TC P,ROSE, RTSE,ACSE HCP,SMPP, SMTP,SNMP, AP,ISU CMIP[8] NBP Telnet,RIP, BGP P,TUP

Presentation

AFP

## TDI, ASCII, EBCDIC,MIDI, MPEG

Session

ISO/IEC 8327, X.225, Sockets. Session ISO/IEC 9548-1, X.235 establishment inTCP, RTP

DLC?

## Named pipes, NetBIOS,SAP, half duplex, full duplex, simplex, RPC,SOCKS

Transport

ISO/IEC 8073, TP0, TP1, TP2, TP3, TP4 TCP, UDP, SCTP,DCCP (X.224), ISO/IEC 8602, X.234

DDP,SPX

NBF

Network

ISO/IEC 8208,X.25 (PL IP, IPsec, ICMP,IGMP, OSP SCCP, ATP IPX P), F MTP ISO/IEC 8878,X.223, (TokenTalkorEther ISO/IEC 8473-1, CLN Talk) PX.233.

RRC (Radio NBF, Q.931, IS-IS Resource Control)Pack et Data Convergence Protocol (PD CP) and BMC(Bro adcast/Multic

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 21

ast Control)

ISO/IEC 7666,X.25 (LA PB),Token Bus, X.222, PPP, SBTV SLIP,PPTP ISO/IEC 8802-2 LLC Ty pe 1 and 2[9]

802.3 (Ethernet),802.11a/b/g/n MAC/LLC,802.1Q (VLAN), ATM,HDP, FDDI, Fibre LLC (Logical Channel, Frame IEEE Link Relay,HDLC, ISL, PPP, Q.921,Tok LocalTalk, MTP,Q. 802.3framin Control), MA en Ring, CDP, NDPARP (maps AppleTalk Remote SDLC 710 g,Ethernet II C(Media layer 3 to layer 2 address), ITU-T Access,PPP framing Access G.hn DLL Control) CRC, Bit stuffing, ARQ,Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS), interface bonding

Physical

X.25 (X.21bis,EIA/TIA232,EIA/TIA-449,EIA530,G.703)[9]

## RS-232,RSMTP,Q. 422,STP, 710 PhoneNet

RS-232, Full duplex,RJ45, V.35, V.34, I.430,I.43 1, T1, E1, 10BASE-T, 100BASEUMTS TX, POTS,SONET, SDH, DSL,802 Twinax Physical layer .11a/b/g/n PHY, ITU-T G.hn or L1 PHY, Controller Area Network, Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS)

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 22

Comparison with TCP/IP model In the TCP/IP model of the Internet, protocols are deliberately not as rigidly designed into strict layers as in the OSI model.[10] RFC 3439contains a section entitled "Layering considered harmful." However, TCP/IP does recognize four broad layers of functionality which are derived from the operating scope of their contained protocols, namely the scope of the software application, the end-to-end transport connection, the internetworking range, and the scope of the direct links to other nodes on the local network. Even though the concept is different from the OSI model, these layers are nevertheless often compared with the OSI layering scheme in the following way: The Internet application layer includes the OSI application layer, presentation layer, and most of the session layer. Its end-to-end transport layer includes the graceful close function of the OSI session layer as well as the OSI transport layer. The internetworking layer (Internet layer) is a subset of the OSI network layer (see above), while the link layer includes the OSI data link and physical layers, as well as parts of OSI's network layer. These comparisons are based on the original seven-layer protocol model as defined in ISO 7498, rather than refinements in such things as the internal organization of the network layer document. The presumably strict peer layering of the OSI model as it is usually described does not present contradictions in TCP/IP, as it is permissible that protocol usage does not follow the hierarchy implied in a layered model. Such examples exist in some routing protocols (e.g., OSPF), or in the description of tunneling protocols, which provide a link layer for an application, although the tunnel host protocol may well be a transport or even an application layer protocol in its own right.

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 23

o

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## Computer Networks Page 24

Error Detection and Handling: The data link layer handles errors that occur at the lower levels of the network stack. For example, a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) field is often employed to allow the station receiving data to detect if it was received correctly.

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 25

successfully. It also ensures that incoming data has been received successfully by analyzing bit patterns at special places in the frames.

Shashank Agnihotri

## Computer Networks Page 26

Physical Layer (Layer 1) The lowest layer of the OSI Reference Model is layer 1, the physical layer; it is commonly abbreviated PHY. The physical layer is special compared to the other layers of the model, because it is the only one where data is physically moved across the network interface. All of the other layers perform useful functions to create messages to be sent, but they must all be transmitted down the protocol stack to the physical layer, where they are actually sent out over the network. Note: The physical layer is also special in that it is the only layer that really does not apply specifically to TCP/IP. Even in studying TCP/IP, however, it is still important to understand its significance and role in relation to the other layers where TCP/IP protocols reside. Understanding the Role of the Physical Layer The name physical layer can be a bit problematic. Because of that name, and because of what I just said about the physical layer actually transmitting data, many people who study networking get the impression that the physical layer is only about actual network hardware. Some people may say the physical layer is the network interface cards and cables. This is not actually the case, however. The physical layer defines a number of network functions, not just hardware cables and cards. A related notion is that all network hardware belongs to the physical layer. Again, this isn't strictly accurate. All hardware must have some relation to the physical layer in order to send data over the network, but hardware devices generally implement multiple layers of the OSI model, including the physical layer but also others. For example, an Ethernet network interface card performs functions at both the physical layer and the data link layer. Physical Layer Functions The following are the main responsibilities of the physical layer in the OSI Reference Model:
o

Definition of Hardware Specifications: The details of operation of cables, connectors, wireless radio transceivers, network interface cards and other hardware devices are generally a function of the physical layer (although also partially the data link layer; see below). Encoding and Signaling: The physical layer is responsible for various encoding and signaling functions that transform the data from bits that reside within a computer or other device into signals that can be sent over the network. Data Transmission and Reception: After encoding the data appropriately, the physical layer actually transmits the data, and of course, receives it. Note that this applies equally to wired and wireless networks, even if there is no tangible cable in a wireless network!

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## Computer Networks Page 27

Topology and Physical Network Design: The physical layer is also considered the domain of many hardware-related network design issues, such as LAN and WAN topology.

In general, then, physical layer technologies are ones that are at the very lowest level and deal with the actual ones and zeroes that are sent over the network. For example, when considering network interconnection devices, the simplest ones operate at the physical layer: repeaters, conventional hubs and transceivers. These devices have absolutely no knowledge of the contents of a message. They just take input bits and send them as output. Devices like switches and routers operate at higher layers and look at the data they receive as being more than voltage or light pulses that represent one or zero. Relationship Between the Physical Layer and Data Link Layer It's important to point out that while the physical layer of a network technology primarily defines the hardware it uses, the physical layer is closely related to the data link layer. Thus, it is not generally possible to define hardware at the physical layer independently of the technology being used at the data link layer. For example, Ethernet is a technology that describes specific types of cables and network hardware, but the physical layer of Ethernet can only be isolated from its data link layer aspects to a point. While Ethernet cables are physical layer, for example, their maximum length is related closely to message format rules that exist at the data link layer. Furthermore, some technologies perform functions at the physical layer that are normally more closely associated with the data link layer. For example, it is common to have the physical layer perform low-level (bit level) repackaging of data link layer frames for transmission. Error detection and correction may also be done at layer 1 in some cases. Most people would consider these layer two functions. In many technologies, a number of physical layers can be used with a data link layer. Again here, the classic example is Ethernet, where dozens of different physical layer implementations exist, each of which uses the same data link layer (possibly with slight variations.) Physical Layer Sublayers Finally, many technologies further subdivide the physical layer into sublayers. In order to increase performance, physical layer encoding and transmission methods have become more complex over time. The physical layer may be broken into layers to allow different network media to be supported by the same technology, while sharing other functions at the physical layer that are common between the various media. A good example of this is the physical layer architecture used for Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet and 10-Gigabit Ethernet. Note: In some contexts, the physical layer technology used to convey bits across a network or communications line is called a transport method. Don't confuse this with the functions of the OSI transport layer (layer 4).

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## Computer Networks Page 28

Key Concept: The lowest layer in the OSI Reference Model is the physical layer. It is the realm of networking hardware specifications, and is the place where technologies reside that perform data encoding, signaling, transmission and reception functions. The physical layer is closely related to the data link layer.

Shashank Agnihotri

## The ALOHA protocol Pure ALOHA

Pure ALOHA protocol. Boxes indicate frames. Shaded boxes indicate frames which have collided. The first version of the protocol (now called "Pure ALOHA", and the one implemented in ALOHAnet) was quite simple:

If you have data to send, send the data If the message collides with another transmission, try resending "later"

Note that the first step implies that Pure ALOHA does not check whether the channel is busy before transmitting. The critical aspect is the "later" concept: the quality of the backoff scheme chosen significantly influences the efficiency of the protocol, the ultimate channel capacity, and the predictability of its behavior. To assess Pure ALOHA, we need to predict its throughput, the rate of (successful) transmission of frames. (This discussion of Pure ALOHA's performance follows Tanenbaum.[9]) First, let's make a few simplifying assumptions:

All frames have the same length. Stations cannot generate a frame while transmitting or trying to transmit. (That is, if a station keeps trying to send a frame, it cannot be allowed to generate more frames to send.) The population of stations attempts to transmit (both new frames and old frames that collided) according to a Poisson distribution.

Let "T" refer to the time needed to transmit one frame on the channel, and let's define "frametime" as a unit of time equal to T. Let "G" refer to the mean used in the Poisson distribution over transmission-attempt amounts: that is, on average, there are G transmission-attempts per frame-time.

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## Computer Networks Page 30

Overlapping frames in the pure ALOHA protocol. Frame-time is equal to 1 for all frames. Consider what needs to happen for a frame to be transmitted successfully. Let "t" refer to the time at which we want to send a frame. We want to use the channel for one frame-time beginning at t, and so we need all other stations to refrain from transmitting during this time. Moreover, we need the other stations to refrain from transmitting between t-T and t as well, because a frame sent during this interval would overlap with our frame. For any frame-time, the probability of there being k transmission-attempts during that frame-time is:

Comparison of Pure Aloha and Slotted Aloha shown on Throughput vs. Traffic Load plot. The average amount of transmission-attempts for 2 consecutive frame-times is 2G. Hence, for any pair of consecutive frame-times, the probability of there being ktransmission-attempts during those two frame-times is:

Therefore, the probability ( ) of there being zero transmission-attempts between tT and t+T (and thus of a successful transmission for us) is:

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## Computer Networks Page 31

The throughput can be calculated as the rate of transmission-attempts multiplied by the probability of success, and so we can conclude that the throughput ( ) is:

The maximum throughput is 0.5/e frames per frame-time (reached when G = 0.5), which is approximately 0.184 frames per frame-time. This means that, in Pure ALOHA, only about 18.4% of the time is used for successful transmissions. Slotted ALOHA

Slotted ALOHA protocol. Boxes indicate frames. Shaded boxes indicate frames which are in the same slots. An improvement to the original ALOHA protocol was "Slotted ALOHA", which introduced discrete timeslots and increased the maximum throughput.[10] A station can send only at the beginning of a timeslot, and thus collisions are reduced. In this case, we only need to worry about the transmission-attempts within 1 frame-time and not 2 consecutive frame-times, since collisions can only occur during each timeslot. Thus, the probability of there being zero transmissionattempts in a single timeslot is:

## The throughput is:

The maximum throughput is 1/e frames per frame-time (reached when G = 1), which is approximately 0.368 frames per frame-time, or 36.8%.

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## Computer Networks Page 32

Slotted ALOHA is used in low-data-rate tactical satellite communications networks by military forces, in subscriber-based satellite communications networks, mobile telephony call setup, and in the contactless RFID technologies.

Other Protocols The use of a random access channel in ALOHAnet led to the development of Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA), a 'listen before send' random access protocol which can be used when all nodes send and receive on the same channel. The first implementation of CSMA wasEthernet, and CSMA was extensively modeled in.[11] ALOHA and the other random-access protocols have an inherent variability in their throughput and delay performance characteristics. For this reason, applications which need highly deterministic load behavior often used polling or token-passing schemes (such as token ring) instead of contention systems. For instance ARCNET was popular in embedded data applications in the 1980s.

Design
Network architecture Two fundamental choices which dictated much of the ALOHAnet design were the two-channel star configuration of the network and the use of random accessing for user transmissions. The two-channel configuration was primarily chosen to allow for efficient transmission of the relatively dense total traffic stream being returned to users by the central time-sharing computer. An additional reason for the star configuration was the desire to centralize as many communication functions as possible at the central network node (the Menehune), minimizing the cost of the original all-hardware terminal control unit (TCU) at each user node. The random access channel for communication between users and the Menehune was designed specifically for the traffic characteristics of interactive computing. In a conventional communication system a user might be assigned a portion of the channel on either a frequencydivision multiple access (FDMA) or time-division multiple access (TDMA) basis. Since it was well known that in time-sharing systems [circa 1970], computer and user data are bursty, such fixed assignments are generally wasteful of bandwidth because of the high peak-to-average data rates that characterize the traffic. To achieve a more efficient use of bandwidth for bursty traffic, ALOHAnet developed the random access packet switching method that has come to be known as a pure ALOHA channel. This approach effectively dynamically allocates bandwidth immediately to a user who has data to

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## Computer Networks Page 33

Remote units The original user interface developed for the system was an all-hardware unit called an ALOHAnet Terminal Control Unit (TCU), and was the sole piece of equipment necessary to connect a terminal into the ALOHA channel. The TCU was composed of a UHF antenna, transceiver, modem, buffer and control unit. The buffer was designed for a full line length of 80 characters, which allowed handling of both the 40 and 80 character fixed-length packets defined for the system. The typical user terminal in the original system consisted of a Teletype Model 33 or a dumb CRT user terminal connected to the TCU using a standard RS-232C interface. Shortly after the original ALOHA network went into operation, the TCU was redesigned with one of the first Intel microprocessors, and the resulting upgrade was called a PCU (Programmable Control Unit). Additional basic functions performed by the TCU's and PCUs were generation of a cyclic-paritycheck code vector and decoding of received packets for packet error-detection purposes, and generation of packet retransmissions using a simple random interval generator. If an acknowledgment was not received from the Menehune after the prescribed number of automatic retransmissions, a flashing light was used as an indicator to the human user. Also, since the TCU's and PCUs did not send acknowledgments to the Menehune, a steady warning light was displayed to the human user when an error was detected in a received packet. Thus it can be seen that considerable simplification was incorporated into the initial design of the TCU as well as the PCU, making use of the fact that it was interfacing a human user into the network.

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## Computer Networks Page 34

The Menehune The central node communications processor was an HP 2100 minicomputer called the Menehune, which is the Hawaiian language word for imp, or dwarf people,[12] and was named for its similar role to the original ARPANET Interface Message Processor (IMP) which was being deployed at about the same time. In the original system, the Menehune forwarded correctlyreceived user data to the UH central computer, an IBM System 360/65 time-sharing system. Outgoing messages from the 360 were converted into packets by the Menehune, which were queued and broadcast to the remote users at a data rate of 9600 bit/s. Unlike the half-duplex radios at the user TCUs, the Menehune was interfaced to the radio channels with full-duplex radio equipment.

Later developments In later versions of the system, simple radio relays were placed in operation to connect the main network on the island of Oahu to other islands in Hawaii, and Menehune routing capabilities were expanded to allow user nodes to exchange packets with other user nodes, theARPANET, and an experimental satellite network. More details are available in [3] and in the technical reports listed in the Further Reading section below.

Shashank Agnihotri

## Carrier sense multiple access

Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) is a probabilistic Media Access Control (MAC) protocol in which a node verifies the absence of other traffic before transmitting on a shared transmission medium, such as an electrical bus, or a band of the electromagnetic spectrum. "Carrier Sense" describes the fact that a transmitter uses feedback from a receiver that detects a carrier wave before trying to send. That is, it tries to detect the presence of an encoded signal from another station before attempting to transmit. If a carrier is sensed, the station waits for the transmission in progress to finish before initiating its own transmission. In other words, CSMA is based on the principle "sense before transmit" or "listen before talk". "Multiple Access" describes the fact that multiple stations send and receive on the medium. Transmissions by one node are generally received by all other stations using the medium. Protocol modifications Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) is a modification of CSMA. CSMA/CD is used to improve CSMA performance by terminating transmission as soon as a collision is detected, and reducing the probability of a second collision on retry. Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is a modification of CSMA. Collision avoidance is used to improve the performance of CSMA by attempting to be less "greedy" on the channel. If the channel is sensed busy before transmission then the transmission is deferred for a "random" interval. This reduces the probability of collisions on the channel. CSMA access modes 1-persistent When the sender (station) is ready to transmit data, it checks if the physical medium is busy. If so, it senses the medium continually until it becomes idle, and then it transmits a piece of data (a frame). In case of a collision, the sender waits for a random period of time and attempts to transmit again. 1-persistent CSMA is used in CSMA/CD systems including Ethernet. P-persistent This is a sort of trade-off between 1 and non-persistent CSMA access modes. When the sender is ready to send data, it checks continually if the medium is busy. If the medium becomes idle, the sender transmits a frame with a probability p. If the station chooses not to transmit (the probability of this event is 1-p), the sender waits until the next available time slot and transmits again with the same probability p. This process repeats until the frame is sent or some other sender starts transmitting. In the latter case the sender monitors the channel, and when idle,

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## Computer Networks Page 36

transmits with a probability p, and so on. p-persistent CSMA is used in CSMA/CA systems including WiFiand other packet radio systems. Non-persistent Non persistent CSMA is less aggressive compared to P persistent protocol. In this protocol, before sending the data, the station senses the channel and if the channel is idle it starts transmitting the data. But if the channel is busy, the station does not continuously sense it but instead of that it waits for random amount of time and repeats the algorithm. Here the algorithm leads to better channel utilization but also results in longer delay compared to 1 persistent. O-persistent Each station is assigned a transmission order by a supervisor station. When medium goes idle, stations wait for their time slot in accordance with their assigned transmission order. The station assigned to transmit first transmits immediately. The station assigned to transmit second waits one time slot (but by that time the first station has already started transmitting). Stations monitor the medium for transmissions from other stations and update their assigned order with each detected transmission (i.e. they move one position closer to the front of the queue).[1] Opersistent CSMA is used by CobraNet, LonWorks and the controller area network.

Shashank Agnihotri

## Token bus network

Token passing in a Token bus network Token bus is a network implementing the token ring protocol over a "virtual ring" on a coaxial cable. A token is passed around the network nodes and only the node possessing the token may transmit. If a node doesn't have anything to send, the token is passed on to the next node on the virtual ring. Each node must know the address of its neighbour in the ring, so a special protocol is needed to notify the other nodes of connections to, and disconnections from, the ring. Token bus was standardized by IEEE standard 802.4. It is mainly used for industrial applications. Token bus was used by GM (General Motors) for their Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) standardization effort. This is an application of the concepts used in token ring networks. The main difference is that the endpoints of the bus do not meet to form a physical ring. The IEEE 802.4 Working Group is disbanded. In order to guarantee the packet delay and transmission in Token bus protocol, a modified Token bus was proposed in Manufacturing Automation Systems and flexible manufacturing system (FMS).

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## Computer Networks Page 38

Token ring Internet protocol suite Application layer DHCP DHCPv6 DNS FTP HTTP IMAP IRC LDAP MGCP NNTP NTP POP RPC RTP RTSP SIP SMTP SNMP SOCKS SSH Telnet TLS/SSL XMPP (more)

## Transport layer TCP UDP DCCP SCTP RSVP RIP

Shashank Agnihotri

Internet layer

IP

## IPv4 IPv6 ICMP ICMPv6 IGMP OSPF IPsec (more)

Link layer ARP/InARP NDP Tunnels L2TP PPP Media access control Ethernet DSL ISDN FDDI (more)

Two examples of token ring networks: a) Using a single MAU b) Using several MAUs connected to each other

Shashank Agnihotri

## An IBM 8228 MAU

Madge 4/16Mbps TokenRing ISA NIC Token ring local area network (LAN) technology is a local area network protocol which resides at the data link layer (DLL) of the OSI model. It uses a special three-byte frame called a token that travels around the ring. Token-possession grants the possessor permission to transmit on the medium. Token ring frames travel completely around the loop. Initially used only in IBM computers, it was eventually standardized with protocol IEEE 802.5. Description Stations on a token ring LAN are logically organized in a ring topology with data being transmitted sequentially from one ring station to the next with a control token circulating around

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## Computer Networks Page 41

the ring controlling access. This token passing mechanism is shared by ARCNET, token bus, and FDDI, and has theoretical advantages over the stochastic CSMA/CD of Ethernet. Physically, a token ring network is wired as a star, with 'hubs' and arms out to each station and the loop going out-and-back through each. Cabling is generally IBM "Type-1" shielded twisted pair, with unique hermaphroditic connectors, commonly referred to as IBM data connectors. The connectors have the disadvantage of being quite bulky, requiring at least 3 x 3 cm panel space, and being relatively fragile. Initially (in 1985) token ring ran at 4 Mbit/s, but in 1989 IBM introduced the first 16 Mbit/s token ring products and the 802.5 standard was extended to support this. In 1981, Apollo Computerintroduced their proprietary 12 Mbit/s Apollo token ring (ATR) and Proteon introduced their 10 Mbit/s ProNet-10 token ring network in 1984. However, IBM token ring was not compatible with ATR or ProNet-10. Each station passes or repeats the special token frame around the ring to its nearest downstream neighbour. This token-passing process is used to arbitrate access to the shared ring media. Stations that have data frames to transmit must first acquire the token before they can transmit them. Token ring LANs normally use differential Manchester encoding of bits on the LAN media. IBM popularized the use of token ring LANs in the mid 1980s when it released its IBM token ring architecture based on active MAUs (Media Access Unit, not to be confused with Medium Attachment Unit) and the IBM Structured Cabling System. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) later standardized a token ring LAN system as IEEE 802.5.[1] Token ring LAN speeds of 4 Mbit/s and 16 Mbit/s were standardized by the IEEE 802.5 working group. An increase to 100 Mbit/s was standardized and marketed during the wane of token ring's existence while a 1000 Mbit/s speed was actually approved in 2001, but no products were ever brought to market.[2] When token ring LANs were first introduced at 4 Mbit/s, there were widely circulated claims that they were superior to Ethernet,[3] but these claims were fiercely debated.[4][5] With the development of switched Ethernet and faster variants of Ethernet, token ring architectures lagged behind Ethernet, and the higher sales of Ethernet allowed economies of scale which drove down prices further, and added a compelling price advantage. Token ring networks have since declined in usage and the standards activity has since come to a standstill as 100Mbps switched Ethernet has dominated the LAN/layer 2 networking market. Token frame

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## Computer Networks Page 42

When no station is transmitting a data frame, a special token frame circles the loop. This special token frame is repeated from station to station until arriving at a station that needs to transmit data. When a station needs to transmit data, it converts the token frame into a data frame for transmission. Once the sending station receives its own data frame, it converts the frame back into a token. If a transmission error occurs and no token frame, or more than one, is present, a special station referred to as the Active Monitor detects the problem and removes and/or reinserts tokens as necessary (see Active and standby monitors). On 4 Mbit/s Token Ring, only one token may circulate; on 16 Mbit/s Token Ring, there may be multiple tokens. The special token frame consists of three bytes as described below (J and K are special nondata characters, referred to as code violations).

Token priority
Token ring specifies an optional medium access scheme allowing a station with a high-priority transmission to request priority access to the token. 8 priority levels, 07, are used. When the station wishing to transmit receives a token or data frame with a priority less than or equal to the station's requested priority, it sets the priority bits to its desired priority. The station does not immediately transmit; the token circulates around the medium until it returns to the station. Upon sending and receiving its own data frame, the station downgrades the token priority back to the original priority.

## Token ring frame format

A data token ring frame is an expanded version of the token frame that is used by stations to transmit media access control (MAC) management frames or data frames from upper layer protocols and applications. Token Ring and IEEE 802.5 support two basic frame types: tokens and data/command frames. Tokens are 3 bytes in length and consist of a start delimiter, an access control byte, and an end delimiter. Data/command frames vary in size, depending on the size of the Information field. Data frames carry information for upper-layer protocols, while command frames contain control information and have no data for upper-layer protocols.

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## Computer Networks Page 43

Data/Command Frame
SD AC FC DA SA PDU from LLC (IEEE 802.2) CRC ED FS

## 32 bits 8 bits 8 bits

Starting Delimiter consists of a special bit pattern denoting the beginning of the frame. The bits from most significant to least significant are J,K,0,J,K,0,0,0. J and K are code violations. Since Manchester encoding is self clocking, and has a transition for every encoded bit 0 or 1, the J and K codings violate this, and will be detected by the hardware.Both the Starting Delimiter and Ending Delimiter fields are used to mark frame boundaries J K 0 J K 0 0 0

1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit Access Control this byte field consists of the following bits from most significant to least significant bit order: P,P,P,T,M,R,R,R. The P bits are priority bits, T is the token bit which when set specifies that this is a token frame, M is the monitor bit which is set by the Active Monitor (AM) station when it sees this frame, and R bits are reserved bits. + Bits 02 3 4 57

0 Frame Control

Priority

Token

Monitor

Reservation

a one byte field that contains bits describing the data portion of the frame contents which indicates whether the frame contains data or control information. In control frames, this byte specifies the type of control information. + Bits 01 Bits 27

0 Frame type

Control Bits

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## Computer Networks Page 44

Frame type 01 indicates LLC frame IEEE 802.2 (data) and ignore control bits; 00 indicates MAC frame and control bits indicate the type ofMAC control frame

Destination address a six byte field used to specify the destination(s) physical address . Source address Contains physical address of sending station . It is six byte field that is either the local assigned address (LAA) or universally assigned address (UAA) of the sending station adapter. Data a variable length field of 0 or more bytes, the maximum allowable size depending on ring speed containing MAC management data or upper layer information.Maximum length of 4500 bytes Frame Check Sequence a four byte field used to store the calculation of a CRC for frame integrity verification by the receiver. Ending Delimiter The counterpart to the starting delimiter, this field marks the end of the frame and consists of the following bits from most significant to least significant: J,K,1,J,K,1,I,E. I is the intermediate frame bit and E is the error bit. J K 1 J K 1 I E

## 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit

Frame Status a one byte field used as a primitive acknowledgement scheme on whether the frame was recognized and copied by its intended receiver. A C 0 0 A C 0 0

## 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit

Shashank Agnihotri

## Token Frame Start Delimiter Access Control End Delimiter

8 bits

8 bits

8 bits

Abort Frame SD ED

## Active and standby monitors

Every station in a token ring network is either an active monitor (AM) or standby monitor (SM) station. However, there can be only one active monitor on a ring at a time. The active monitor is chosen through an election or monitor contention process. The monitor contention process is initiated when

a loss of signal on the ring is detected. an active monitor station is not detected by other stations on the ring. a particular timer on an end station expires such as the case when a station hasn't seen a token frame in the past 7 seconds.

When any of the above conditions take place and a station decides that a new monitor is needed, it will transmit a "claim token" frame, announcing that it wants to become the new monitor. If that token returns back to the sender, it is OK for it to become the monitor. If some other station tries to become the monitor at the same time then the station with the highest MAC address will win the election process. Every other station becomes a standby monitor. All stations must be capable of becoming an active monitor station if necessary.The active monitor

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## Computer Networks Page 46

performs a number of ring administration functions. The first function is to operate as the master clock for the ring in order to provide synchronization of the signal for stations on the wire. Another function of the AM is to insert a 24-bit delay into the ring, to ensure that there is always sufficient buffering in the ring for the token to circulate. A third function for the AM is to ensure that exactly one token circulates whenever there is no frame being transmitted, and to detect a broken ring. Lastly, the AM is responsible for removing circulating frames from the ring .Token

## ring insertion process

Token ring stations must go through a 5-phase ring insertion process before being allowed to participate in the ring network. If any of these phases fail, the token ring station will not insert into the ring and the token ring driver may report an error.

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## Computer Networks Page 47

IEEE 802
IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and metropolitan area networks. More specifically, the IEEE 802 standards are restricted to networks carrying variable-size packets. (By contrast, in cell relay networks data is transmitted in short, uniformly sized units called cells. Isochronous networks, where data is transmitted as a steady stream of octets, or groups of octets, at regular time intervals, are also out of the scope of this standard.) The number 802 was simply the next free number IEEE could assign,[1] though 802 is sometimes associated with the date the first meeting was held February 1980. The services and protocols specified in IEEE 802 map to the lower two layers (Data Link and Physical) of the seven-layer OSI networking reference model. In fact, IEEE 802 splits the OSI Data Link Layer into two sub-layers named Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC), so that the layers can be listed like this:

## LLC Sublayer MAC Sublayer

Physical layer

The IEEE 802 family of standards is maintained by the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee (LMSC). The most widely used standards are for the Ethernet family, Token Ring, Wireless LAN, Bridging and Virtual Bridged LANs. An individual Working Group provides the focus for each area.

Working groups
Name Description Note

IEEE 802.1

## Bridging (networking) and Network Management

IEEE 802.2

LLC

inactive

IEEE 802.3

Ethernet

Shashank Agnihotri

IEEE 802.4

Token bus

disbanded

IEEE 802.5

inactive

IEEE 802.6

MANs

disbanded

IEEE 802.7

disbanded

IEEE 802.8

disbanded

IEEE 802.9

disbanded

IEEE 802.10

disbanded

## Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification)

IEEE 802.12

100BaseVG

disbanded

IEEE 802.13

Unused[2]

IEEE 802.14

Cable modems

disbanded

IEEE 802.15

Wireless PAN

IEEE 802.15.1

Bluetooth certification

IEEE 802.15.2

IEEE 802.15.3

## High-Rate wireless PAN

Shashank Agnihotri

IEEE 802.15.4

IEEE 802.15.5

IEEE 802.16

IEEE 802.16.1

IEEE 802.17

IEEE 802.18

IEEE 802.19

Coexistence TAG

IEEE 802.20

IEEE 802.21

IEEE 802.22

IEEE 802.23

## New (March, 2010)

Shashank Agnihotri

## Medium Access Sublayer

Unit-3 Medium Access Sublayer Structure: 3.0 Objectives 3.1 LAN and WAN 3.2 ALOHA Protcols 3.3 LAN Protocols 3.4 IEEE 802 Standards for LANs 3.5 Fiber Optic Networks 3.6 Summary 3.7 Self Assessment Questions 3.8 Terminal Questions 3.9 Answers to Self Assessment Questions 3.10 Answers to Terminal Questions 3.0 Objectives This unit provides the reader the necessary theory for understanding the Medium Access (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer. After completion of this unit you will be able to: Define LAN and MAN Describe the channel allocation mechanisms used in various LANs and MANs Describe ALOHA protocols Compare and Contrast various LAN protocols Explain various IEEE standards for LANs 3.1 LAN and WAN

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## Computer Networks Page 52

this system, the peak traffic to mean traffic ratios of 1000:1 are common. Static channel allocation The usual way of allocating a single channel among the multiple users is frequency division multiplexing (FDM). If there are N users, the bandwidth allocated is split into N equal sized portions. FDM is simple and efficient technique for small number of users. However when the number of senders is large and continuously varying or the traffic is bursty, FDM is not suitable. The same arguments that apply to FDM also apply to TDM. Thus none of the static channels allocation methods work well with bursty traffic we explore the dynamic channels. Dynamic channels allocation in LANs and MANs Before discussing the channel allocation problems that is multiple access methods we will see the assumptions that we are using so that the analysis will become simple. Assumptions: 1. The Station Model: The model consists of N users or independent stations. Stations are sometimes called terminals. The probability of frame being generated in an interval of length t is .t, where is a constant and defines the arrival rate of new frames. Once the frame has been generated, the station is blocked and does nothing until the frame has been successfully transmitted. 2. Single Channel Assumption: A single channel is available for all communication. All stations can transmit using this single channel. All can receive from this channel. As far as the hard is concerned, all stations are equivalent. It is possible the software or the protocols used may assign the priorities to them. 3. Collisions: If two frames are transmitted simultaneously, they overlap in time and the resulting signal is distorted or garbled. This event or situation is called a collision. We assume that all stations can detect collisions. A collided frame must be retransmitted again later. Here we consider no other errors for retransmission other than those generated because of collisions. 4. Continuous Time For a continuous time assumption we mean, that the frame transmission on the channel can begin any instant of time. There is no master clock dividing the time into discrete intervals. 5. Slotted Time

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In case of slotted time assumption, the time is divided into discrete slots or intervals. The frame transmission on the channel begins only at the start of a slot. A slot may contain 0, 1, or more frames. The 0 frame transmission corresponds to idle slot, 1 frame transmission corresponds to successful transmission, and more frame transmission corresponds to a collision. 6. Carrier Sense Using this facility the users can sense the channel. i.e. the stations can tell if the channel is in use before trying to use it. If the channel is sensed as busy, no station will attempt to transmit on the channel unless and until it goes idle. 7. No Carrier Sense: This assumption implies that this facility is not available to the stations. i.e. the stations cannot tell if the channel is in use before trying to use it. They just go ahead and transmit. It is only after transmission of the frame they determine whether the transmission was successful or not. The first assumption states that the station is independent and work is generated at a constant rate. It also assumes that each station has only one program or one user. Thus when the station is blocked no new work is generated. The single channel assumption is the heart of this station model and this unit. The collision assumption is also very basic. Two alternate assumptions about time are discussed. For a given system only one assumption about time holds good, i.e. either the channel is considered to be continuous time based or slotted time based. Also a channel can be sensed or not sensed by the stations. Generally LANs can sense the channel but wireless networks cannot sense the channel effectively. Also stations on wired carrier sense networks can terminate their transmission prematurely if they discover collision. But in case of wireless networks collision detection is rarely done. 3.2 ALOHA Protocols In 1970s, Norman Abramson and his colleagues at University of Hawaii devised a new and elegant method to solve the channel allocation problem. Their work has been extended by many researchers since then. His work is called the ALOHA system which uses ground-based radio broadcasting. This basic idea is applicable to any system in which uncoordinated users are competing for the use of a shared channel. Pure or Un-slotted Aloha The ALOHA network was created at the University of Hawaii in 1970 under the leadership of Norman Abramson. The Aloha protocol is an OSI layer 2 protocol for LAN networks with broadcast topology. The first version of the protocol was basic: If you have data to send, send the data

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## Figure 3.1: Pure ALOHA

Figure 3.2: Vulnerable period for the node: frame The Aloha protocol is an OSI layer 2 protocol used for LAN. A user is assumed to be always in two states: typing or waiting. The station transmits a frame and checks the channel to see if it was successful. If so the user sees the reply and continues to type. If the frame transmission is not successful, the user waits and retransmits the frame over and over until it has been successfully sent. Let the frame time denote the amount of time needed to transmit the standard fixed length frame. We assume the there are infinite users and generate the new frames according Poisson distribution with the mean N frames per frame time. If N>1 the users are generating the frames at higher rate than the channel can handle. Hence all frames will suffer collision. Hence the range for N is 0<N<1 If N>1 there are collisions and hence retransmission frames are also added with the new frames for

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transmissions. Let us consider the probability of k transmission attempts per frame time. Here the transmission of frames includes the new frames as well as the frames that are given for retransmission. This total traffic is also poisoned with the mean G per frame time. That is G N At low load: N is approximately =0, there will be few collisions. Hence few retransmissions that is G=N At high load: N >>1, many retransmissions and hence G>N. Under all loads: throughput S is just the offered load G times the probability of successful transmission P0 S = G*P0 The probability that k frames are generated during a given frame time is given by Poisson distribution P[k]= Gke-G / K! So the probability of zero frames is just e-G. The basic throughput calculation follows a Poisson distribution with an average number of arrivals of 2G arrivals per two frame time. Therefore, the lambda parameter in the Poisson distribution becomes 2G. Hence P0 = e-2G Hence the throughput S = GP0 = Ge-2G We get for G = 0.5 resulting in a maximum throughput of 0.184, i.e. 18.4%. Pure Aloha had a maximum throughput of about 18.4%. This means that about 81.6% of the total available bandwidth was essentially wasted due to losses from packet collisions. Slotted or Impure ALOHA An improvement to the original Aloha protocol was Slotted Aloha. It is in 1972 Roberts published a method to double the throughput of a pure ALOHA by using discrete time-slots. His proposal was to divide the time into discrete slots corresponding to one frame time. This approach requires the users to agree to the frame boundaries. To achieve synchronization one special station emits a pip at the start of each interval similar to a clock. Thus the capacity of slotted ALOHA increased to the maximum throughput of 36.8%. The throughput for pure and slotted ALOHA system is shown in figure 3.3. A station can send only at the beginning of a timeslot and thus collisions are reduced. In this case, the average number of aggregate arrivals is G arrivals per 2X seconds. This leverages the lambda parameter to be G. The

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## maximum throughput is reached for G = 1.

Figure 3.3: Throughput versus offered load traffic With Slotted Aloha, a centralized clock sends out small clock tick packets to the outlying stations. Outlying stations are allowed to send their packets immediately after receiving a clock tick. If there is only one station with a packet to send, this guarantees that there will never be a collision for that packet. On the other hand if there are two stations with packets to send, this algorithm guarantees that there will be a collision, and the whole of the slot period up to the next clock tick is wasted. With some mathematics, it is possible to demonstrate that this protocol does improve the overall channel utilization, by reducing the probability of collisions by a half. It should be noted that Alohas characteristics are still not much different from those experienced today by Wi - Fi, and similar contention-based systems that have no carrier sense capability. There is a certain amount of inherent inefficiency in these systems. It is typical to see these types of networks throughput break down significantly as the number of users and message burstiness increase. For these reasons, applications which need highly deterministic load behavior often use token-passing schemes (such as token ring) instead of contention systems. For instance ARCNET is very popular in embedded applications. Nonetheless, contention based systems also have significant advantages, including ease of management and speed in initial communication. Slotted Aloha is used on low bandwidth tacticalSatellite communications networks by the US Military, subscriber based Satellite communications networks, and contact lessRFID technologies. 3.3 LAN Protocols With slotted ALOHA, the best channel utilization that can be achieved is 1 / e. This is hardly surprising since with stations transmitting at will, without paying attention to what other stations are doing, there are bound to be many collisions. In LANs, it is possible to detect what other stations are doing, and adapt their behavior accordingly. These networks can achieve a better utilization than 1 / e. CSMA Protocols: Protocols in which stations listen for a carrier (a transmission) and act accordingly are

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called Carrier Sense Protocols."Multiple Access" describes the fact that multiple nodes send and receive on the medium. Transmissions by one node are generally received by all other nodes using the medium. Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) is a probabilistic Media Access Control (MAC) protocol in which a node verifies the absence of other traffic before transmitting on a shared physical medium, such as an electrical bus, or a band of electromagnetic spectrum. The following three protocols discuss the various implementations of the above discussed concepts: i) Protocol 1. 1-persistent CSMA: When a station has data to send, it first listens to the channel to see if any one else is transmitting. If the channel is busy, the station waits until it becomes idle. When the station detects an idle channel, it transmits a frame. If a collision occurs, the station waits a random amount of time and starts retransmission. The protocol is so called because the station transmits with a probability of a whenever it finds the channel idle. ii) Protocol 2. Non-persistent CSMA: In this protocol, a conscious attempt is made to be less greedy than in the 1-persistent CSMA protocol. Before sending a station senses the channel. If no one else is sending, the station begins doing so itself. However, if the channel is already in use, the station does not continuously sense the channel for the purpose of seizing it immediately upon detecting the end of previous transmission. Instead, it waits for a random period of time and then repeats the algorithm. Intuitively, this algorithm should lead to better channel utilization and longer delays than 1persistent CSMA.

iii) Protocol 3. p - persistent CSMA It applies to slotted channels and the working of this protocol is given below: When a station becomes ready to send, it senses the channel. If it is idle, it transmits with a probability p. With a probability of q = 1 p, it defers until the next slot. If that slot is also idle, it either transmits or defers again, with probabilities p and q. This process is repeated until either the frame has been transmitted or another station has begun transmitting. In the latter case, it acts as if there had been a collision. If the station initially senses the channel busy, it waits until the next slot and applies the above algorithm. CSMA/CD Protocol In computer networking, Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) is a network control protocol in which a carrier sensing scheme is used. A transmitting data station that detects another signal while transmitting a frame, stops transmitting that frame, transmits a jam signal, and then waits for a random time interval. The random time interval also known as "backoff

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delay" is determined using the truncated binary exponential backoff algorithm. This delay is used before trying to send that frame again. CSMA/CD is a modification of pure Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA). Collision detection is used to improve CSMA performance by terminating transmission as soon as a collision is detected, and reducing the probability of a second collision on retry. Methods for collision detection are media dependent, but on an electrical bus such as Ethernet, collisions can be detected by comparing transmitted data with received data. If they differ, another transmitter is overlaying the first transmitters signal (a collision), and transmission terminates immediately. Here the collision recovery algorithm is nothing but an binary exponential algorithm that determines the waiting time for retransmission. If the number of collisions for the frame hits 16 then the frame is considered as not recoverable. CSMA/CD can be in anyone of the following three states as shown in figure 3.4. 1. Contention period 2. transmission period 3. Idle period

Figure 3.4: States of CSMA / CD: Contention, Transmission, or Idle A jam signal is sent which will cause all transmitters to back off by random intervals, reducing the probability of a collision when the first retry is attempted. CSMA/CD is a layer 2 protocol in the OSI model. Ethernet is the classic CSMA/CD protocol. Collision Free Protocols Although collisions do not occur with CSMA/CD once a station has unambiguously seized the channel, they can still occur during the contention period. These collisions adversely affect the system performance especially when the cable is long and the frames are short. And also CSMA/CD is not universally applicable. In this section, we examine some protocols that resolve the contention for the channel without any collisions at all, not even during the contention period. In the protocols to be described, we assume that there exists exactly N stations, each with a unique

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iii) Limited Contention Protocols Until now we have considered two basic strategies for channel acquisition in a cable network: Contention as in CSMA, and collision free methods. Each strategy can be rated as to how well it does with respect to the two important performance measures, delay at low load, and channel efficiency at high load. Under conditions of light load, contention (i.e. pure or slotted ALOHA) is preferable due to its low delay. As the load increases, contention becomes increasingly less attractive, because the overhead associated with channel arbitration becomes greater. Just the reverse is true for collision free protocols. At low load, they have high delay, but as the load increases, the channel efficiency improves. It would be more beneficial if we could combine the best features of contention and collision free protocols and arrive at a protocol that uses contention at low load to provide low delay, but uses a collision free technique at high load to provide good channel efficiency. Such protocols can be called Limited Contention protocols. iv) Adaptive Tree Walk Protocol A simple way of performing the necessary channel assignment is to use the algorithm devised by US army for testing soldiers for syphilis during World War II. The Army took a blood sample from N soldiers. A portion of each sample was poured into a single test tube. This mixed sample was then tested for antibodies. If none were found, all the soldiers in the group were declared healthy. If antibodies were present, two new mixed samples were prepared, one from soldiers 1 through N/2 and one from the rest. The process was repeated recursively until the infected soldiers were detected. For the computerized version of this algorithm, let us assume that stations are arranged as the leaves of a binary tree as shown in figure 3.4 below:

Figure 3.5: A tree for four stations In the first contention slot following a successful frame transmission, slot 0, all stations are

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permitted to acquire the channel. If one of them does, so fine. If there is a collision, then during slot 1 only stations falling under node 2 in the tree may compete. If one of them acquires the channel, the slot following the frame is reserved for those stations under node 3. If on the other hand, two or more stations under node 2 want to transmit, there will be a collisions during slot 1, in which case it is node 4s turn during slot 2. In essence, if a collision occurs during slot 0, the entire tree is searched, depth first to locate all ready stations. Each bit slot is associated with some particular node in a tree. If a collision occurs, the search continues recursively with the nodes left and right children. If a bit slot is idle or if only one station transmits in it, the searching of its node can stop because all ready stations have been located. When the load on the system is heavy, it is hardly worth the effort to dedicate slot 0 to node 1, because that makes sense only in the unlikely event that precisely one station has a frame to send. At what level in the tree should the search begin? Clearly, the heavier the load, the farther down the tree the search should begin. 3.4 IEEE 802 standards for LANs IEEE has standardized a number of LANs and MANs under the name of IEEE 802. Few of the standards are listed in figure 3.6. The most important of the survivors are 802.3 (Ethernet) and 802.11 (wireless LAN). Both these two standards have different physical layers and different MAC sub layers but converge on the same logical link control sub layer so they have same interface to the network layer. IEEE No 802.3 802.4 802.5 802.6 802.11 802.15.1 802.15.4 802.16 WiFi Bluetooth ZigBee WiMa Name Ethernet Title CSMA/CD Networks (Ethernet) Token Bus Networks Token Ring Networks Metropolitan Area Networks Wireless Local Area Networks Wireless Personal Area Networks Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks

Figure 3.6: List of IEEE 802 Standards for LAN and MAN Ethernets Ethernet was originally based on the idea of computers communicating over a shared coaxial cable acting as a broadcast transmission medium. The methods used show some similarities to radio systems, although there are major differences, such as the fact that it is much easier to detect collisions in a cable broadcast system than a radio broadcast. The common cable providing the

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communication channel was likened to the ether and it was from this reference the name "Ethernet" was derived. From this early and comparatively simple concept, Ethernet evolved into the complex networking technology that today powers the vast majority of local computer networks. The coaxial cable was later replaced with point-to-point links connected together by hubs and/or switches in order to reduce installation costs, increase reliability, and enable point-to-point management and troubleshooting. Star LAN was the first step in the evolution of Ethernet from a coaxial cable bus to a hub-managed, twisted-pair network. Above the physical layer, Ethernet stations communicate by sending each other data packets, small blocks of data that are individually sent and delivered. As with other IEEE 802 LANs, each Ethernet station is given a single 48-bit MAC address, which is used both to specify the destination and the source of each data packet. Network interface cards (NICs) or chips normally do not accept packets addressed to other Ethernet stations. Adapters generally come programmed with a globally unique address, but this can be overridden, either to avoid an address change when an adapter is replaced, or to use locally administered addresses. The most kinds of Ethernets used were with the data rate of 10Mbps. The table 3.1 gives the details of the medium used, number of nodes per segment and distance it supported, along with the application. Table 3.1 Different 10Mbps Ethernets used Name 10Base5 10Base2 Cable Type Max Segment Nodes per Advantages Length Segment Thick coax 500 m Thin coax 185 m 100 30 1024 1024 Original Cable; Now Obsolete No hub needed Cheapest system Best between buildings

10Base-T Twisted Pair 100 m 10Base-F Fiber Optics 2000 m Fast Ethernet

Fast Ethernet is a collective term for a number of Ethernet standards that carry traffic at the nominal rate of 100 Mbit/s, against the original Ethernet speed of 10 Mbit/s. Of the 100 megabit Ethernet standards 100baseTX is by far the most common and is supported by the vast majority of Ethernet hardware currently produced. Full duplex fast Ethernet is sometimes referred to as "200 Mbit/s" though this is somewhat misleading as that level of improvement will only be achieved if traffic patterns are symmetrical. Fast Ethernet was introduced in 1995 and remained the fastest version of Ethernet for three years before being superseded by gigabit Ethernet. A fast Ethernet adaptor can be logically divided into a medium access controller (MAC) which deals with the higher level issues of medium availability and a physical layer interface (PHY). The MAC may be linked to the PHY by a 4 bit 25 MHz synchronous parallel interface known as MII.

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Repeaters (hubs) are also allowed and connect to multiple PHYs for their different interfaces. 100BASE-T is any of several Fast Ethernet standards for twisted pair cables. 100BASE-TX (100 Mbit/s over two-pair Cat5 or better cable), 100BASE-T4 (100 Mbit/s over four-pair Cat3 or better cable, defunct), 100BASE-T2 (100 Mbit/s over two-pair Cat3 or better cable, also defunct). The segment length for a 100BASE-T cable is limited to 100 meters. Most networks had to be rewired for 100-megabit speed whether or not they had supposedly been CAT3 or CAT5 cable plants. The vast majority of common implementations or installations of 100BASE-T are done with 100BASE-TX. 100BASE-TX is the predominant form of Fast Ethernet, and runs over two pairs of category 5 or above cable. A typical category 5 cable contains 4 pairs and can therefore support two 100BASE-TX links. Each network segment can have a maximum distance of 100 metres. In its typical configuration, 100BASE-TX uses one pair of twisted wires in each direction, providing 100 Mbit/s of throughput in each direction (full-duplex). The configuration of 100BASE-TX networks is very similar to 10BASE-T. When used to build a local area network, the devices on the network are typically connected to a hub or switch, creating a star network. Alternatively it is possible to connect two devices directly using a crossover cable. In 100BASE-T2, the data is transmitted over two copper pairs, 4 bits per symbol. First, a 4 bit symbol is expanded into two 3-bit symbols through a non-trivial scrambling procedure based on a linear feedback shift register. 100BASE-FX is a version of Fast Ethernet over optical fiber. It uses two strands of multi-mode optical fiber for receive (RX) and transmit (TX). Maximum length is 400 metres for halfduplex connections or 2 kilometers for full-duplex. 100BASE-SX is a version of Fast Ethernet over optical fiber. It uses two strands of multi-mode optical fiber for receive and transmit. It is a lower cost alternative to using 100BASE-FX, because it uses short wavelength optics which are significantly less expensive than the long wavelength optics used in 100BASE-FX. 100BASE-SX can operate at distances up to 300 meters. 100BASE-BX is a version of Fast Ethernet over a single strand of optical fiber (unlike 100BASEFX, which uses a pair of fibers). Single-mode fiber is used, along with a special multiplexer which splits the signal into transmit and receive wavelengths. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet (GbE or 1 GigE) is a term describing various technologies for transmitting Ethernet packets at a rate of a gigabit per second, as defined by the IEEE 802.3-

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2005 standard. Half duplex gigabit links connected through hubs are allowed by the specification but in the marketplace full duplex with switches is the norm. Gigabit Ethernet was the next iteration, increasing the speed to 1000 Mbit/s. The initial standard for gigabit Ethernet was standardized by the IEEE in June 1998 as IEEE 802.3z. 802.3z is commonly referred to as 1000BASE-X (where -X refers to either -CX, -SX, -LX, or -ZX). IEEE 802.3ab, ratified in 1999, defines gigabit Ethernet transmission over unshielded twisted pair (UTP) category 5, 5e, or 6cabling and became known as 1000BASE-T. With the ratification of 802.3ab, gigabit Ethernet became a desktop technology as organizations could utilize their existing copper cabling infrastructure. Initially, gigabit Ethernet was deployed in high-capacity backbone network links (for instance, on a high-capacity campus network). Fiber gigabit Ethernet has recently been overtaken by 10 gigabit Ethernet which was ratified by the IEEE in 2002 and provided data rates 10 times that of gigabit Ethernet. Work on copper 10 gigabit Ethernet over twisted pair has been completed, but as of July 2006, the only currently available adapters for 10 gigabit Ethernet over copper requires specialized cabling. InfiniBand connectors and is limited to 15 m. However, the 10GBASE-T standard specifies use of the traditional RJ-45connectors and longer maximum cable length. Different gigabits Ethernet are listed in table 3.2. Table 3.2 Different Gigabit Ethernets Name 1000BASE-T 1000BASE-SX 1000BASE-LX 1000BASE-CX 1000BASE-ZX medium unshielded twisted pair multi-mode fiber single-mode fiber balanced copper cabling single-mode fiber

IEEE 802.3 Frame format Preamble SOF Destination Source Address Address Figure 3.7: Frame format of IEEE 802.3 Preamble field Each frame starts with a preamble of 8 bytes, each containing bit patterns 10101010. Preamble is encoded using Manchester encoding. Thus the bit patterns produce a 10MHz square wave for 6.4 Length Data Pad Checksum

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attached. Logically, the stations are organized into a ring, with each station knowing the address of the station to its left or right. When the logical ring is initialized, the highest numbered station may send the first frame. After it is done, it passes permission to its immediate neighbor by sending the neighbor a special control frame called a token. The token propagates around the logical ring, with only the token holder being permitted to transmit frames. Since only one station at a time holds the token, collisions do not occur. Note: The physical order in which the stations are connected to the cable is not important. Since the cable is inherently a broadcast medium, each station receives each frame, discarding those not addressed to it. When a station passes the token, it sends a token frame specifically addressed to its logical neighbor in the ring, irrespective of where the station is physically located on the cable.

Figure 3.8: Token Passing IEEE 802.5 Standard - Token Ring A ring is really not a broadcast medium, but a collection of individual point-to-point links that happen to form a circle. Ring engineering is almost entirely digital. A ring is also fair and has a known upper bound on channel access. sec, each bit occupies 200/R meters on the ring. This means, for example, that a 1-Mbps ring whose circumference is 1000 meters can contain only 5 bits on it at once. sec. With a typical propagation speed of about 200 m/A major issue in the design and analysis of any ring network is the physical length of a bit. If the data rate of the ring is R Mbps, a bit is emitted every 1/R A ring really consists of a collection of ring interfaces connected by point-to-point lines. Each bit arriving at an interface is copied into a 1-bit buffer and then copied out onto the ring again. While in the buffer, the bit can be inspected and possibly modified before being written out. This copying step

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introduces a 1-bit delay at each interface. In a token ring a special bit pattern, called the token, circulates around the ring whenever all stations are idle. When a station wants to transmit a frame, it is required to seize the token and remove it from the ring before transmitting. Since there is only one token, only one station can transmit at a given instant, thus solving the channel access problem the same way the token bus solves it. 3.5 Fiber Optic Networks Fiber optics is becoming increasingly important, not only for wide area point-to-point links, but also for MANs and LANs. Fiber has high bandwidth, is thin and lightweight, is not affected by electromagnetic interference from heavy machinery, power surges or lightning, and has excellent security because it is nearly impossible to wiretap without detection. FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) It is a high performance fiber optic token ring LAN running at 100 Mbps over distances up to 200 km with up to 1000 stations connected. It can be used in the same way as any of the 802 LANs, but with its high bandwidth, another common use is as a backbone to connect copper LANs. FDDI II is a successor of FDDI modified to handle synchronous circuit switched PCM data for voice or ISDN traffic, in addition to ordinary data. FDDI uses multimode fibers. It also uses LEDs rather than lasers because FDDI may sometimes be used to connect directly to workstations. The FDDI cabling consists of two fiber rings, one transmitting clockwise and the other transmitting counter clockwise. If any one breaks, the other can be used as a backup. FDDI defines two classes of stations A and B. Class A stations connect to both rings. The cheaper class B stations only connect to one of the rings. Depending on how important fault tolerance is, an installation can choose class A or class B stations, or some of each. S/NET It is another kind of fiber optic network with an active star for switching. It was designed and implemented at Bell laboratories. The goal of S/NET is very fast switching. Each computer in the network has two 20-Mbps fibers running to the switch, one for input and one for output. The fibers terminate in a BIB (Bus Interface Board). The CPUs each have an I/O device register that acts like a one-word window into BIB memory. When a word is written to that device register, the interface board in the CPU transmits the bits serially over the fiber to the BIB, where they are reassembled as a word in BIB memory. When the whole frame to be transmitted has been copied to BIB memory, the CPU writes a command to another I/O device register to cause the switch to copy the frame to the memory of the destination BIB and interrupt the destination CPU.

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Access to this bus is done by a priority algorithm. Each BIB has a unique priority. When a BIB wants access to the bus it asserts a signal on the bus corresponding to its priority. The requests are recorded and granted in priority order, with one word transferred (16 bits in parallel) at a time. When all requests have been granted, another round of bidding is started and BIBs can again request the bus. No bus cycles are lost to contention, so switching speed is 16 bits every 200 nsec, or 80 Mbps. 3.6 Summary This unit discusses the Medium Access Sublayer. It discusses in detail about LANs and WANs. It discusses the basic LAN protocols called ALOHA protocols. It describes the IEEE 802 standards for LANS. It discusses the importance of Fiber Optic Networks and cabling used as backbone for LAN connectivity. 3.7 Self Assessment Questions 1. The Data Link Layer of the ISO OSI model is divided into ______ sublayers a) 1 b) 4 c) 3 d) 2 2. The ______ layer is responsible for resolving access to the shared media or resources. a) physical b) MAC sublayer c) Network d) Transport 3. A WAN typically spans a set of countries that have data rates less than _______ Mbps a) 2 b) 1 c) 4 d) 100 4. The ________ model consists of N users or independent stations. 5. The Aloha protocol is an OSI _______ protocol for LAN networks with broadcast topology 6. In ______ method, each contention period consists of exactly N slots 3.8 Terminal Questions 1. Discuss ALOHA protocols 2. Discuss various LAN protocols 3. Discuss IEEE 802 standards for LANs 3.9 Answers to Self Assessment Questions 1. d

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2. b 3. b 4. Station 5. layer 2 6. A Bit Map Protocol 3.10 Answers to Terminal Questions 1. Refer to section 3.2 2. Refer to section 3.3 3. Refer to section 3.4 ATM Protocol Structure Figure 33 shows the ATM layered architecture as described in ITU-T recommendation I.321 (1992). This is the basis on which the B-ISDN Protocol Reference Model has been defined.

Figure 33: ATM Protocol Architecture ATM Physical Layer The physical layer accepts or delivers payload cells at its point of access to the ATM layer. It provides for cell delineation which enables the receiver to recover cell boundaries. It generates and verifies the HEC field. If the HEC cannot be verified or corrected, then the physical layer will discard the errored cell. Idle cells are inserted in the transmit direction and removed in the receiving direction. For the physical transmission of bits, 5 types of transmission frame adaptations are specified (by the ITU and the ATM Forum). Each one of them has its own lower bound or upper bound for the amount of bits it can carry (from 12.5 Mbps to 10 Gbps so far).

## 1. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

155 Mbps;

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## 2. Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)

34 Mbps;

3. Cell Based 155 Mbps; 4. Fibre Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) = 100 Mbps; 5. Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) 51 Mbps. The actual physical link could be either optical or coaxial with the possibility of Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP Category 3/5) and Shielded Twisted Pair (STP Category 5) in the mid range (12.5 to 51 Mbps). ATM Layer ATM layer mainly performs switching, routing and multiplexing. The characteristic features of the ATM layer are independent of the physical medium. Four functions of this layer have been identified. 1. cell multiplexing (in the transmit direction) 2. cell demultiplexing (at the receiving end) 3. VPI/VCI translation 4. cell header generation/extraction. This layer accepts or delivers cell payloads. It adds appropriate ATM cell headers when transmitting and removes cell headers in the receiving direction so that only the cell information field is delivered to the ATM Adaptation Layer. At the ATM switching/cross connect nodes VPI and VCI translation occurs. At a VC switch new values of VPI and VCI are obtained whereas at a VP switch only new values for the VPI field are obtained (see Figure 34). Depending on the direction, either the individual VPs and VCs are multiplexed into a single cell or the single cell is demultiplexed to get the individual VPs and VCs.

Figure 34: VC/VP Switching in ATM ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) The ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) is between ATM layer and the higher layers. Its basic function is the enhanced adaptation of services provided by the ATM layer to the requirements of the higher layers. This layer accepts and delivers data streams that are structured for use with user's own communication protocol. It changes these protocol data structures into ATM cell payloads when receiving and does the reverse when transmitting. It inserts timing information required by users into cell payloads or extracts from them. This is done in accordance with five AAL service classes defined as follows. 1. AAL1 - Adaptation for Constant Bit Rate (CBR) services (connection oriented, 47 byte payload);

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## Computer Networks Page 72

This approach led to a design not connection oriented where each packet is routed independently of any other package. Therefore, if some routers fall during a session, no harm because the system can reconfigure itself dynamically for subsequent packets to find a route to your destination, even if it is different from the one used by the previous packages. The connection-oriented field comes from the world of telephone companies. In the telephone system, the caller must dial the number of the party to call and wait connection before you can talk or send data. This establishes a connection setup route through the phone system that is maintained until the call is terminated. All words or packets follow the same route. If a line or switch goes down along the way, the call is canceled. This property is precisely what the DoD did not like. So why do you like the phone companies? For two reasons: 1. Quality service. 2. Billing. By first establishing a connection, the subnet can reserve resources such as space buffering and processing power (CPU) in routers. Attempting to set a call and available resources are insufficient, the call is rejected and the caller receives a busy signal. once a connection is established, it gives good service. With no network connection-oriented, if too many packets arrive at the same router to same time, the router is saturated and may lose some packets.Perhaps the issuer notice this and send it back, but the quality of service is uneven and inadequate to audio or video unless the network has low. Needless to say, to provide adequate audio quality is something the phone companies take great care, hence the preference for the connections. The second reason that phone companies prefer the connection-oriented service is that they are accustomed to charging for connection time. When a call long distance (domestic or international) is charged per minute. When they arrived networks were drawn precisely to a model in which the charge per minute would be easy to do.

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## Computer Networks Page 73

If you have to establish a connection before sending the data, that is when billing clock starts running. If no connection, no charge. Ironically, maintaining billing records is very expensive. If a telephone company adopt a flat monthly rate with unlimited calls and no billing or maintenance of a record, probably save a lot of money, despite the increase in calls this policy would generate. However, there are policies, regulations and other factors that weigh in against doing this. Interestingly, the flat rate service exists in other sectors. For example, cable TV is billed at a flat monthly rate regardless of how many programs display. It could have been designed with pay per view as a basic concept, but it was not, in part by the high cost of turnover (and given the quality of most television programs, shame can not be discounted entirely). Also, many parks charge an admission fee per day with unlimited access to games, in contrast to carnivals that charge per game. That said, we should not be surprising that all the networks designed by the telephone industry have been connection-oriented subnets. What is surprising is that the Internet is also inclined in that direction in order to provide better audio and video service. For now examine some connection-oriented networks. X.25 and Frame Relay Our first example of connection-oriented network is X.25, which was the first network public data. Deployed in the 1970s, when telephone service was a monopoly everywhere and the telephone company in each country expected to have a data network country itself. To use X.25, a computer, first established a connection to the remote computer, that is, made a phone call. This connection was a connection number for use in the transfer of data packets (since it could open many connections at the same time). Data sets were very simple, consisted of a 3-byte header and up to 128 bytes of data. The header consists of a number of 12-bit connection, a packet sequence number, a receipt confirmation number and some number of bits.

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## Computer Networks Page 74

X.25 networks operated for almost ten years with mixed results. In the 1980s, X.25 networks were replaced largely by a new type of network called Frame Relay. This is a connection-oriented network without error control or flow. As might be connection-oriented, packets are delivered in order (if to surrender all). The properties of order delivery, no error control or flow made the Frame Relay LAN-like wide area. Its most important application is the interconnection LANs in multiple locations of a company. Frame Relay enjoyed modest success and even is still used in some parts. Asynchronous Transfer Mode Another type of network connection-oriented, perhaps more importantly, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode). The reason for this strange name is because the telephone system in most of the transmission is synchronous (the closest thing to a clock) and ATM do not. ATM was designed in the early 1990s and launched in the midst of an incredible exaggeration (Ginsburg, 1996; Goralski, 1995; Ibe, 1997; kimnaras et al., 1994, and Stallings, 2000). ATM would solve all the problems of merging telecommunications connectivity and voice, data, cable, telex, telegraph, carrier pigeons, cans connected by string, drums, smoke signals and everything else in a single integrated system that could provide all services for all needs. That did not happen. In large part, the problems were similar to those described in the issue of OSI, ie an unwelcome appearance, along with technology, implementation and misguided policies. Having knocked out telephone companies in the first assault, much of the Internet community saw ATM as when the Internet was the opponent of the telcos: the second part. But not so in reality and this time even in datagrams compromisers fans realized that the quality of Internet service left much to be desired. To make a long story, was much more successful ATM OSI and currently use deep within the telephone system, often in the transport of IP packets. As businesses today is used primarily to carry its internal transport, users are unaware of its existence, but definitely alive and has health.

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## Computer Networks Page 75

ATM virtual circuits Since ATM networks are connection oriented, data transmission requires that you first send a package to connect. Establishment as the message continues its path through the subnet, all switches are in the path created an entry in its internal tables noting the existence of the connection and reserving whatever resources they need the connection. Often the connections are called virtual circuits, in analogy with the physical circuits used in the telephone system. Most ATM networks also support permanent virtual circuits, the connections standing between two hosts (distant). They are similar to leased lines in the world phone. Each connection, temporarily or permanently, has a single connection handle. Once connected, each side can begin transmitting data. The basic idea that is based ATM is to transmit all the information into small packets of fixed size, called cells. The cells have a size of 53 bytes, five of which are header and 48 payload, so the sender and receiver hosts and all intermediate switches can know which cells belong to which connections. This information allows each switch knows how to send each incoming cell. The switching of cells is done in hardware at high speed. In fact, the main argument for having fixed-size cells is that it is easy build hardware switches to handle small cells of fixed length. Packages variable length IP must be routed through software, which is a slower process. Another advantage of ATM is that the hardware can be configured to send an incoming cell to multiple output lines, a property necessary for the management of a television program to be broadcast to multiple receivers. Finally, the small cells do not block any long line, making it easier to guarantee quality of service. All cells follow the same route to the destination. The delivery of cells is not guaranteed, but the order itself. If the cells 1 and 2 are sent in that order, then they should arrive in the same order, never first 2 then 1. However, one or both of these may be lost in the way.

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## Computer Networks Page 76

At higher levels of their proper protocols cell recover losses. Note that while this warranty is not perfect, is better than the Internet. There, the packets only lost, but also delivered in disarray. ATM, in contrast, ensures that cells were never delivered disorder. ATM networks are organized as traditional WAN, with lines and switches (routers). The most common speeds for ATM networks are 155 and 622 Mbps, although higher speeds are supported.Speed was chosen because it is 155 Mbps which required to transmit highdefinition television. The exact choice of 155.52 Mbps was made for compatibility with the SONET transmission system from AT & T. The physical layer is concerned with the physical environment: voltages, bit timing and other aspects. ATM does not prescribe a particular set of rules, only specifies that the cells ATM can be sent as is cable or fiber, but can be packed into the payload of other transport systems. In other words, ATM is designed to be independent of the transmission medium. The ATM layer is responsible for the cells and transport. Defines the layout of a cell and indicates the mean fields of the header. It also deals with the establishment and the release of the virtual circuits. Congestion control is also located here. Since most applications do not need to work directly with the cells (although some may do so), has defined a top layer to the ATM layer to users send packets bigger than a cell. ATM interface segments these packets, transmitted from individual cells and reassembles at the other end. This layer is AAL (ATM Adaptation Layer). Unlike the first two-dimensional reference models, the ATM model is defined as if three dimensional. The user plane deals with data transport, flow control, error correction and other user functions. In contrast, the control plane deals with connection management.

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## Computer Networks Page 77

The management functions of the layer plane and are related to resource management and coordination between coats. Each of the physical layer and AAL are divided into two subnetworks, one in the bottom that does the job and the convergence sublayer on top that provides the interface own immediate upper layer. The PMD sublayer (Physical Medium Dependent) interacts with the real cable. Move bit in and out and handles the timing bits, ie the time between each bit to transmission. This layer will be different for different carriers and cables. The other sublayer of the physical layer is the sublayer TC (Transmission Convergence). When cells are transmitted, the TC layer sends a string of bits to the PMD layer. This is simple. At the other extreme, the TC sublayer receives a series of input bits of the PMD sublayer. Its job is to convert this bit stream into a stream of cells to the ATM layer. Manages all aspects related to the indications of where the cells begin and end the flow of bits. In the ATM model, this feature occurs in the physical layer. In the OSI model and large of the other networks, the work of framing, ie convert a number of bits in the rough a sequence of frames or cells, is the task of the data link layer. As mentioned earlier, the ATM layer handles cells, including their generation and transportation. The most interesting aspect of ATM is located here. It is a combination of the data link layer and network OSI model, there is a split in sublayers. The AAL layer is divided into a sublayer SAR (Segmentation and Reassembly) and CS (Convergence Sublayer). The lower sublayer packet fragmented cells in the transmit side and rejoins at the destination. The upper sublayer allows ATM systems offer different types of services to different applications (eg, file transfer and video on demand have different requirements concerning error handling, timing, etc.). However, since there is a substantial installed base, it is likely that he was still in use for some years.

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## Computer Networks Page 78

Permanent and switched virtual circuits in ATM, frame relay, and X.25
Switched virtual circuits (SVCs) are generally set up on a per-call basis and are disconnected when the call is terminated; however, apermanent virtual circuit (PVC) can be established as an option to provide a dedicated circuit link between two facilities. PVC configuration is usually preconfigured by the service provider. Unlike SVCs, PVC are usually very seldom broken/disconnected. A switched virtual circuit (SVC) is a virtual circuit that is dynamically established on demand and is torn down when transmission is complete, for example after a phone call or a file download. SVCs are used in situations where data transmission is sporadic and/or not always between the same data terminal equipment (DTE) endpoints. A permanent virtual circuit (PVC) is a virtual circuit established for repeated/continuous use between the same DTE. In a PVC, the long-term association is identical to the data transfer phase of a virtual call. Permanent virtual circuits eliminate the need for repeated call set-up andclearing.

Frame relay is typically used to provide PVCs. ATM provides both switched virtual connections and permanent virtual connections, as they are called in ATM terminology. X.25 provides both virtual calls and PVCs, although not all X.25 service providers or DTE implementations support PVCs as their use was much less common than SVCs

X.25
X.25 is packet-switched network based WAN protocol for WAN communications. It delineates data exchange and control of information within a user appliance, Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and a network node, Data Circuit Terminating Equipment (DCE). X.25 comprises physical links such as packet-switching exchange (PSE) nodes for networking hardware, leased lines, and telephone or ISDN connections. Its unique functionality is its capacity to work effectively on any type of system that is connected to the network. X.25, although replaced by superior technology, continues to be in use. It utilizes a connection-oriented service that enables data packets to be transmitted in an orderly manner.

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## Computer Networks Page 79

Network congestion
In data networking and queueing theory, network congestion occurs when a link or node is carrying so much data that its quality of servicedeteriorates. Typical effects include queueing delay, packet loss or the blocking of new connections. A consequence of these latter two is that incremental increases in offered load lead either only to small increases in network throughput, or to an actual reduction in network throughput. Network protocols which use aggressive retransmissions to compensate for packet loss tend to keep systems in a state of network congestion even after the initial load has been reduced to a level which would not normally have induced network congestion. Thus, networks using these protocols can exhibit two stable states under the same level of load. The stable state with low throughput is known as congestive collapse. Modern networks use congestion control and network congestion avoidance techniques to try to avoid congestion collapse. These include: exponential backoff in protocols such as 802.11's CSMA/CA and the original Ethernet, window reduction in TCP, and fair queueing in devices such as routers. Another method to avoid the negative effects of network congestion is implementing priority schemes, so that some packets are transmitted with higher priority than others. Priority schemes do not solve network congestion by themselves, but they help to alleviate the effects of congestion for some services. An example of this is 802.1p. A third method to avoid network congestion is the explicit allocation of network resources to specific flows. One example of this is the use of Contention-Free Transmission Opportunities (CFTXOPs) in the ITU-TG.hn standard, which provides high-speed (up to 1 Gbit/s) Local area networking over existing home wires (power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables). RFC 2914 addresses the subject of congestion control in detail.

Network capacity
The fundamental problem is that all network resources are limited, including router processing time and link throughput. For example:

Today's (2006) Wireless LAN effective bandwidth throughput (15-100Mbit/s) is easily filled by a single personal computer. Even on fast computer networks (e.g. 1 Gbit), the backbone can easily be congested by a few servers and client PCs.

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## Computer Networks Page 80

Because P2P scales very well, file transmissions by P2P have no problem filling and will fill an uplink or some other network bottleneck, particularly when nearby peers are preferred over distant peers. Denial of service attacks by botnets are capable of filling even the largest Internet backbone network links (40 Gbit/s as of 2007), generating large-scale network congestion

Congestive collapse
Congestive collapse (or congestion collapse) is a condition which a packet switched computer network can reach, when little or no useful communication is happening due to congestion. Congestion collapse generally occurs at choke points in the network, where the total incoming traffic to a node exceeds the outgoing bandwidth. Connection points between a local area network and a wide area network are the most likely choke points. When a network is in such a condition, it has settled (under overload) into a stable state where traffic demand is high but little usefulthroughput is available, and there are high levels of packet delay and loss (caused by routers discarding packets because their output queuesare too full) and general quality of service is extremely poor.

History
Congestion collapse was identified as a possible problem as far back as 1984 (RFC 896, dated 6 January). It was first observed on the early Internet in October 1986, when the NSFnet phase-I backbone dropped three orders of magnitude from its capacity of 32 kbit/s to 40 bit/s, and this continued to occur until end nodes started implementing Van Jacobson's congestion control between 1987 and 1988.

Cause
When more packets were sent than could be handled by intermediate routers, the intermediate routers discarded many packets, expecting the end points of the network to retransmit the information. However, early TCP implementations had very bad retransmission behavior. When this packet loss occurred, the end points sent extra packets that repeated the information lost; doubling the data rate sent, exactly the opposite of what should be done during congestion. This pushed the entire network into a 'congestion collapse' where most packets were lost and the resultant throughput was negligible.

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## Computer Networks Page 81

Congestion control
Congestion control concerns controlling traffic entry into a telecommunications network, so as to avoid congestive collapse by attempting to avoid oversubscription of any of the processing or link capabilities of the intermediate nodes and networks and taking resource reducing steps, such as reducing the rate of sending packets. It should not be confused with flow control, which prevents the sender from overwhelming the receiver.

## Theory of congestion control

The modern theory of congestion control was pioneered by Frank Kelly, who applied microeconomic theory and convex optimization theory to describe how individuals controlling their own rates can interact to achieve an "optimal" network-wide rate allocation. Examples of "optimal" rate allocation are max-min fair allocation and Kelly's suggestion of proportional fair allocation, although many others are possible. The mathematical expression for optimal rate allocation is as follows. Let be the rate of flow , be the capacity of link , and be 1 if flow uses link and 0 otherwise. Let , and be the corresponding vectors and matrix. Let be an increasing, strictly convexfunction, called the utility, which measures how much benefit a user obtains by transmitting at rate . The optimal rate allocation then satisfies

such that The Lagrange dual of this problem decouples, so that each flow sets its own rate, based only on a "price" signalled by the network. Each link capacity imposes a constraint, which gives rise to a Lagrange multiplier, . The sum of these Lagrange multipliers, which the flow responds. is the price to

Congestion control then becomes a distributed optimisation algorithm for solving the above problem. Many current congestion control algorithms can be modelled in this framework, with being either the loss probability or the queueing delay at link . A major weakness of this model is that it assumes all flows observe the same price, while sliding window flow control causes "burstiness" which causes different flows to observe different loss or delay at a given link.

## Classification of congestion control algorithms

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## Computer Networks Page 82

Main article: Taxonomy of congestion control There are many ways to classify congestion control algorithms:

By the type and amount of feedback received from the network: Loss; delay; single-bit or multi-bit explicit signals By incremental deployability on the current Internet: Only sender needs modification; sender and receiver need modification; only router needs modification; sender, receiver and routers need modification. By the aspect of performance it aims to improve: high bandwidth-delay product networks; lossy links; fairness; advantage to short flows; variable-rate links By the fairness criterion it uses: max-min, proportional, "minimum potential delay"

Avoidance
The prevention of network congestion and collapse requires two major components: 1. A mechanism in routers to reorder or drop packets under overload, 2. End-to-end flow control mechanisms designed into the end points which respond to congestion and behave appropriately. The correct end point behaviour is usually still to repeat dropped information, but progressively slow the rate that information is repeated. Provided all end points do this, the congestion lifts and good use of the network occurs, and the end points all get a fair share of the available bandwidth. Other strategies such as slow-start ensure that new connections don't overwhelm the router before the congestion detection can kick in. The most common router mechanisms used to prevent congestive collapses are fair queueing and other scheduling algorithms, and random early detection, or RED, where packets are randomly dropped proactively triggering the end points to slow transmission before congestion collapse actually occurs. Fair queueing is most useful in routers at choke points with a small number of connections passing through them. Larger routers must rely on RED. Some end-to-end protocols are better behaved under congested conditions than others. TCP is perhaps the best behaved. The first TCP implementations to handle congestion well were developed in 1984[citation needed], but it was not until Van Jacobson's inclusion of an open source solution in the Berkeley Standard Distribution UNIX ("BSD") in 1988 that good TCP implementations became widespread.

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## Computer Networks Page 83

UDP does not, in itself, have any congestion control mechanism. Protocols built atop UDP must handle congestion in their own way. Protocols atop UDP which transmit at a fixed rate, independent of congestion, can be troublesome. Real-time streaming protocols, including many Voice over IP protocols, have this property. Thus, special measures, such as quality-ofservice routing, must be taken to keep packets from being dropped from streams. In general, congestion in pure datagram networks must be kept out at the periphery of the network, where the mechanisms described above can handle it. Congestion in the Internet backbone is very difficult to deal with. Fortunately, cheap fiber-optic lines have reduced costs in the Internet backbone. The backbone can thus be provisioned with enough bandwidth to keep congestion at the periphery.[citation needed]

Practical network congestion avoidance Implementations of connection-oriented protocols, such as the widely-used TCP protocol, generally watch for packet errors, losses, or delays (see Quality of Service) in order to adjust the transmit speed. There are many different network congestion avoidance processes, since there are a number of different trade-offs available. [1]

TCP/IP congestion avoidance Main article: TCP congestion avoidance algorithm The TCP congestion avoidance algorithm is the primary basis for congestion control in the Internet. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Problems occur when many concurrent TCP flows are experiencing port queue buffer tail-drops. Then TCP's automatic congestion avoidance is not enough. All flows that experience port queue buffer tail-drop will begin a TCP retrain at the same moment - this is called TCP global synchronization.

Active Queue Management (AQM) Main article: Active Queue Management Purpose Random early detection Main article: Random early detection Main article: Weighted random early detection

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## Computer Networks Page 84

One solution is to use random early detection (RED) on network equipments port queue buffer. [7] [8] On network equipment ports with more than one queue buffer, weighted random early detection (WRED) could be used if available. RED indirectly signals to sender and receiver by deleting some packets, e.g. when the average queue buffer lengths are more than e.g. 50% (lower threshold) filled and deletes linearly more or (better according to paper) cubical more packets, [9] up to e.g. 100% (higher threshold). The average queue buffer lengths are computed over 1 second at a time.

Robust random early detection (RRED) Main article: Robust random early detection Robust Random Early Detection (RRED) algorithm was proposed to improve the TCP throughput against Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks, particularly Low-rate Deinal-of-Service (LDoS) attacks. Experiments have confirmed that the existing RED-like algorithms are notably vulnerable under Low-rate Denial-of-Service (LDoS) attacks due to the oscillating TCP queue size caused by the attacks [10]. RRED algorithm can significantly improve the performance of TCP under Low-rate Denial-of-Service attacks [10].

Recent Publications in low-rate Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks Flowbased-RED/WRED Some network equipment are equipped with ports that can follow and measure each flow (flowbased-RED/WRED) and are hereby able to signal to a too big bandwidth flow according to some QoS policy. A policy could divide the bandwidth among all flows by some criteria. IP ECN Main article: Explicit Congestion Notification Another approach is to use IP ECN.[11] ECN is only used when the two hosts signal that they want to use it. With this method, an ECN bit is used to signal that there is explicit congestion. This is better than the indirect packet delete congestion notification performed by the RED/WRED algorithms, but it requires explicit support by both hosts to be effective. [12] Some outdated or buggy network equipment drops packets with the ECN bit set, rather than ignoring the bit. More information on the status of ECN including the version required for Cisco IOS, by Sally Floyd,[7] one of the authors of ECN. When a router receives a packet marked as ECN capable and anticipates (using RED) congestion, it will set an ECN-flag notifying the sender of congestion. The sender then ought to

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decrease its transmission bandwidth; e.g. by decreasing the tcp window size (sending rate) or by other means. Cisco AQM: Dynamic buffer limiting (DBL) Cisco has taken a step further in their Catalyst 4000 series with engine IV and V. Engine IV and V has the possibility to classify all flows in "aggressive" (bad) and "adaptive" (good). It ensures that no flows fill the port queues for a long time. DBL can utilize IP ECN instead of packetdelete-signalling. [13] [14]

TCP Window Shaping Congestion avoidance can also efficiently be achieved by reducing the amount of traffic flowing into a network. When an application requests a large file, graphic or web page, it usually advertises a "window" of between 32K and 64K. This results in the server sending a full window of data (assuming the file is larger than the window). When there are many applications simultaneously requesting downloads, this data creates a congestion point at an upstream provider by flooding the queue much faster than it can be emptied. By using a device to reduce the window advertisement, the remote servers will send less data, thus reducing the congestion and allowing traffic to flow more freely. This technique can reduce congestion in a network by a factor of 40.[citation needed]

Side effects of congestive collapse avoidance Radio links The protocols that avoid congestive collapse are often based on the idea that data loss on the Internet is caused by congestion. This is true in nearly all cases; errors during transmission are rare on today's fiber based Internet. However, this causes WiFi, 3G or other networks with a radio layer to have poor throughput in some cases since wireless networks are susceptible to data loss due to interference. The TCP connections running over a radio based physical layer see the data loss and tend to believe that congestion is occurring when it isn't and erroneously reduce the data rate sent. Short-lived connections The slow-start protocol performs badly for short-lived connections. Older web browsers would create many consecutive short-lived connections to the web server, and would open and close the connection for each file requested. This kept most connections in the slow start mode, which resulted in poor response time.

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To avoid this problem, modern browsers either open multiple connections simultaneously or reuse one connection for all files requested from a particular web server. However, the initial performance can be poor, and many connections never get out of the slow-start regime, significantly increasing latency.