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# PUM HS Kinematics Page 1 Period ____ Name _________________________________

## 1. Observe and find a pattern - what is moving

Use a tube as a telescope to follow your teacher holding a ball. Before you start the observation, notice the initial
orientation of the telescope when you can see the ball through it. Make sure that during the experiment you can always see
the ball through the telescope.
1. The teacher travels along the board from right to left. What happens to the telescope as you follow the ball?

2. The teacher also looks through a telescope and follows the ball. What happens with the orientation of the teacher's
telescope during the experiment?

3. Based on your observations, can you say whether the ball was moving during the experiment? How do you know
whether something is moving or not?

4. Observe the change in the orientation of the teacher’s telescope pointed at one of your classmates as she walks along the
board right to left. Did the orientation change? Did your classmate move? How do you know? Explain.

5. Name three observers who would see you moving now, if they were able to see you. Name three observers who would
see you as NOT moving.

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2. Describe - motion as seen by different observers
Choose four people in your class to play the roles of the following four characters and recreate the scenario described below
• Mom sits in the front seat of a car that is traveling down a street.
• Junior sits in the back seat of Mom's car.
• Duke is standing on the sidewalk along the road
• Mike is in a different car that just passed Mom's car, going faster in the same direction
6. Sketch the situation briefly and label each person

In the following table, describe the motion of Mom as seen by each of the other observers:
7. Describe the
motion of Mom as
seen by Junior

8. Describe the
motion of Mom as
seen by Duke

9. Describe the
motion of Mom as
seen by Mike

## 11. Do any observers see Junior NOT moving? Explain.

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3. Describe - motion as seen by different observers
Choose four people in your class to play the roles of the following four characters and recreate the scenario described below
• Sam stands near the bus stop
• Jess is sitting on a bus that is approaching the bus stop
• Sal rides in a car pulling away from the bus stop
• Matt stands near the bus stop
12. Sketch the situation briefly and label each person

In the following table, describe the motion of 1st person as seen by each of the other observers:
13. Describe the
motion of Sam as
seen by Jess

motion of Sam as
seen by Sal

motion of Sam as
seen by Matt

## 17. Do any of the observers see Matt moving? Explain.

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18. Based on your answers to the previous activities, explain what it means when someone says an object is “moving.”

19. Jane and Alia are playing chess. Alia says that Jane is moving fast. How can both of these statements be true?

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4. Video experiment - Nature of motion with rollerblades and ball
This video was filmed in the famous Physics Lecture Hall on Busch Campus at Rutgers. Watch Eugenia and the ball.
20. Observe what happens to Eugenia and describe your 21. Observe what happens to the ball and describe your
observations without using the word "motion" or similar observation without using the word "motion" or similar
words words

22. Was Eugenia moving? How do you know? 23. Was the ball moving? How do you know?

24. Describe an observer who sees Eugenia moving 25. Describe an observer who sees Eugenia NOT moving

26. Describe an observer who sees the ball moving 27. Describe an observer who sees the ball NOT moving

28. Based on your answers above, develop a precise explanation of how you can tell if something is moving or not.

29. Did Eugenia observe the ball to be moving? 30. According to what or whom did the ball move?

31. According to whom or what did Eugenia move? 32. Did the chalkboard move? If yes, according to whom?
If no, justify.

33. When driving in a car on the highway, who is moving: you or the trees?

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5. Predict and test - relative motion
We have developed the idea that motion is relative. This means that different observers see the same motion differently and
each observer is correct.
We need to test this idea experimentally. If the idea of relative motion makes a prediction that comes true, we will have
more confidence in this idea.
Consider the following experiment which we can reproduce in class:
Experiment: Marta walks west carrying a ball.
34. Use the idea of relative motion to predict what Eric needs to do to see the ball at rest (as not moving). Explain your
prediction.

35. Use the idea of relative motion to predict what Joan needs to do to see the ball as moving east. Explain your prediction.

36. Reproduce this experiment with your classmates to test your predictions. What do your classmates do? Describe and
sketch.

37. Did your experiments support or disprove the idea that motion is relative? Explain your judgment.

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6. Explain
38. Carefully explain what you need to know to describe the motion of Mom in Activity 1, Jess in Activity 2 and the ball in
Activity 4.

39. Your friend is asked to leave the classroom. Your teacher performs an activity and you need to then give directions to
your classmate so she can repeat the teacher’s moves. Reflect on what directions you gave to your friend. Are they

Summary
Motion: An object is in motion with respect to another object if as time progresses; its position is changing relative to this
reference object.
Reference frame: A reference frame includes three components:
1. A coordinate system which has well defined directions (such as north and south) and a scale for measuring distances
2. An object of reference that locates the coordinate system in the real world
3. A zero clock reading that serves as a reference for future clock readings.

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7. Explain
40. When you are in a car that is traveling north on a highway, you see the trees and houses moving south. Use what you
learned about motion in the previous activities to explain the situation.

41. Why is it that when you are a passenger in a car that is passing another car, it seems like this other car is going
backwards? Explain.

42. Optional: Why does the Sun appear to move in an arc in the sky during the day – from east to west? Explain.

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8. Observe and represent - a moving object
In this activity you need to learn to count one second intervals either using a metronome, or watching a second hand on a
stop watch and tapping on a desk or counting “Thousand 1”. Make sure your counts of each second are very short, such as a
brief “yes”. Practice with your partners.
Next, take a battery-operated car (or some other moving gadget that your teacher provides) and then let the car go.
Try it a few times and when you feel comfortable with the motion, repeat the experiment, but this time mark the position of
the rear end of the car at the time count. You can mark the position by dropping beanbags (or any other object that does not
bounce on the floor, such a rice-filled balloons)
43. After about 5 counts, turn off the car and draw a picture representing with dots the locations of the sugar packets.

44. Discuss how you can use the dots to describe the motion of the car.

45. If you had a car that moved faster, how would the dots be spaced compared to what you drew before?

46. If you had a car that first moved slowly and then faster and faster, how would the dot picture look?

47. If you had a car that first moved fast and then slower and slower, how would the dot picture look?

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Activity 9 part 1. Represent and Reason - pictures of a rolling ball
Study the following images of a rolling ball along a track. These pictures were taken with a time lapse of 1 second between
pictures.

## 48. Describe the motion of this ball.

Photographs such as the above can be used to study the motion of objects.
Eva recorded the position of the ball by using the edge of the photograph as the reference point (See the enlarged images on
page 16) . She recorded the time and position into a table. Notice how she labeled the physical quantities that she measured
and what units she used (physicists use the metric system).

## Clock reading Position Time interval Change in position

0s 0 cm
1s 2.7 cm 1s–0s=1s 2.7 cm – 0 cm = 2.7 cm
2s 5.4 cm 2s–1s=1s 5.4 cm – 2.7 cm = 2.7 cm
3s 8.1 cm 3s–2s=1s 8.1 cm – 7.4 cm = 2.7 cm
4s 10.8 cm 4s–3s=1s 10.8 cm – 8.1 cm = 2.7 cm
49. Explain the meaning of each cell in the table.
50. Find the pairs of physical quantities that are measured in the same units. What is the difference between a physical
quantity and a unit of measurement?

51. Give four different units in which you can measure the physical quantity of position. One should be a non-metric unit.

52. Find the columns in the table that represent the quantities that can be called a "change". These are labeled with a symbol
∆ in science. For example x2 – x1 = ∆ x.
53. From the terms x, t, ∆x and ∆t choose those that are appropriate for the table, and add them at the top of each column

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Activity 9 part 2
54. In the space below, draw two number lines, one vertical and one horizontal. The two numbers lines should intersect at
point 0 on both lines.

55. Choose one of the pictures of Eva's rolling ball. Use the horizontal number line to match the clock reading of the
picture. Use the vertical number line to match the position of the ball in the picture. Draw a dot between the two number
lines where the clock reading and the position both match the picture.
56. Draw dots for the other pictures of Eva's rolling ball. Draw a single straight line that connects all the dots, or gets as
close as possible to all of them
57. Label the number lines to indicate the quantity that each represents, and the units used to measure the quantity
58. The line you drew goes through many points. What is the meaning of one of these points? (What can you tell about the
ball?)

59. What do you think is the meaning of the slope of this line?

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Activity 9 Part 3
60. In the diagram below, Eva created a dot diagram for a different ball. She drew the dot diagram vertically and the plot to
the right of it. Identify each (solid) line and label it as accurately as you can
61. Explain the diagram as completely as you can.

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Summary and review of useful definitions:
Physical quantity: A physical quantity is a characteristic of a physical phenomenon that can be measured. A measuring
instrument is used to make a quantitative comparison of this characteristic and a unit of measure. Examples of physical
quantities are your height, the speed of your car, or the temperature of air or water.
Time and time interval: Time t (clock reading) is the reading on a clock or on a stopwatch or on some other time
measuring instrument. Time interval is the difference of two times (t2 – t1, or Δt). In physics the unit of time in the SI system
is the second. Time is measured in other units such as minutes, hours, days, years, and centuries.
Position, distance, displacement: Position x is the location of an object relative to a coordinate axis. Displacement x2 - x1
indicates a change in position and has a sign indicating the direction of the displacement (+ points in the positive x direction
and – points in the negative direction). The magnitude of that position change is the distance and is always positive.
Velocity and speed for constant speed linear motion: Velocity is the slope of the position-versus-clock reading graph or
the ratio of the displacement of an object during a time interval divided by that time interval. For constant speed motion in a
straight line, velocity can be written as:
x2  x1 x
v 
t2  t1 t
where x2 – x1 (x) is the displacement during the time interval t2 – t1 (t) The unit of velocity is m/s, miles/h, km/h, and so
forth. Speed is the magnitude of the velocity and is always a positive number. The Greek letter delta  means a change in
any physical quantity appearing after the ∆. For example, t denotes a change in time, that is, a time interval.

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10. Represent and Reason
Time lapse photographs can be combined to show the motion of the ball in one picture instead of a sequence of picture. For
example, the sequence in the previous activity would look like this:

clock reading = 0 s

clock reading = 1 s

clock reading = 2 s

clock reading = 3 s

clock reading = 4 s

Combined

Study the following two photographs of the same experiment. Create a table as Eva did in activity 9 and compare the
motion of the balls with Eva’s. The time interval between exposures is the same as above.
Experiment A

cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Experiment B

cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

## Make a table of clock reading and position for each experiment

Experiment A Experiment B

## This activity continues on the next page

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Activity 10 continued - tables of clock reading and position
For EACH experiment A and B:
62. Construct a position versus clock reading graph for each experiment. Put the clock reading on the horizontal axis and
the position on the vertical axis.
63. Draw a single straight line as close as possible to all the points. Write the equation of the straight line.

64. Compare the slope of the line for all three cases, activity 9 and 10. What does the slope of the line mean? How does the
slope compare for all three experiments?

65. If you choose larger Δt intervals, how does the corresponding Δx change in position change? What if you choose
smaller Δt intervals?

66. Give three examples for each experiment. Does the ratio of Δx over Δt change for each experiment? Does the slope of

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11. Represent and Reason - same motion, different coordinate systems
The three pictures below represent the same experiment with the same ball. Snapshots are taken at time intervals of 1s and
superimposed.
Use three different coordinate systems to analyze the same experiment.

Coordinate system A

cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Coordinate system B

cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Coordinate system C

## For EACH of the three coordinate systems:

1. Contruct a clock reading and position table from the photograph
Coordinate system A Coordinate system B Coordinate system C

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Activity 11 continued - For EACH coordinate system
2. Construct a position versus clock reading graph for each ball. Put the clock reading on the horizontal axis and the
position on the vertical axis.
3. Draw a single straight line as close as possible to all the points. Find an equation that describes the straight line you have
drawn. Remember that on a graph of y vs x, the equation of a straight line is in the form y = mx + b
4. Use the line or the equation you made to predict the position of the ball at clock reading 5.5 s. Mark the predicted
position on the photo on the previous page.

## 5. What is the physical significance of the slope in the lines above?

6. What is the physical significance of the vertical axis intercept in the lines above?

Consider all three graphs together and answer the following questions:
7. Compare the slope of all three lines. Explain similarities and differences.

## 8. Compare the vertical-axis intercept of all three lines. Explain.

9. Explain what it means if these quantities, the slope and intercept, are positive or negative.

10. Compare the three predictions you made in 4 above. Do the different graphs make physically different predictions?

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12. Practice
11. Circle the terms that are physical quantities. The rest are units of measurement: identify the physical quantity that they
measure.
second mass meter temperature second
foot centimeter gram kilogram height
inches °C year light-year position
tick hour slug fathom nanometer
mph density knots m/s distance
12. In activity 10 you had to measure the position of the ball. What units did you use? Convert one of the measurements
into mm, cm, m, and km.

13. Any measuring instrument is marked with the smallest divisions it can distinguish. What is the smallest division on the
instrument you used in activity 10? What is the smallest distance you could measure with this instrument?

14. James measured the distance between two adjacent beanbags (#2 and #3) using the floor tiles. Bean bag #2 was five
tiles away from the origin, Bean bag #3 was 8 tiles away but neither was exactly at the end of a tile. How can you decide
what the distance between the bags is? How would you record it in the table?

15. You are measuring distance with a ruler whose smallest division is 1 cm. You get a reading of about 87.5 cm. How
would you write your result? What is the absolute uncertainty of your measurement? What is a relative uncertainty?

16. You are measuring time with a watch that has a second hand and the distance with a meter stick (smallest division is 1
mm). A car moves about 2.3 m in about 5 seconds. What measurement uncertainty should you worry more about: time or

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13 Observe and represent - two cars in motion at constant speed
Two toy cars are next to each other in such a way that when they move you can mark their location.
Set the cars in motion. Mark the location of the rear of your cars using the counting method that you practiced in Activity 8.
The first mark should be the same location for both cars. You can mark the location by any method you have used in the
past which may include dropping beanbags or rice bags.
Mark the position of each car at the start and for five one-second intervals, for a total of six data points.
17. Sketch a dot diagram to represent the motion of each car. Indicate car A and B. Indicate the time interval between dots.

18. Record clock reading and position data in a table for each car A and B

19. Create a position vs clock reading graph for each car A and B

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14. Represent and reason - average speed during different time intervals
In activity 13, you studied the motion of two cars traveling at constant speed. One way that you determine the speed of each
car was to calculate the slope of the line for the position versus clock reading graph.
We have seen that the average speed of an object can be calculated by using the following equation.
x2 − x1 ∆x
v= =
t 2 − t1 ∆t
20. Use the data from Activity 13 and this equation to calculate the average speed of the two cars for each time interval
shown.
Clock Time Distance traveled Average speed of Distance traveled Average speed of
readings interval by car A in this car A over this by car B in this car B in this time
(Δt in s) time interval time interval time interval interval
(∆x in cm) (∆x/∆t in cm/s) (∆x in cm) (∆x/∆t in cm/s)
0 to 1 s ∆x1 = v1 = ∆x1 = v1 =

1 to 2 s ∆x2 = v2 = ∆x2 = v2 =

2 to 3 s ∆x3 = v3 = ∆x3 = v3 =

3 to 4 s ∆x4 = v4 = ∆x4 = v4 =

4 to 5 s ∆x5 = v5 = ∆x5 = v5 =

5 to 6 s ∆x6 = v6 = ∆x6 = v6 =

21. Explain any patterns you can see in the quantity of average speed during the time intervals above.

22. Calculate the average speed of each car for different time intervals:
Clock Time Distance traveled Average speed of Distance traveled Average speed of
readings interval by car A in this car A over this by car B in this car B in this time
(Δt in s) time interval time interval time interval interval
(∆x in cm) (∆x/∆t in cm/s) (∆x in cm) (∆x/∆t in cm/s)
0 to 2 s

2 to 4 s

4 to 6 s

0 to 3 s

3 to 6 s

0 to 6 s

23. How does the average speed of the car compare when the size of the time interval changes? Explain.

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Activity 14 continued
24. Measure the slope of the lines on the graph you made in activity 13 to calculate the average speed of both A and B
during the time interval shown on the graph. How does this quantity compare to the average speeds you determined above?

25. How would you decide on an accurate value for the average speed of the car during the time interval of the entire
experiment?

## Activity 14b - represent and reason

Use your calculations of average speed in the previous activity to complete this activity.
26. Construct a graph with average speed on the vertical axis and clock reading on the horizontal axis.
27. For each one-second time interval, indicate the average speed of car A during this time interval. At what clock reading
will you draw the dot for average speed in order to show that average speed is calculated over a time interval of 1s?
28. Draw a single straight line that connects all the points, or gets as close as possible to all of them.
29. Write the equation of the line you drew
30. Repeat steps 2-4 for car B

31. What can you tell about the motion of the two cars A and B by inspecting this graph?

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15. Represent and reason - dot diagram, relative motion, and position vs clock reading graph
Two battery-powered cars are released simultaneously on a smooth floor. You and a friend follow each car and drop a bean
bag each second to mark the location of your car at every time interval.
The dot diagram below represents the locations of the packets for the two cars. The cars start simultaneously at the dot on
the left and move to the right.
←east ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Car A west →
(start) ● ● ● ● ● Car B
32. Describe what you know about the motion of each car, and how you know it from looking at the dot diagram.

33. Were the cars ever next to each other after the start? Explain.

34. Albert is a bug riding on car A. How would he describe the motion of car B?

35. Becky is another bug riding on car B. How would she describe the motion of car A?

36. Sketch a position versus clock reading graph for car 1 and for car 2. Describe how the graphs differ from each other and
how are they the same.

6. Chaz is another bug. How would he have to be moving in order to see the two cars A and B moving in different
directions?

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17. Observe and describe
This table shows data collected about the motion of a toy car.
37. Describe everything you can about the motion and indicate any patterns in the Clock reading Position
data. t (s) x (cm)
t0 = 0 x0 = 0
t1 = 2 x1 = - 51
t2 = 4 x2 = - 98
t3 = 6 x3 = - 149
t4 = 8 x4 = - 200
t5 = 10 x5 = - 250
t6 = 12 x6 = - 301

38. Draw a dot diagram for this motion, showing the time interval between dots.

39. Construct a position versus clock reading graph for the toy car, including a best-fit straight line and carefully labelled
axes.

40. Find the equation for the line on your graph in terms of position x and clock reading t. What is the physical meaning of
the slope of this line? What is the physical meaning of the sign (+/-) of the slope?

## 41. Use the graph to answer these questions:

Where was the car at clock reading 2 s? At what clock reading was the car at position -25cm?
Where was the car at clock reading 3 s? At what clock reading was the car at position -225cm?
Where was the car at clock reading 7 s?
Where was the car at clock reading 10 s?

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Summary and definitions - speed and velocity
In our study of motion we will talk about both "speed" and "velocity." The difference between these two concepts is subtle
but important.
Speed is a measure of how fast something is moving. The speedometer on your car shows the speed of your car
relative to the road.
Velocity is a measure of how fast something is moving and in what direction. If you have a fancy GPS navigator
in your car, with an arrow showing where the car is going, this is showing your velocity.
42. Describe two objects that are moving with the same speed but different velocity. Sketch the objects. Draw two dot
diagrams to show their motion.

43. Describe what you might see if a moving toy airplane changes its velocity but not its speed. Include a sketch. Draw a
dot diagram.

## 44. Is it possible to change speed without changing velocity? Explain.

45. Describe a situation in which it's important to know an object's velocity, not just its speed.

46. Which pair(s) of dot diagrams shows objects moving at the same speed? Which pair(s) show objects moving at the same
velocity?
Object A Object B Obect C Object D
t=2 t=2

t =1 t =0 t =1 t=2 t =1
t =0 t =1 t=2

t=0 t =0

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Summary and definition - directions and dimensions
Direction: The simplest form of direction is one-dimensional. In one dimension, any position can be described with a
single number. An object that moves along a straight line in either direction is moving in one dimension.
Positions along the straight line are defined by a number line. The positive and negative directions, units, and spacing on
the number line are based on a choice. This choice is called a coordinate axis.
If an object is moving in the negative direction on a coordinate axis, the object's velocity is negative. If the object is moving
in the positive direction on a coordinate axis, the object's velocity is positive.
47. How does a single number for velocity in one dimension show the direction of movement? Explain.

48. Can each of the following situations be described as motion in one dimension? If so, sketch and show how you might
place a number line in the real world to locate the object. If not, describe why not.
A drilling football player runs back and forth between the A skier rides a rope lift to the top of a hill
goalposts

An elevator transports passengers in a tall building A jet plane takes off from a runway, reaches cruising
altitude, and then turns to the west.

A billiard ball bounces off several bumpers and then falls in a A ball is released from a hand, falls to the floor, and
corner hole bounces straight back up

49. Describe what you might see if the velocity of a toy cart on a straight track changes from positive to negative during a
time interval of 0.5s.

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Practice
These are two snapshots of the same car at two different times
at first clock reading t1 = 0 s

## Coordinate axis A x (m)

100 0 −100 −200 −300

## Coordinate axis B x (m)

0 −100 −200 −300 −400

## Coordinate axis C x (m)

0 100 200 300 400

## Coordinate axis D x (km)

0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.0

50. Describe the motion above using the following quantities for each of the axes shown:
Axis First position Second position Change in position Velocity Speed Predict the position
x1 x2 r r r r of the car at clock
x  x2  x1 v  x / t v v
reading t = 4s
A

51. How does the motion of the car vary depending on the choice of coordinate system?

52. Which coordinate system shows the car moving fastest? Explain.

53. Laura says that each coordinate system makes a different prediction for the position of the car at clock reading t = 4s.
Do you agree? Explain.

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18. Analyze
The figure below shows a velocity versus clock reading graph that represents the motion of a bicycle modeled as a point
particle moving along a straight bike path. The positive direction of the coordinate axis is toward the south.

16

0
1 2 3 4

## Clock reading t (s)

54. Use the graph to estimate the bike’s change in position Δx from a clock reading of 10 s to a clock reading of 15s.
Explain.

55. Use the graph to estimate its change in position Δx from a clock reading of 0s to 20s.

56. Formulate a general rule for using a velocity versus clock reading graph to determine an object's change in position Δx
during some time interval Δt if the object is moving at constant velocity v.

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21. Observe and represent
57. Describe how this experiment is set up and performed
58. Describe the motion of the teacher
59. Devise a way to mark the position of the teacher every second
60. Draw a dot diagram of the location of marks, decide where your origin is and in which direction the position is
increasing.
61. How does the dot diagram support your observation of the teacher's motion?
62. Measure the positions of the marks and record your position and time data in a table.
63. How did you decide how to measure the position? What is the uncertainty in your measurements?
64. What happens to the distances between the dots as the teacher rolls down the hall? Explain.
65. When you start the roll from the middle of the hallway, how does the motion of the teacher compare to the previous
motion?
66. Compare the motion of the ball to the motion of the cars in Activity 14. How are they the same? How are they different?
Compare the dot diagrams for the different scenarios.
67. How does the motion you described in and your dot diagram relate to the data in your table? In other words, how can
you use the data to describe the motion?

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PUM HS Kinematics Page 29 Period ____ Name _________________________________
22. Observe and represent - Ball on ramp A
A small ball rolls on a track that is marked in centimeters. The track can be tilted to make a ramp.
Experiment A.
The ramp is 2m
long, marked in
cm. The ball is
pictured at time
intervals of 0.25s
Experiment B.
The ramp is 2m
long, marked in
cm. The ball is
pictured at time
intervals of 0.25s

68. Make a table of clock reading and position for each experiment
Experiment A Experiment B

## 69. Make a graph of position vs clock reading for both experiments

0 1.0 2.0 s
clock reading t (s)

Activity continues …

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22 Continued
70. Why does the graph of position vs clock reading produce a curved line that gets steeper and steeper?

71. Calculate the average velocity over each time interval for both experiments
Exp. A Exp. B
Clock reading Δx v = Δx/Δt Δx v = Δx/Δt
0 to 0.25 s
0.25 to 0.50

72. Make a graph of average velocity vs clock reading for both experiments. Draw a best-fit line for each.

## 0 clock reading t (s) 2.0 s

73. Determine the slope of both lines in the graph above. What are the units of the slope? Suggest a name for this quantity.
Experiment A Experiment B

Activity continues …

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22 Continued
74. Using the table or the graph, write an expression for velocity as a function of clock reading for both experiments
Experiment A Experiment B

75. Using the table or the graph, write an expression for position as a function of clock reading for both experiments.
Remember, the area under the velocity vs clock reading line equals the change in position.
Experiment A Experiment B

Experiment C: Examine the data table below, taken from an experiment done with the same equipment.
76. Sketch a dot diagram and a position vs clock reading graph for this experiment

t (s) x (cm)
0 100
0.25 103
0.50 113
0.75 128
1.00 150
1.25 178

77. What would you have seen if you watched this experiment? Describe in words and sketch a time-lapse picture.

78. Write an expression for velocity as a function of clock reading for this experiment.

79. Write an expression for position as a function of clock reading for this experiment.

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Analyze t=0s
The picture at the right shows a golf ball released and allowed to fall freely. The pictures are taken at time
intervals of 0.10 seconds. Analyze the motion of the falling ball.

Clock x
Position x Change in position Δx v
0s 0 cm

0.10 s

Make a graph of velocity vs clock reading. Make it as big as you can fit. Label the axes. Draw a best-fit line.

Find the slope of the best-fit line (with units). What is the meaning of this quantity?

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Represent and reason
Grey is driving her Scion north on Boulevard at a constant velocity of 12 m/s. She passes Chris, who is stationary by the
side of the road in his Mini. At the moment she passes, Chris begins to move with a constant acceleration of 4 m/s2.
80. Draw a velocity vs clock reading graph for both Grey and Chris. Consider the moment when Grey passes Chris to be
clock reading 0. Consider Chris's initial position to be position 0.
81. How far does Grey
move between clock
reading 0 and clock

## 82. How far does Chris

change position in the
same time interval?

83. What happens at the point where the two lines cross above?

84. Draw a position vs clock reading graph for the same time period.

## 85. Does Chris catch up to Grey? When? At what position?

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Analyze
The data recorded in the table are a record of the up and down motion of the center of a ball thrown up into the air. Position
is measured with the quantity y (the y axis points upward).
x 86. Sketch a dot diagram
v for the ball
Clock reading t (s) Position y (m) Δx t
0 0

0.2 1.8

0.4 3.2

0.6 4.2

0.8 4.8

1.0 5.0

1.2 4.8

1.4 4.2

1.6 3.2

1.8 1.8

2.0 0

2.2 -2.2

## 88. Draw a position-versus-clock reading graph (on the next page.)

89. Draw a velocity-versus-clock reading graph (on the next page.) Find its slope (with units). What is the meaning of this
slope?

90. Use the velocity-versus-clock reading to determine the ball’s acceleration at the top of its travel.

91. What is the ball’s velocity at the very top of its travel?

## 92. Can you reconcile these two answers? Explain.

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Continued
Position vs clock reading graph

## Velocity vs clock reading graph

93. Use the velocity-versus-clock reading graph to determine the distance that the ball traveled during the trip from clock
reading 0.0 s to 2.2 s.

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Graph matching
94. Describe how you would have to move in order to produce 3
this graph. Position x = 0 is marked on the floor, and increases
away from the screen.
2

Position x (m)
1

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Clock reading t (s)

## 95. Describe how you would have to move in order to produce 4

this graph.

Position x (m)
2

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Clock reading t (s)

## 96. Describe how you would have to move in order to produce 1

this graph.

0.5
Velocity v (m/s)

-0.5

-1
0 2 4 6 8 10
Clock reading t (s)

## 97. Describe how you would have to move in order to produce 1

this graph.

0.5
Velocity v (m/s)

-0.5

-1
0 2 4 6 8 10
Clock reading t (s)

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Represent and reason
Chris is driving a Cadillac at 28 m/s on I-287 when a coyote runs into the road 50m in front of him and
stops. Chris does nothing for 0.5 seconds, because he has never seen a coyote in New Jersey before. Then
there is a delay of 0.25 seconds while his foot moves towards the brake pedal.
Then he mashes the brake pedal and the Cadillac accelerates at -16 m/s2. We want to find out if he stops
before he hits the coyote.
98. Draw a picture of the situation on the back of this paper
99. What moment will you use for clock reading 0?

## 101. Make a graph of position vs clock reading

102. So, does Chris stop before he hits the coyote? Explain how you reached your conclusion.
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