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Chapter No. 3 1. To review the models and practices of CSR. 2. To assess the contribution of CSR to organizational performance. 3.

To review the current CSR policies of BSNL. 4. To evaluate the contribution of CSR to the organizations stakeholders needs Research Methodology and Methods 3.1 Introduction There are three different kinds of studies that are helpful to summarise the research. Yin (2007) states that the analytic strategy is helpful for a researcher in research study, since it supports to researchers use evidence for study fairly and create convincing analytic conclusions. The three differ studies are explanatory, descriptive and exploratory. (Yin, 2007; Saunders, 2007) Saunders (2007) explained that the exploratory research approach is get start by a broad focus and then becomes narrow when knowledge is raised on very high level. The purpose of this research is to find out new insights, weigh up phenomena in new light and what are the new happenings Saunders, (2007). Saunders also suggested that this kind of study is helpful to understand a problem and to clarify it. Yin (2007) suggested that the descriptive approach is beneficial when researchers do not get the answers but they know about study as they going to examine, as the study of this kind is helpful to classify and test opponent explanations. The main objective of research study is to represent an exact profile of events and persons. (Saunders, 2007) The explanatory study is related to informal relationships that are established between focuses and variables on a problem in order try to define the relationships between cited variables. (Saunders, 2007) According West et al (2008) the details should be given in the research papers about data collection and analyses to understand the issues related to research. Therefore, the researcher in this chapter has initiated the research methodology design and those research methods that are

used into the collection of requisite information from the BSNL Ltd managers to deal with the questionnaire that is raised into the current research. According to this chapter with the adopted techniques of the present research and the chosen research methodologies, for the understanding of various paradigms, research strategies, research methodologies and differ research approaches for the all data analysis and data collection are discussed. Moreover, the explanation is given for the adoption of the used qualitative research methodology, Inductive approach, Interpretivism, analysis of grounded theory and the formless questionnaires in between the familiar interviews beside by the cause at the back of the rejection of the other techniques and quantitative research methodology. At the end the researcher has enrolled the measurement scales to judge CSR, organizational performance attraction of stakeholders and benefit to organization and stakeholders. The research methodologies that are conducted to research within the task are an essential part. The main aim of this research method is to define the literature recitation to studies accomplish on the collisions of CSR at workplace in organization. To having this title of study it was very crucial to originate a appropriate process to re-evaluate and produce autonomous study on this subject. The research methods that are used in this paper are conversed below: 3.2Research Paradigms The research paradigms raise ups for the rational structure and underlying hypothesis ahead which development and research is based in a pitch of inquiry (Mason & Salter, 2007). There is an essential area of research by living in which the results are raised. The positivism participatory Framework of action, constructionism, Interpretivism, Feminism,

phenomenological and critical theory are the major paradigms in the qualitative research methodology. The positivism is conducted to the quantitative method when a researcher wants to present his research through the quantitative way it is based on the percentage, statistically, figures and charts. The chosen paradigm is depended on the essential area of concerned research (Sanders et al, 2007). At this level of the research the researcher described only positivism and interpositivism in the following segments.

(a) Positivism Positivism is based on the scientific nature as it is conducted with the factual reality, figures, facts and surveys (Saunders et al, 2007). This presents percentage, numbers, charts, statistics, tables etc during the data analysis and collection. This does not affected by other researchers work (Garner et al, 2009). The paradigm stands on the ontology which describes what is reasonable and valid in the existing globe rather than epistemology which underlines a degree of belief or the knowledge of someones own. Moreover, the positivism results look like that of the natural sciences, law-like generations and physical sciences. (Rose, 2009) (b) Interpretivism The Interpretivism is related to the phenomenological and philosophical way to comprehend the globe around us. According to the fundamental assumption there is huge opportunity to recognize the people sensitivities through getting them into the social context. (Garner et al, 2009) In this research study the researcher has used this essential paradigm to understanding the environment in the selected organization from the distinctive managers point of view the reason behind implementation of interpretivism is to understand the CSR procedures and the philosophy in an organization (Claydon & Beardwell, 2010). The whole research stands on the unstructured questionnaire and interviews asked from HR and marketing managers about the CSR policies implemented in BSNL and their contribution in the organization. (Saunders et al, 2007) 3.3 Research Strategy Usually there are two kind of research approaches used for the research area namely inductive approach that is concerned to the qualitative method of research and the second one is deductive approach that is concerned to the quantitative method of research (Fisher, 2004). These approaches are defined as follow 3.3.1Inductive

The inductive approach has used in the research area because it is concerned to the qualitative research methods. On the other hand this approach is concerned to an important observation or a solo case study to the wider theories and generations. This approach is also known as bottom-up approach (Lincoln and Dengin, 2006). This approach is used because this will give the logical conclusion from the information given by the employees and managers of the organization. Notably the conclusion of this topic could not be used in the other organizations. Due to their implementation of various CSR policies, firm locations, operating environment and HR policies. (Salter and Mason, 2007)

3.3.2 Deductive The deductive approach hasnt assumed by researcher because it directs from huge simplification to further specification. The research on current study is resolute on an explicit solo case study of BSNL Ltd and finally there would be comprehensive results of current study in this chapter. This approach is also known as top-down (Fisher, 2004). It progresses from a theory to hypothesis, from hypothesis to observation and finally from observation to the confirmation. (Salter and Mason, 2007) 3.4 Research Approach: Qualitative Denscombe, (2000) states that the qualitative and quantitative two major methods that are used in social science. The qualitative study is concerned with the aims of a researcher to transform what is reported and observed in written words. The qualitative research is helpful to transform recorded interviews into transcripts, the descriptions of pictures in words and observations are converted into field notes. That is the reason the words are work as central unit in qualitative method. Furthermore, the studies of these kinds always related to small scale study and as due to the piercing nature its measured as an excellent tool into managing intricate situations (Denscombe, 2000). It does not endeavour towards simplifying the problem. The qualitative research is connected with deeper understanding to solve the problem area. (Saunder, 2007) The main intention of this study is to understand deeply of BSNL Company success in raising better organization performance, attracting talented employees and raising competitive advantage through CSR. Therefore, in this study the author has determined to apply the qualitative approach. A small scale study can be helpful to raise better understanding and to examine positive variables in deepness into research field.

As the researcher has selected the qualitative research methods in current study because it stands on the critical review of the study and researches have done or already exist in the particular region of study to produce an nearby of the previously explored study. The study involves and defines the knowledges bandwidth administration literature concerning the researches, books, journals, recent papers and available recourses on internet. To carry out the research the reliable and limited databases are used in current study. The online recourses given by university are also used in present study. Most of the journals are used from the Athens online through university resources. That is very important during the research to use the limitations in the research criteria to get a huge amount of relevant material form sources. The use internet resources are also useful to get full information about the organization concerned with CSR policies. There are lot of researchers have done their study about the CSR programmes in organizations. So thats the reason behind this the researcher has chosen the different studies to analyse and describe the research work that is done by other researchers on different time of periods. The Research approach Qualitative Methodology as it stands for Interpretivism which is implemented to attain the conclusion of the research study. However, at assured levels, the author has changed a few evaluated data in tables, percentage and charts in the next part, to develop the research paper that is showing rudiments of quantitative approach. Mostly, the information based on the answers of employees, so it can be say its qualitative approach that is related to the questions like how CSR contributes in an organization performance and how it is beneficial for workforce of an organization. It is also related to how an organization executed during the steady and energetic atmosphere. (Armstrong, 2010). Especially, under the Qualitative Research Approach, the information related to the research questionnaire is increased by the familiar interviews which are taken from employees of the company. The researcher tried to get deeper information for the understanding of research study. The main aim of the study is to scrutinize how actions associated to CSR impact on the performance of organization. (Guest et al, 2009) 3.5 Research Instrument: Case Study, Survey and Web study

A researcher should see three conditions during the selection of a research strategy such as the research question pretence kinds, the amount of organize an examiner has over definite behavioural proceedings and the scale of spotlight on current as different to performance proceedings. (Foster, 1998) The main intention of this study is to understand deeply of BSNL Company success in raising better organization performance, attracting talented employees and raising competitive advantage through CSR. As follow to this purpose the three research questions are mentioned: What is the purpose of Corporate Social Responsibility? How does Corporate Social Responsibility benefits organization and its stakeholders? What are the effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on organizational performance? According to the Saunders, (2007) the research strategy would be explained as the common plan to respond those research queries, Yen, (2007) states the five kinds of most important research strategies into the social science such as Surveys, History, Case Studies, experiments and archival-analysis. In survey an author can concentrate on a small degree of research components. The major advantage of applying case study is for a researcher to make possibility to dedicate him to delicacies and problems into compound social circumstances (Denscombe, 2000). In exhibit 3.1 Yen, (2003) shows that and through this exhibit Yin, (2003) explains a case studys scope as strategy that is helpful to investigate a current phenomenon into its actual life framework, particularly when the limitations between framework and phenomenon are clearly not evident.

Strategy

Form of Research Question

Requires Control of Behavioural Events ?

Focuses on contemporary Events ?

Case study

How? Why? Why not

No

Yes

Exhibit 3.1 relevant situations for case study Source: Yin, (2003) According to Saunders, (2007) states that the use of a case study like research strategy is work as valid choice when investigating an existing theory and challenging to existing theory. According to the model of Yin (2003) an author apply case study and the other research strategy since the author is concentrating on small degree of research components. The use of case study, web research and other research studies is the good source of research strategy for the whole research work for the research of study to get answers for research questions, since the study of this kind provides the opportunity to raise understanding of the framework of research (Denscombe, 2000). Furthermore, the researcher of this study wants to raise a deep perceptive of research area through this research study. The current study could be based on Experimental Approach, Grounded Theory Approach, and Comparative Case through Case Scrutiny Approach, Culture Analysis Approach, Ethnographical Approach, Single Case Analysis Approach, Survey Analysis Approach, Archival Research Approach and Action Research Approach (Saunders et al 2007). The Qualitative Research Methodology is used and supplementary, the Grounded Theory Approach is applied. The both theories are convoluted in the following parts 3.6 Data Collection: Interviews and Documentation The researcher of this study is applying survey and web study is most appropriate study for this research. There are six differ sources in the collection of data when using a case study. The sources are known as interviews, physical artefacts, documentation, direct observations, archival records and participant-observation (Yin, 2003). The collected data get from two sources in this study interviews and documentation. The weaknesses and strengths of sources are mentioned in exhibit 3.2. The collected data in whole study is get from the interviews and documentation. The reason behind the utilization of sources as evidence is according to Yin, (2003) the collection of data by numerous sources will helpful to raise the soundness of a thesis. Any conclusion and finding in case study is more accurate and convincing if it stands on various information sources this whole process is known as data triangulation.

The interviews are the most essential source for the information of case study as it is directed conversation. Hence, an interview of case study is probable to be liquid rather than stiff if an author is following a reliable line of investigation. The usage of interviews like an evidence source is also consent an author to concentrate on particular matter as well as the flexibility of this also consent a researcher to pose probable follow up question of implication (Yin, 2007). Yin, (2003) states that the interview section has three different kinds such as: the focused, the open-ended and structured. In common, the interviews of case study are an open-ended character that represents the interviewer be able to solicit key respondents in relation to facts about an exact topic as well as concerning their individual views about assured events. As a respondent is interrogated for short time period, a focus interview is used by an interviewer. A focused interview may be still open-ended and may be also having conversational nature, but interviewer is expected to chase a explicit sequence of questions that has initiated from the procedure of case study.

Source of Evidence Documentation

Strengths + Targeted: focuses directly On case study topics + Insightful: provides Perceived casual inferences

Weaknesses - Bias: due to poorly constructed questions - Inaccuracies: due to poor recall - Retrievability can be low - Biased selectively: if collection is incomplete -Reporting Bias: reflects bias of author

Interviews

+ Stable: can be reviewed Repeatedly + Exact: contains exact names References and details +Broad coverage: long span of Many events and settings

Exhibit 3.2 two sources of evidence Source: Yin, (2003) The primary data will be got for this thesis from interviews. The researcher will be concerned with interviews and web study for his/her research since its necessary for the data collection that would be helpful for the correct answers of research questions. For the reduction of probable validity troubles, the detailed questions will ask in from an interview guide that is developed. But the researcher wants to remain flexibility in some characteristics during interviews of openended interviews. The combination of these two kinds of interviews gives permission to the respondent for freely discussion in limits which researcher settle down through pre-thought procedure in the guide of interview. This is essential to raise more data collection for a researcher to get deep answers for his the explicit research questions because the purpose of this study is to raise the deeper understanding. The interviews held in BSNLs headquarter in Punjab as person to person and the guidelines of Yin, (2003) are followed for the interviews. The interviews could be done through telephone but the author would like to done interviews face to face for more data collection. The guidelines for the interviews sent to the respondents in advance so they could be prepared for this. This is helpful for researcher to get necessary data for the correct answers of the research questions. The interviews will be recorded and written carefully later on in computer file with the permission of respondents. For the improvement of validity and reliability of this research study the all things have done carefully. To explain the background of the case for the research study the data is collection has done from the annual reports, homepages and from the other written material according to this research area of study like brochures about the organizations CSR actions and their reports sustainability. According to Yin, (2003) the form of secondary data and data is overt importance when applying case study. Yin, (2003) states that the document should be use in conducting with a case study those supplement and support to evidence compared with those sources which can shack fresh light on topic. 3.7 Sampling for the Current Research

Smith et al, (2009) states that the sampling is stand for the method which is suitable for concerning the research study. The sampling appraises how to determine and verify the sample extent that is necessary for data collection actions of a researcher. (Hussey and Hussey, 2009) For the selection of a sample the two different ways are used: probability sampling represents the units those are randomly selected and the non-probability sample that represents those units which dont have the similar opportunity to be selected (Saunders, 2007). The non-probability preferred to work with tiny sample, like case study. Several differ strategies are used in the nonprobability. (Blaxter et al, 2001) The researcher of the current study is applying purposive sampling that stands on judgemental conclusions this permits to researcher for the selections of case which is most important and suitable for the research questions in the current study. The method of this kind is very general when small samples are used like case study where the case has to be mainly edifying. (Saunders, 2007) When selecting the sample for current research such as which company is to study the researcher has convinced measure that guides for the choice of suitable company. The major norms are to find a national or multinational company with the experience of CSR actions. The company should also represent the information about the CSR actions on the corporate website of the organization. Figure 4.1 below showing:

Well-Known BSNL Company from India CSR Experience Information from web sites

Case 1

Case 2

Figure 3.1 Criterion for Case The websites of the organization is the first selection from where the data has been collected about the research work. The organization presented the data about their CSR activities on the websites through official websites and via news which proves that CSR has great contribute in the performance of organization. The required sampling has been collected from BSNL in current research study by researcher. In the current organization, the administering has taken interview of HR managers and the unstructured questionnaires regarding to the CSR policy used in the firm to manage the conduct of workforce in the Marketing and Commercial unit. The researcher has also given perfect information regarding to the characteristics of organisation that is conducted with first question of the study (West et al, 2009). The major inquiry about CSR actions such as environmental changes, the company performance and HR flexibility asked from the managers of marketing. The trials of this kind are supportive to investigate the specifics how CSR actions contribute to the performance of organization because marketing workers having the field work and have much awareness about customer requirements. The organization depends on employees working in organization they know better what are their needs and the needs of customers which can improve the performance of organization. (Aaker and Mascarenhas, 2007). 3.8 Data Collection Methods The main part of research is the collection of Data. There are lot of ways to get data for research such as structured, unstructured and semi structured questionnaire related to electronically to informers through the informal and formal interviews from the respondents by observations, discussions, surveys and sample surveys. These tools are very helpful to get understanding answers from the survey questions. (Hussey and Hussey, 2009). The data collection is based on two kinds of tools such as primary data and secondary data. These two tools are described as following: 3.8.1 Primary Data

The Primary data term is particularly used in the research of competitive intelligence, market and academic research (Fisher, 2004). Through the Primary data this is easy for researcher to attain required information under the control. The data is collected through conducting focus group discussions, survey questionnaire, interviews, observation and ethnographies. (Saunders et al, 2007) In the current research paper, the primary data has collected through unstructured interviews from the Marketing, Commercial and HR Managers in the selected company. The justification and description of the interviews in unstructured questionnaire administered from these employees of the organization are explained in the following section. 3.8.2 Unstructured Questionnaires For the collection of required primary data, the informal interviews are conducted; in between the unstructured questionnaire having not prearranged answers are asked to the employees in the company. The chosen questionnaire of this type is helpful for researcher to comprehend CSR policies executed and the impact of these policies on the performance of company from the point of view of the employees. The author has also adopted the structured questionnaire it is related to the interviewees in this the questions would be multiple choice questions as they have to select answers from the given option. the researcher wouldnt have learnt about the set of CSR practices exercised into the organisation if he hadnt listened the managers of compelled them to choose answers from the given optional ones ( Bryman and Bell, 2007).Moreover, unstructured questionnaire helps greatly to grip CSR strategies from the managers point of view and finally to generalise the research finding (Smith et al, 2009). Notably this primary data, not everywhere but at certain levels of data analysis and presentation within the conduct research is conversed into figure and tables to make the research more effective , which means the present research have some of the element of quantitative research whereas it is basically qualitative inductive analysis of the collection data (garner at el, 2009). 3.8.3 Surveys: The surveys have done from visiting the sub organizations of BSNL in Punjab, India. The surveys are very helpful tool to get information from employees about the CSR programs used in organization. All the surveys are done by visiting small to medium size organizations. Surveys were development in such a way that it takes no more than one to two minutes to complete it.

The questions were asked from the employees of the organization for the current research. The Branches visited were:

BSNL (Amritsar, Punjab) BSNL (Chheharta, Amritsar) BSNL (Bhikhiwind, Punjab) BSNL (Tarntarn, Punajb) (Pathankot, Punjab) BSNL (Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Chandigarh, Gurdaspur, Patiala, Batala) BSNL Head Office, Punjab (Rajpura, Punjab)

3.8.4 Interviews The interviews are concerned with equal numbers of female and male employees. The interviews from the full time workers have done face to face. The interviews are done in different cities which had the BSNL branches. There are head-office and sub-offices of organization from where the data about interviews has been done. The interview questionnaire is very small but it holds all the required questions about the research. The one interview will take only approximately one minute. There are only eleven questions in the interview that will be asked to the respondent. The questions are set as multiple choices. The questions will be asked to the employees about CSR policies which are used in the organization. The researcher has tried to cover all groups of sex and age in research to explore the successful results 3.13 Secondary Data The Secondary Data is related to academic, text review, peer review journals & research, research reports, websites, research reports, the collected data by other researchers other than instant researchers. (Saunders et al, 2007) For the present research the researcher has used the primary and secondary data collection methods. The primary data is stands for the unstructured interviews as it is illustrated in the previous section. The interviews were asked from the employees of the organization. Secondly the researcher has utilized the secondary data sources fairly in the in the research work which are having the current information on Corporate Social Responsibility. (Bryman and Bell, 2007)

The secondary research sources having the related information to the research which is used in the present research, there are more than forty journals on the Corporate Social Responsibility. For instance Weber, (2008), Turban & Greening, 1997; Backhaus et al, (2002), Albinger & freeman, 2000; Backhaus et al, (2002), Bhattacharya et al, (2008), Korte, (2007), Brunetto & Farr-Wharton, (2002), Montgomery & Ramus, (2007), Schmidt Albinger & Freeman, 2000; Smith et al, 2004, Coldwell et al, (2007) 3.14 Reliability and Validity Denscombe, (2000) defines that its an important part of the research to judge the research quality. This can be done through the test if the study instruments are neutral used in the research study, called validity that demote to how much good way a research technique measure and whats hypothetical to be evaluate. (Blaxter et al, 2001; Saunders, 2007) The researcher of the research study also has to test if the conclusion of research matches with the conclusions of other researchers and this process is known as reliability of the research (Saunders, 2007; Blaxter et al, 2001). The Blaxter et al, 2001staes that reliability is concerned with the research work how well its performing and it results given by it should be trustworthy and stable. According to Yin, 2003 the tests are usually utilize to justify the excellence standards of the research. Build up the validity which creates accurate operational instrument for the conception being studied, the interior validity which creates a formal relation whereby sure surroundings are exposed to pilot to other surroundings as distinctive from bogus associations, exterior validity which creates the area to which research conclusions can be widespread and reliability which exhibits the actives of research such as the collection of data measures, can be continual with the equal conclusions. 3.15 Application of Data and Analysis The main aim of data analysis is to examine the figures and facts, to enlarge the test hypothesis and explanations of the involved people (Smith et al, 2009). Its very helpful way to specify or generalise research findings. (Saunders, 2007)

Fisher, (2004) has planned the research approach Content Analysis for the analysis of collected data. Its the methodology to seminal the content of recorded or written communication through an objective or a systematic procedure. The Salter and Mason, (2007) stated that the Content Analysis is related to the set of procedures which is having survey questionnaire and standard interviews for managing and the collection of information in paradigm format which is helpful to draw conclusions about meaning and characteristics of collected data. Though, the accurate wording in interview needed to be asked. (Salter and Mason, 2007) The author Saunders et al, (2007) suggested about the Thematic Analysis approach for the analysis of data. This approach connected with the application and creation of codes to collected data. During the approach of Thematic Analysis, concepts, observational data, field-diaries, pictures, historical documents, videotapes, transcripts, survey questionnaire and statements are classified and reduce after the full understanding of all. According to Smith et al, (2009); Hussey and Hussey, (2009) the Corrective Analysis is related to the one variable to other and the Discursive Analysis is move from the one topic to other topic or to build up the conclusions based on arguments even perception could be utilized to appraise the collected data. The Grounded Theory analysis is used by the researcher to reduce the composed data into categories and concepts. et al, 2007) 3.17 Chapter Summery The current chapter describes the methods and research methodology utilized in the research work. Firstly, in the research study the researcher has specified about Interpretivism why it used in study. The justification of this is the collected data by unstructured interviews is not assessed through the charts, tables, percentage, numbers and figures. Secondly, the chapter describes about the Inductive approach that is pursued by the researcher in the present research because this is the approach which shifts from a particular observation to wider generalization of a solo case study of Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd.

Thirdly, it explains about the Qualitative Research Methodology why it is utilized in the research. The aim is to achieve the compulsory information via informal interviews from the mangers of the company but the researcher does not necessitate modifying the structure of the association empirically. The aim of chapter is to classify the action related to the purpose of Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR benefits to stakeholders and CSR impacts on organizational performance. Fourthly, the methods of research are described in this chapter which related to the unstructured interviews .the structure of unstructured interviews is also explained how its administrated from the employees of the organization. Then, the chapter defines the secondary data which is utilized in the research is based on the peer review journals, text books, research reports and research papers formulated by the other researchers. Moreover, there is discussion based on analysis of collected data and the presentation of this discussion is attained by Grounded Theory application because this is helpful approach to reduce raw data into the certain categories and concepts. The chapter ends with the ethical issues.