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34th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

29. - 30. September 2011, Ni, Serbia University of Ni, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering DESIGN AND TENSIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE C-CLAMP FOR RAILROAD TRACKS
Bojan RANI. Predrag JANKOVI, Sran MLADENOVI, Slavia PLANI Faculty of Mechanical Ingineering, University of Ni, A. Medvedeva 14, 18000 Ni, Serbia bojanr@masfak.ni.ac.rs, jape@masfak.ni.ac.rs, maki@masfak.ni.ac.rs, splanic@sezampro.rs Abstract: In factory MIN-DIV Svrljig new product is developed. This product (Cclamp) find his use for quickly joint of railroad tracks in cases of specific situations, like high differences of daily and night temperatures. C-clamp probes are produced by casting technology from two different materials: low alloyed steel C45E (EN), and cast iron GS70. Because of complex form of C-clamp, in program CosmosWorks finite element method (FEM) analysis are accomplished in order to find relation between moment of a force and tightening force, and also identification of Cclamp endings displacements. Tensometric method is used for verification of theoretical results. By these measurements good coincidence of theoretical and experimental results are observed. Key words: C-clamp, design, tightening force, displacement, measurement

1. INTRODUCTION
The track joint assembly (manufacturer "MIN-DIV" Svrljig from Svrljig) is used to connect railway tracks rapidly. Such connection is performed in the following cases: - assembly of a parallel railway track, when there has been damage to the main one; - when one must wait for optimal temperature conditions for welding rails, and - for rails that are subject to extreme differences between day and night temperatures. Since the C-clamp is the basic support element in the railroad tracks joint assembly, full attention is paid to the construction of this element. The design of a C-clamp 3D model (Figure 1) was performed in the SolidWorks program. On the basis of the model, in the same program, the technical drawing of the clamp was also done, which is given in Figure 2. Aside from the model, shown in Figure 2, two more models were constructed, which differed from the presented model only in their shape and the size of groove for reducing clamp mass (contours marked with 2 and 3 in Figure 2). This was done due to customer demand that the mass of the clamp was less than 8 kg. SolidWorks program also includes an option for determining the volume of the model, which made it easy to determine the mass of the clamp. The mass of the basic model (contour 1, Fig. 2) is the smallest and it amounts to 6.8 kg, the mass of the second model (contour 2) is 7.6 kg, and of the third (contour 3)

After this check, the second and third models were removed from further examination.

Figure 1. 3D model of C-clamp

2. STRESS AND DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS


Stress and displacement analysis was performed using the finite element method (FEM) in the COSMOSWorks program [1]. For the purpose of simpler calculations, tightening force was approximated to act on the cylindrical surface of the opening, 27 mm in diameter, which corresponded to the average diameter of the inner thread. Due to the symmetry of the C-clamp, only one half of this part was analyzed. The first restraint was in the plane section of clamp symmetry, and it had the freedom of movement along the Y axis, while the second was on the

8.2 kg.

cylindrical surface with the freedom of movement along

Figure 2. Technical drawing of C-clamp

Figure 3. Basic model of C-clamp Figure 4 and 5 show the distribution of stress and displacement for the basic (above) and corrected (below) model, respectively, obtained using the FEM analysis, while the moment of tightening was 250 Nm. It is obvious from Figure 4 that the most tightened areas are the area of transitive radius R20 and the area of inner thread M27. Furthermore, the stresses in the basic model are greater in terms of the von Mises plasticity condition [2]. C-clamp displacements were greatest in the places subjected to the tightening force and they were directed outwards, causing the opening of the clamp. There was a certain displacement upwards in the middle part (in the

Figure 4. Stress distribution by moment of tightening of 250 Nm for basic model A force transmitter was assembled in such a way as to have a cylindrical steel (42CrMo4, EN) body, 50 35 mm in dimension with a central 9 opening, to which four strain gauges were connected into a full Wheatstone bridge, [3]. The calibration line was obtained after loading and calibration. (y = 0.0626 x + 16.278). Screw tightening was performed manually using a torque wrench Dremometer from 0 to 300 Nm (Gedore). Dial indicators were used to determine the values of Cclamp openings.

plane of transverse symmetry).

SG6

SG4

Figure 8. Strain gauges SG4 and SG6 4. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENT RESULTS
The diagrams of change in relative deformation in relation to the moment (force) of tightening are shown in Figure 9a for strain gauges SG1, SG3 and SG5, and in Figure 9b for strain gauges SG2, SG4 and SG6 (under the load up to M = 300 Nm).

Figure 5. Layout of displacements under the moment of


tightening of 250 Nm for the basic model The results obtained using the FEM analysis can be verified by the classical theoretical analysis, [3].

3. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
The manufacturer chose the basic model of the C-clamp due to lesser usage of material. Clamps were made by casting using C45E (EN) steel and GS-70 (DIN) cast steel. On the basis of stress-strain state analysis, strain gauges were positioned in the arrangement shown in Figure 6, 7 and 8. Strain gauges 10/120 LY11 were used (Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik, [4].

a)

b) Figure 9. Diagrams of relative strain

Figure 6. Strain gauges position on C-clamp

SG5

SG3

Figure 7. Strain gauges SG3 and SG5

It is obvious from the diagram in Fig. 9a that the outer side of the clamp body (SG1, SG3 and SG5) is subjected to pressure and that it is in the state of elasticity up to the moment of 270 Nm. Under the load of 300 Nm plastic deformation occurs in the vicinity of the thread (SG5). Deformations on the inner side of the clamp are tension deformations. Relative deformations in SG2 and SG6 are in the region of elastic deformation up to the moment of tightening of 270 Nm, while both the middle of the central part of the clamp body (SG2) and the spot in the vicinity of the inner thread on the arm of the clamp body (SG6) are plastically deformed under higher loads. Using the FEM for clamps made of C45E (EN) and GS-70 (DIN) showed that they were in the state of elasticity under all moments up to, which was further verified by measurements. Recorded values of the clamp arm displacement (for appropriate values of the moment of tightening), both in the loaded and unloaded state, are given in Table 1.

Table 1. C-clamp arms displacement


C-clamp arms displacement Moment [Nm] 100 150 200 250 270 300 C45E (EN) load 0.71 1.05 1.43 1.67 1.87 2.10 unload 0 0 0 0 0 0 GS-70 (DIN) laod 0.68 0.98 1.41 1.67 1.88 2.15 unload 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 2. Moment of tightening and measured tightening forces Measured tightening force [kN] Moment, [Nm] C45E (EN) GS-70 (DIN) 100 16.2 18.3 150 26.8 28.3 200 37.6 37.0 250 46.5 46.3 270 51.7 52.7 300 58.0 59.4

Table 1 implies that C-clamps made of both materials are in the region of elasticity under all given moments. Values of given moments of tightening and measured tightening forces for clamps made of C45E (EN) and GS70 (DIN) are given in Table 2. Processing of measurement results was performed in the Microsoft Excel program. In C-clamps (made of both materials), the linear dependence between the tightening moment and force existed up to the moment of tightening of 300 Nm (maximum moment that could be achieved with the used torque wrench), that is, the brace holder assembly was in the state of elasticity. By comparing the obtained equation for change in the one-sided tightening force (according to Table 2) in the function of the moment of tightening for C45E: y = 0.1953 x 1.6091, where: y the one-sided tightening force in [kN] and x the moment of tightening in [Nm], with the analogue equation for clamps made of GS-70: y = 0.1995 x 0.8974 it becomes apparent that, from the aspect of carrying power, it is the case of C-clamps with similar characteristics, thus clamps should be made from less expensive or more easily machined material. Comparing the results obtained by FEM and measurement (see Figures 4 and 5 and Tables 1 and 2), it was determined that the values obtained by finite element method are higher 5 - 8 percent. While clamps were cast, there was a deviation in certain measures from the dimensions in the drawing. By measuring the dimensions of the clamp body, the following deviations were determined: in the opening diameter (190 mm in the drawing, and 186 mm in the mold) and in the clamp body thickness (45, 34 and 14 mm

in the drawing, and 43, 33 and 13 mm in the mold). Figure 2 shows the mold measures.

5. CONCLUSION
Clamps made of C45E (EN) and GS-70 (DIN) are of almost same characteristics and they satisfy conditions for all given loads. The testing was performed under the static load, while the brace holder assembly works under the one-sided dynamic load in real conditions (the movement of railroad car wheels over the assembly). Experimental testing showed that the measured values of deformation and displacement were in good agreement with the values obtained using the FEM analysis. Special attention should be paid to the tightening of the M27 screw to prevent the screw from coming loose during the exploitation of the brace holder assembly. Thermal processing of the clamp body mold is recommended. If it is not allowed to manufacture the clamp body by casting, it is recommended to manufacture it by forging, which will improve the working characteristics of the entire railroad track joint assembly

REFERENCES
[1] PAUL KUROWSKI, (2006), Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Professional 2006, SDC Publication, Canada. [2] V. STOILJKOVI, (1984), Teorija obrade deformisanjem, Univerzitet u Niu, Ni,. [3] BOJAN RANI, (2005), Sistemi za merenje, prikupljanje i obradu podataka, I deo, Mainski fakultet u Niu, Ni. [4] HOFFMAN., (1987), Eine Einfhrung in die Technik des Messens mit Dehnungsmestreifen, Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik GmbH, Darmstadt.