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Introduction History General overview Components How it works?

Gathering statistics Innovations Applications Advantages Disadvantages Future enhancement

Sports has great commercial importance and popularity. As a result, theres a need to make the game more interesting and make it as fair as possible.
Human error plays vital role in decision making at decisive moments.

There is need to bring a technology to minimize the chances of human error in such decision making.

Hawk-Eye is a system used in cricket, tennis, snookers and other sports to visually track the path of the ball and display a record of its most statistically likely path as a moving image.
Hawk-Eye is most innovative technology in sports broadcasting and is a development that will reinforce the group's presence and influence.

It was developed by engineers at Roke Manor Research Limited in 2001. The patent being held by Paul Hawkins and David Sherry.

The system was first used during a Test match between Pakistan and England at Lord's Cricket Ground, on 21 April 2001. It was first used in tennis 2006 US open.

The technology was later spun off into a

separate company HAWKEYE Innovations Ltd.

It is situated at Sony Europes offices in

Basingstoke.

It has been recognized through several

honours including two BAFTAS, one EMMY, one LOGIE, three Royal Television Society awards and recognition as the best technology by British Computer society.

GENERAL OVERVIEW
The issues that surface when deigning and implementing Hawkeye are: The distance at which the cameras are installed. Fielders or spectators might obstruct the cameras view. The point at which the ball makes contact with the pitch, batsman are very hard.

The hawk eye system consists of two significant parts Tracking System. Camera . Speed gun. Video Replay System.

The tracking data provides the coaches and players with the information for HOW they have performed. The tracking system consists of High speed vision processing cameras to track the ball from the bowlers hand to the batsman.

HAWK-EYE CAMERA
Hawkeye cameras placed high above the court to track the trajectory (path followed) of the ball. It can point out the bounce of the ball up to the precision of 3mm. The cameras record the movement of ball at the rate of 60 frames per second.

SPEED GUN A speed gun measures the ball speed. It shoots a very short burst of infra-red laser and receives it back. The gun, counts the nanoseconds it took for the light to travel to and from the ball, divides it by two and gives the speed of the ball.

The Hawk-Eye System can incorporate more video replay cameras for analysis from different angles, which can be controlled remotely. The video is captured and stored digitally on hard disks. This uses display unit like monitor and projector screens.

Uses 6 cameras placed as shown. Each cameras are positioned at 60degree roughly from each other. 6 cameras are designed according to their distance from pitch. Each camera covers smaller region for accuracy.

The cameras can be operated in active or passive

modes. In passive modes, no imaging is done and the system is more or less inactive. The cameras can be triggered into active mode either by detecting some motion in the vicinity of the pitch or manually. The cameras are designed to stay in the active mode for a fixed time before going off into passive mode.

It include loading of statistical generator, which is used to produce statistics based on data collected.

This part of the system can be further divided into 3 major parts: Identifying pixels representing the ball in each image. Applying some geometric algorithm on the set of Images at each instant. Coming up with the 3D position of the ball in space.

Done by process called Blob detection. Blob detection senses the size of the ball. It negates the confusion of the ball shadow which may be confused with the ball pixel by comparing the ball position in previous images and position of the sun at that instant.

Data of x & y coordinates in each camera is obtained by geometric algorithm which is used inside hawk-eye system.

The images taken from each camera is just a

2D image and lacks depth. By knowing the exact positions of the camera in space and the x and y co-ordinates of the ball in more than one of the images we can determine accurately the position of the ball in 3D.

TRIANGULATION
Hawk-Eye system is based

on the principle of Triangulation.

Triangulation is the

process of determining the location of a point by measuring angles to it from known points at either end of a fixed baseline.

The information about the

3D position of the ball from the positions (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) can be obtained by resolving the ball from 2D images from cameras 1 and 2 as shown in the image. The ball is actually at some height above ground.

The picture as seen by camera

2 is shown. The height of the ball above the ground is given directly by the y co-ordinate. The depth of the ball as seen from camera 2 is as follows Depth=r-(rcos ()+x1|sin())

2D images captured from each cameras are combined to get a 3D position of the ball.

The images are taken by cameras at times t0,

t1,..,tn during the play of a single ball . Computation done at each time instant, ti ,0in we will get n points, say (xi,yi,zi) for 0in. Plot the n points. These points indicate the path followed by the ball.

There is a standard technique, used commonly

i.e. Computer Aided Geometric Design . The more points we can get on the curve and the higher degree of polynomial basis we choose to use, we will end up with better approximations to the original curve. It goes through some points which are of special interest. These include the ball hitting the pitch, the stumps, and the batsman among others.

GATHERING STATISTICS
Hawkeye can also be used for collecting

statistics.

LBW DECISIONS Hawk-Eye helps to resolve the following three issues:


Would the ball have hit the stumps?

Did the ball pitch in-line?


Did the ball hit the batsman in-line?

HAWKEYE INNOVATIONS

The singles, 2s, 3s, 4s and 6s that make up quick-fire 50s or vital centuries are represented by the different colors of the Wagon Wheel.

PITCH MAPS

highlight a bowlers consistency or expensiveness, line and length.

DESPIN Hawk-Eye DE Spin Graphics demonstrate how far a delivery has deviated after pitching

RAILCAM

Can be used to represent differences in speed, bounce and delivery.

BEEHIVES

Beehives show where the ball has passed the batsman.

BALL SPEED

Hawk-Eye now has the ability to supply ball speeds as reliably as a radar gun.

REACTION TIME The Hawk-eye system is also used effectively to calculate and represent the reaction time taken by a fielder to catch the ball.

In tennis Hawk-Eye generates the impact of

the ball whether the ball is IN or OUT

This technology is useful in cases where the cue

ball touches the specified ball first or any other ball.

The use of hawk eye technology is used to retrieve the enemy locations from far away distance without coming to their notice. The E-2C aircraft used by US army uses this technology.

Hawk-eye technology is used for wheel aligning in automobiles. It offers shops the multiple benefits of precision, high-speed alignment and greater productivity

Give a prediction as accurate as 99.99 percent. Its a very effective system which works in real time. Minimize the chances of human error in decision making. Help players to study their past games and improve.

The system is too costly. The system needs complex arrangements. Sometimes Hawk-Eye struggle with predicting the curved trajectory of a cricket ball after bouncing.

The future of hawkeye technology looks bright as it has been used in various applications in a very short duration after its introduction. For example: use of goal line technology has been proposed in football.

After all the test that have been conducted on this

technology, it has always come out successful and it promises to be a boon for the world of sports and now it is up to the different councils to decide whether to use this technology or not. This technology has met the high reality and accuracy features. Hawk-Eye is currently developing a system for Football This technology helps to have correct decisions in any kind of game.

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6-08-10/ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/4/story.cfm?c _id=4 http://archive.gulfnews.com/indepth/dubaitennis 2007/08379 http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/hawkeye http://www.hawkeyetechnology.com/tech/