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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

UNIT - I : PERCEPTIVE IN HRM


Evolution of HRM The importance of the human factor objectives of HRM Inclusive growth and affirmative action Role of human resource manager. Human resource polices computer applications in human resource management Human resource accounting & audit.

DEFINITION
According to Edwin.B.Flipps

HRM is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individuals, organizational and social objectives are accomplished .

HRM can be defined as a process of procuring, developing and maintaining competent human resource in the organization so that the goals of an organization are achieved in an effective and efficient manner.

HRM is an art of managing people at work is such a manner that they give their best to the organization for achieving its set goals.

OBJECTIVES

To help the organization to attain its goals effectively and efficiently by providing competent and motivated employees. To utilize the available human resources effectively.

To increase to the fullest the employees job satisfaction and self actualization. To develop and maintains quality of work life (QWL) which makes employment in the organization a desirable personal and social situation.

To help in maintain ethical policies and behavior inside and outside the organization. To establish and maintain cordial relations between employees and management. To reconcile individual / group goals with organizational goals.

HRM Objective & Supporting Function


Social Objective Legal Compliance Benefits Union_Mgt relations Individual / Personal Objectives. Training & development Compensation Assessment

Organizational Objective Functional Objectives. HR Planning Employee relation Selection Training & development

Appraisal Placement Assessment

Nature and Scope Of HRM

1. HRM is a Complex Dynamics. A close observation of employees reveals its complex nature dealing with economic physiological, psychological, sociological & ethical beings. 2. HRM is a Social System. Management tasks, dealing with human relationship, moulding & developing the human behaviour and attitude towards job & orgn requirement. HR manager involves himself in administering a social system. In this process the manager has to see that the economic satisfaction for a resonable livelyhood, social satisfaction of working together as members of a group & individual job satisfaction of a worker and attained

3. HRM is a Challenging Task:


The HR manager plays a crucial role in understanding the changing needs of the organization and society. Further he faces some challenging tasks in attaining the employee, organizational and social objective with the available resources. HR manager should equip himself with good knowledge of disciplines economics, commerce management, sociology, psychology, engineering & technology & laws.

Scope Of HRM
Control Acquisition

Human resource audit HR Accounting HR Information System.

HR Planning Recruitment Selection Placement

HRM
Maintenance Remuneration Motivation Health & Safety Social Security Industrial relation Performance approvals Development

Training Career development Org. Development Internal Mobility

The scope of HRM is indeed very vast & wide. It includes all activities staring from manpower planning till employees leaves the organization. Accordingly, the scope of HRM consist of acquisition, development, maintenance retention & control of human resources in the organization.

The National Institute of Personal Management Calcutta has specified the Scope of HRM as follows.
1. The Labour (or) Personnel Aspect : This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, transfer, promotion, training and development, lay-off and retrenchment, remuneration, incentives, production etc. 2. Welfare Aspect : It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteen, crches rest and lunch room, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, health and safety, recreation facilities etc. 3. Industrial Relations Aspects : This covers union management relations joint consultation, collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary actions, settlements of disputes etc

FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


MANAGERIAL FUNCTION
PROCUREMENT DEVELOPMENT

OPERATIVE FUNCTION
COMPENSATION INTERGISTION MAINTANCE

PLANING ORGANISING STAFFING DIRECTING

CONTROLLING

JOB ANALYSIS HR PLANNING RECUIRIMENT SELECTION PLACEMENT INDUCTION TRANSFER PROMOTION SEPERATION

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL TRANNING EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT CAREER PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT

JOB EVALUVATION WAGES & SALARY ADMINISTRATION BONOUS & INCENTIVES PAYROLL

MOTIVATION JOB SATISFACTION GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING CONFLICT MANAGEMENT PARTICIPATION OF EMPLOYEES DISCIPLINE

HEALTH SAFETY SOCIAL SECURITY WELFARE SCHEMES PERSONNEL RECORDS PERSONNEL RESEARCH PERSONNEL AUDIT

The functions of HRM can be broadly classified into 1) Managerial functions and 2) Operative function. 1. Managerial function : Planning : - is a predetermined course of actions. It is a process of determining the organization goals and formulation of policies & programs for achieving them. Forecasting:- is one of the elements of planning process. Organizing : - is a process by which the structure & allocation of jobs are determined. Staffing : - is a process by which mangers select, train, promote & retire their subordinates. Directing & Heading : - is a process of activating group efforts to achieve the desired goals. Controlling : - is the process of setting standards for performance, checking to see how actual performance compares with these set standards, and taking corrective actions as needed

2. Operative function : - also called service functions are those which are relevant to specific department. Procurement : - It involves procuring the right kind of people in appropriate number to be placed in the organization. Development:- This function involves activities meant to improve the knowledge, skills, aptitudes & values of employees so as to enable them to perform their jobs in a better manner in future. Compensation : - function involves determination of wages & salaries matching with contribution made by employees to organizational goals Maintenance: - It is concerned with protecting & promoting employees while at work.

ROLE OF HRM ROLE :The behavioural paterns expected by a manager within an organisation or a unit.

THE ROLE OF THE PERSONNEL MANAGER


MAIN ROLE 1. The Conscience role. 2. The Counselor.

3. The Mediator.
4. The Spokesman. 5. The Problem Solver. 6. The Change Agent.

HR ROLE

WELFARE ROLE

CLERICAL ROLE

LEGAL ROLL

ADVISERY ADVISING MANAGEMENT OF EFFECTIVE USE OF HR RESOURCES.

1. RESEARCH IN PERSONNEL 1. TIME KEEPING. & ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEMS.

1. GRIEVANCE HANDLING

MANPOWER PLANNING 2. MANAGING SERVIES, RERUITMENT CANTEENS, GRAIN SHOP, TRANSPORT COOPERTIVES SELECTION ETC. TRAINING & 3. GROUP DYNAMICS DEVELPOMENT OF LINE GROUP COUNSELLING, MOTIVATION, LEADERSHIP, MAN COMMUNICATION etc. MEASUREMENT OF ASSESSMENT OF INDIVIDUAL & GROUP BEHAVIOUR

2. SALARY & 2. SETTLEMENTS OF WAGES, DISPUTES ADMINISTARTION INCENTIVES. 3. MAINTANCE OF RECORD. 3. HANDLING DISCIPLINARY ACTIONS.

4. HUMAN ENGINEERING MAN-MACHINE RELATIONSHIP.

4. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING.

5. JOINT

Qualities of a Manager : In order to succeed in Managing ,a Manager should possess the following qualities:
1.Education 2.Training 3.Intelligence 4.Leadership 5.Foresight 6.Maturity 7.Technical knowledge 8.Human relations attitude 9.Self-confidence.

1. Personal Attributes.
Intelligence. Educational Skills.

QUALITIES OF A HR MANAGER

Discriminating Skills b/w wrong / merit/ demerit. Executing Skills.


Experience & Training.

2. Professional Attitudes. 3. Qualifications: - MHRM, MA CIIR& PM , PGDPM.

Every manager is concerned with 1.Management of ideas - implies use of conceptual skills. -distinct and scientific process. -Planning phase of management -creativity and innovation.

2.Management of things( non- human resources): -Deals with the design of production system and acquisition, allocation and conversion of physical resources to achieve certain goals.

3.Management of people :
-is concerned with the procurement , development, maintenance and integration of human resources in the organisation.

Conceptual skills; Ability to see the organisation as a whole to recognise inter-relationships among different functions of the business and external force to guide. Conceptual skills are used for abstract thinking and concept development involved in planning and strategy formulation

Human skill: Ability to work with , understand and motivate other persons.
Technical skill: Ability to use the procedure , techniques and knowledge of specialised field.

Careers in HRM: Supervisors / Officer Level Junior Management Level Jobs.

Middle Management Level Jobs.


Senior Management Level. General Management Level / CEO /President Of The Company

1. Trade Union Movement Era.

EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT

2. Social Responsibility Era.


3. Scientific Management Era. 4. Human Relation Era. 5. Behavioral Science Era. 6. Systems Approach Era,

HRM MODELS
The Fomburn,Tichy and Devanna Model The Harvard Model:Beer. Etal. The Guest Model The Warwick Model

THE FOMBRUN MODEL OF HRM


Human Resource Development

Selection

Appraisal

Organisational Effectiveness

Rewards

THE HARVARD MODEL OF HRM


Stakeholder Interests Shareholders Management Employee groups Government Community unions

Situational factors Workforce characteristics Business strategy&philosophy Labour market Unions Task technology Laws and societal values

HRM policy choices Employee influence Human resource flow Reward system Work systems

Human resource outcomes Commitment Competence Congruence Cost effectiveness

Long term consequenc e Individual well being Organisatio -nal effectivenes Societal well being

THE GUEST MODEL OF HRM


Performanc e outcomes Positive Productivity Innovation Quality Negative Low Productivity Absenteeis -m turnover

HRM Strategies

HRM practices Hiring Training Appraisal Compensati -on relation

HR outcomes Commitment Quality flexibility

Behavioural outcomes Motivatio -n Cooperati -on Organisational citizenship

Financial outcomes Profits ROI

THE WARWICK MODEL OF HRM


Outer context Socio economic Technical Political-legal competitive
Inner context Culture Structure Politics/leadership Task technology Business outputs HRM context Role Definition Organisation HR outputs
HRM content HRflows Work system Reward systems Employee relations

Business strategy content Objectives Product market Strategy&tactis

Human Resource Accounting


Human resource accounting is the measurement of cost and value of the people for the organisation. Flamholtz Human resource accounting is the measurement and quantification of human organisational inputs such as recruiting,training experience and commitment

Stephen Knauf

Features of HR Accounting: 1. System of identification of HR 2. Investments made in HR are recorded. 3. Measurement of cost and value of HR. 4. Records the changes occurring in HR. 5. Information generated about HR is communicated through financial statements to the parties. 6. HRA is a part of MIS.

OBJECTIVES: 1.To furnish cost value information for making management decision and maintaining human resources in order to attain cost effective organisational objectives. 2.To allow management personnel to monitor effectively the use of human resources. 3.To aid in the development of Mgt principles by classifying the financial consequences of various practices. 4.To develop methods of measuring HR cost and value. 5.To test the valuation of HR varies in proportion with their contribution to the organisation.

METHODS
1.MONETARY MEASUREMENT Historical cost opportunity cost Economic valuation Replacement cost Capitalization of salary 2.NON-MONETARY MEASUREMENT skills inventory performance evaluation attitude measurement assessment of potential

ADVANTAGES
1.Improvement in internal management decision. 2.Motivation of employees for production purposes. 3.Saving of time in meeting of the executive. 4.Indicator of the health of the enterprise. 5.Impact on investors decisions. 6.Decision about further requirement 7.Assistance in planning.

Disadvantages
1.non-availability of standards 2.opposition of trade union 3.Expenditure on HRA 4.Variety of methods

E-Human resource management. E-Business / NEURAL NETWORKS. E- Job design & Job Analysis. E-Human Resource Planning. E-Recruitment. E- Selection. E- Performance Management. E- Training & Development. E- Compensation Management. E- HR Records. E- HR Information. E- HR- Audit.

COMPUTER APPLICATION IN HRM

HUMAN RESOURCE AUDIT


Audit is an examination and verification of accounts and records. Hr audit refers to an examination and evaluation of policies, procedures and practices to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of HRM.

AREAS OF HR AUDIT
Include : 1. 2. 3. 4. Mission statement relating to HR management. Objectives, goals & strategies of HR management. Accomplishment of HR management. Programmes of HRM including the detailed practices & procedures. 5. HRM Policies. 6. Role of HRM in TQM.

OBJECTIVES OF HR AUDITS
1. To review the whole system of management programmes'. 2. To seek explanations & information's. 3. To evaluate the implemented policies. 4. To evaluate the personnel staff & employees.

NEED FOR HR AUDIT


1. The No: of Employees. 2. Organisational Structure. 3. Communication & Feedback, 4. Location and Dispensing.

5. Status of an Industrial Relation Manager.


6. Administrative Style.

Types of audit
Internal audit External audit

HR Audit Process
Pre audit information Pre-audit self assessment On site review Record review Audit report

Benefits
1.Fostering strategic business plan 2.Clarity of role of HR function 3.Organisational competency analysis 4.Hr system analysis 5.Changes in the styles of top mgt 6.ROI analysis 7.Performance improvement mechanism.

HR POLICIES

A Policy is a Plan Of Action. According to Brewster & Richbell defined HRM policies as a set of proposals and actions that act as a reference point for managers in their dealing with employees. HR policies constitute guides to action & guides the course of action intended to accomplish personnel objectives. Eg: HRM policy in Indian railways'. One of the personnel objectives of Indian Railways is to provide equal employment opportunities to the people of minority sections. Personnel policy of Indian railways relating to be above objectives is to fill 15% &7.5% of vacancies from those candidates belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes respectively

CHARACTERISTICS OF HRP
1.Related to objectives 2.Easy to understand 3.Precise 4.Based on facts 5.Review

Objectives of HR policies
1.maximum use of human resource 2.Personnel development 3.Sound Industrial Relation 4. Proper recognition of work force and protection of their prestige. 5.Safeguarding the interests of labour and management.

Need of HR policies
1.To achieve the objectives of the organisation. 2.To achieve uniformity in decision. 3.To delegate authority. 4.To achieve better control. 5.Evaluate efficiency. 6.To motivate and create confidence among employees. 7.To guide the management.

Scope of HR policies
1.Recriutment /hiring of employees. 2.Formulating terms and conditions of employment. 3.Manpower planning and development. 4. Industrial relations. 5.Communication with employees.

Types of HR policies
1.originated policies 2.Appealed policies 3.Imposed policies 4.General policies 5.Specific policies 6.written/implied policies

Factors affecting Hr Policies


1.Laws of the country/social values and customes 2.Management philosophy 3.Financial position of the organisation 4.Union objectives and practices 5.Type of workforce 6.Stages of development

UNIT:II-HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING


Human resource planning is the process by which an organisation ensures that it has the right number and the kind of people ,at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those task that will help the organisation achieve its over all objectives. Decenzo and Robbins

According to Bruce. P.ColemanMan power planning is the process of determining manpower requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organisation.

Need/Reasons for increasing focus on human resource planning: 1.Employment growing unemployment situation. 2.Technological changes. 3.Organisational changes. 4.Demographic changes. 5.Skill shortages 6.Governmental influences 7.Legislative controls

8.Rise in employee turnover. 9.To meet the needs of expansion and diversification programmes of organissation. 10.To identify area of surplus personnel area in which there is a shortage of personnel.

Scope of HRP: 1. Listing of current manpower/HR with the organisation. 2. Assessing the extent to which the current manpower is utilised to the advantage of the organisation. 3. Phasing out the surplus manpower ,if any. 4. Analysing the requirements of manpower in future in the lights of expansion plans , retirement of personnel etc.

5.Making manpower procurement plans.

6.Designing training programmes for different categories of manpower.

HRP activities: Forecasting Inventoring Anticipating man power problems Planning

Importance of HRP
1. Forecasting HR requirements . 2. Checks the corporate plan of the organisation , and makes effective management of changes. ie.market conditions technology /product govt regulation allocation of skills to persons.

3.Helps to improve overall business planning process. 4.Effective utilization of Human resources. 5.Helps in filling the gaps. 6.Facilitates economic development. 7. It serves as a tool to evaluate the effect of alternative manpower action and policies.

Objectives
1. To ensure adequate supply of manpower as and when required . 2. To ensure proper use of existing human resources in the organisation. 3. To forecast future requirements of human resources with different levels of skills. 4. To assess surplus or shortage , if any of hr available over a specified period of time. 5. To anticipate the impact of technology on jobs and requirements for human resources.

6.To control the human resources already deployed in the organisation. 7.To provide lead time available to select and train the required additional human resources over a specified time period. 8.To estimate the cost of Human resources. 9.To maintain industrial relations. 10.To obtain a good business environment.

Levels of human resource management


HRP is useful at different levels 1.At the national level: HRP by government at the national level covers Population projections Programme of economic development Educational and health facilities Occupational distribution and growth Mobility of personnel across industries and geographical region.

2.At the sector level: This would cover manpower requirements of the agricultural sector Industrial sector Service sector

3. At the industry level: This would forecast man power need for specific industries , such as Engineering Heavy industires Textile industries Plantations industries 4.At the level of industrial unit: It relates to the manpower needs of a particular enterprise.

FACTORS AFFECTING HRP


EXTERNAL Government policies Level of economic development including future supply of HRS Business envt Information technology Level of technology International factors INTERNAL . strategies of the company . HR Policy of the company . formal and informal groups . job analysis . time horizons . type and quality of information . . companys production operations policy . trade unions

Process of HRP
Objectives of human resource planning Inventory of human resources skills(finding gaps) Demand and supply forecasting Determine net manpower requirements Redeployment and redundancy plan Employment program Training and development program Appraisal of human resource planning

Problems in HRP: 1.Lack of understanding of rationale of planning. 2.Insufficient top managements support. 3.Insufficient initial efforts. 4.Lack of coordination with other functions. 5.Lack of integration with organisational plans. 6.non-cooperation of operating managers. 7.Expensive and time consuming. 8.Resistance by employers and employees. 9.uncertainties. 10.Inadequacies of information system.

How to make HRP effective? Following are some of the steps that may improve the effectiveness of HRP: 1. HR plans must be viewed as an integral part of corporate planning. HR plans should be tailored with the objectives, strategies and overall environment of the particular organisation. 2. The support and commitment of the top management be ensured before starting the process of hrp planning.

3. Personnel records must be complete, up-todate and reality available to ensure an adequate and strong date base serves as backbone for HRP. 4.The time horizon of the HRP should be appropriate to accommodate the changing needs and circumstances of the particular organisation. 5.Both quantitative and qualitative aspects of HR plans should be stressed in a balanced manner inorder to avoid conflicts between the two.

Forecasting for human resources requirement.


The demand for HR in organisation is subject to vary from time to time, depending upon both external and internal factors.

INTERNAL FACTORS:

EXTERNAL

Growth and expansion 1.Competition Design and structure changes 2.economic & Management philosophy political climate Change in leadership style 3.technological Employees resignation changes. Retirement 4.government Termination death Therefore while forecating future demand for human resources in the organisation, these factors need to be taken into consideration.

Purpose of forecasting HR needs: Forecasting demand for human resources is good for several reasons, because it can help: 1. To Quantify the number of jobs required at given time for producing a given number of goods (or) offering a given amount of services. 2. To Ascertain a staff-mix needed at different points time in the future. 3. To Ensure adequate availability of people with varying qualification and skills as and when required in the organisation.

The various techniques employed in HR forecasting are as follows : Management judgement Work- study method Ratio trend analysis Delphi technique Flow models Mathematical models Computerized forecast

1.Management judgement: This technique is very simple and time saving. Under this technique either a bottom-up or a topdown approach is employed for forecasting future HR requirement of an organisation. In case of bottom- up approach, the line managers prepare departmental requirements for HR and submit it to the top manager for their review and consideration. In case of top-down approach the top managers prepare the departmental forecasts which are reviewed with the departmental heads . It is suitable for small firms .

2. Work- study method: This method can be used when it is possible to measure work and set standards and where job method do not change frequently. In this method , as used by F.W. Taylor in his scientific management, time and motion study are used to ascertain standard time for doing a standard work. Based on this,the number of workers required to do standard work is worked out.

3. Ratio-trend analysis: This is one of the quickest forecasting technique. Under this method forecasting for future HR requirement is made on the basis of time series data. This technique involves studying past ratio(eg: total out-put/no:of workers , total sales volume /number of sales persons)and based on these forecasting is made for future ratios. While calculating future ratios, allowances can be made for expected changes in the organisation, methods and job. The demand for HR is calculated on the basis of established ratios between two variables.

4. Delphi technique: This is one of the judgemental methods of forecasting HR needs. It is a more complex and time consuming technique which does not allow group members to meet face-to-face . Therefore ,it does not require the physical presence of the group members.

5. Flow model: Is the simplest one and called as the Markov model.This model involves the following: 1.Determination of time period that will be covered under forecast. 2.Establishment of employees categories,also called states.There should not be overlapping among the various categories. 3.Enumeration of annual flow among various categories or states for several time periods. 4.Estimation of probability of flow or movements from one category to another based on past trends in this regards.

6. Mathematical model: Mathematical model express relationship between independent variable (production /sales) and dependent variable.(no: of workers required).

7. Computerized forecast: Is the determination of future staff needs by projecting a firms sales, volume production and personnel required to maintain this required volume of output, using computers and software packages.

Supply Forecasting
Supply Forecasting measures the number of people likely to be available from within and outside an organisation. Sources of supply Internal External *staffing tables /manning charts. *colleges/universities *Markov analysis *Skill inventories *replacement and succession planning

Markov analysis It shows the percentage of employees who remains in each job from one year to the next ,as also the proportion of those who are promoted or transferred or who exit the organisation . This movement of employee among different job classifcations can be forecasted based upon past movement patterns. Past patterns of employee movement (transitions)are used to project future patterns.

Markov analysis can be used to forecast employee movement pattern that may occur among organisational units, between oragnisational levels,etc. The pattern of employee movements through various jobs is used to establish transitional probabilities and to develop a transition matrix. The transitional probabilities indicate what will happen to the initial staffing levels in each job category or the probability that employees from one category will move into another job category.

Transitional probabilities also determine the forecasted employee levels at the end of the year. Transition matrix is used to forecast employment changes in future .This matrix can be used to forecast both demand and supply of labour. For a Markov analysis to succeed, there should be enough employees in each job category , the nature of jobs should not have changed over time, and the situation should be stable.

RECRUITMENT
A process of locating , identifying and attracting capable applicants. A process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organisation.

Factors affecting recruitment Internal factors Size of the organisation Recruiting policy Image of organisation External factors Demographic factors labour market unemployment situation labourlaws legalconsiderations

Image of job

Sources of recruitment

Internal sources Present employees

External sources Employment exchange Advertisements Employment Agencies Professional association Campus recruitment Deputation Words-of-mouth Jobfair cyberspace recruiting

Employee referrals FormerEmployees


Previous Applicants

Recruitment process

1.Recruitment planning 2.Stategy development 3.Searching 4.Screening 5.Evaluation and control

Recruitment process
Personnel planning

Job analysis

Employee requistion

Job vacancies

Recruitment Planning Numbers types

Searching activation

Applicant pool

screening

Potential hires

Strategy Development -where -how -when

Applicant population

Evaluation and control

Method of recruitment 1.Direct method 2.Indirect method 3.Third party method

Effectiveness of recruitment programme: 1.A well defined recruitment policy. 2.A proper organisational structure. 3.A well-laid down procedure for locating potential job seekers. 4.A suitable method and technique for tapping and utilizing these candidates. 5.A continuous assessment of effectiveness of recruitment programme and incorporation of suitable modifactions from time to time to improve the effectiveness of the programme. 6.An ethically sound and fool-proof practice telling an applicant all about the job and its position, the firm to enable the candidate to judiciously decide whether or not to apply and join the firm , if selected.

SELECTION
Selection is the process of choosing from among the candidates from within the organisation or from the outside,the most suitable person for the current position or for the future position
knootz

Selection methods 1.Preliminary interview 2.Application blank 3.Selection tests 4.Selection interview 5.Reference checks 6.Medical examination /physical examination 7.Final selection.

Preliminary interview: The purpose of the Preliminary interview is to eliminate unsuitable or unqualified candidates form the selection process. It is also called courtesy interview. Application blank: is the commonest device for getting information from a prospective candidate. This serves as a personal record of the candidate bearing personal history profile, detailed personal activities, skills and accomplishments.

Selection test : To select right person for the job, individual differences in terms of abilities and skills need to be measured for comparision. This is done through a process called selection test.

Tests: A test is a systematic procedure for comparing the behavior of two or more persons. Selection Tests Ability tests Personality tests

Aptitude test Achievement test Intelligence test Judgment test

Interest test Personality test Projective test Attitude test

ABILITY TESTS: Aptitude Test: It measure the ability and skills of the persons. It indicates how well a person would be able to perform after training. It is also used to predict the future ability and performance of a person Achievement Test: It is used to measure a persons potential in a given area or job. They are usually used for admission to specific courses in an academic institution. It is also known as proficiency test or performance test or occupation or trade test.

Intelligence Test: It measures general ability for intellectual performance and intelligence quotient of a candidate. The core concept underlying in intelligence test is mental age. It is presumed that with physical age intelligence also grow. Mental Age IQ= Actual Age *100

Judgment Test: This test are designed to know the ability to apply knowledge in solving a problem.
PERSONALITY TESTS: These are tests used for measuring the interest and motivation of the people. Interest Test: It is designed to identify persons area of interest and kind of work that will satisfy him.

Personality test: These test are designed to measure the dimensions and traits of personality. Some of the personality tests are Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), California Personality Inventory Projective Test: Candidates are asked to project their own interpretation of certain standard stimulus situation basing on ambiguous pictures ,figures etc. E.g. TAT) Thematic Appreciation Test. (RBT) Rorschach Blot Test.

Attitude Test: It measures the attitude , tendencies towards favoring, situation and action of a person. Test of social desirability, authoritarianism, employee morale are well known examples of attitude test.
Other test: Graphology, Polygraph test.

Advantages of testing: 1. Predict future performance. 2. Diagnosis the situation and behavior. 3. Serves as a unbiased tool. 4. Quantify the test results. Validation of test: Validity is the most important criteria for the quality of a test. It is vital for a test to be valid in order for the results to be accurately applied and interpreted.

Interview: Interview is a face to face interaction, a powerful exchange of ideas, answering of questions and communication between two or more persons.
Objectives: 1. Judgment of applicant 2. Additional information

TYPES OF INTERVIEW: Preliminary interview: The interviews conducted to screen the applicants to decide whether further detailed will be required are called preliminary interview. Patterned/ Structured/ Formal Interview: In this type of interview all the formalities, procedures like fixing the value, time, panel of interviewers, opening and closing, intimating the candidates officially etc are strictly followed in arranging and conducting the interview.

Depth Interview: In this interview the candidates would be extensively in core area of job skills and knowledge. Experts test the candidates knowledge in depth. Depth interviews are conducted for specialist jobs. Stress Interview: This interview aims at testing the candidates job behavior and level of withstanding during the period of stress and strain.

Other Interviews are: Group Discussion interview Panel interview Informal/ unstructured interview Decision making interview.
Reference checks: The process of verifying information and obtaining additional feedback on an application.

Medical Examination: It is have proper matching of job requirement with the physical abilities of the candidate. Final Selection: the candidates who have cleared all the above hurdles are finally selected and a letter of job offer is issued to them.

PLACEMENT
Placement is understood as assigning jobs to the selected candidates. the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned, and his assignment to that job.
Pigors and Myers

The importance of placement lies in the fact that, *a proper placement of employees reduces employees turnover,absenteeism,accidents and dissatisfaction,on the other hand, and improves their morale,on the other.

Induction
Induction Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins a company and giving him basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work Michael Armstrong

Obiectives of induction
Obiectives of induction: 1.To reduce the initial anxiety all new entrants feel when they join a new job in a new organisation. 2. To familiarize the new employees with the job, people , work-place ,work environment and the organisation. 3.To facilitate outsider insider transition in an intergrated manner. 4.To reduce exploitation by the unscrupulous co-workers. 5.To reduce the cultural shock faced in the new organisation.

Benefits of induction programme


1. A well designed induction programme reduces anxiety, nervousness,absenteesim and employee turnover. 2. Induction helps minimize the reality or cultural shock new employees undergo on joining a new organisation. 3. Effective induction also helps integrate the new employees into the organisation and fosters feeling of belongingness to new organisation. 4. Induction also binds the newcomer and the present employees in a team.

The induction programme may be formal and informal. Informal-unplanned induction programme. *supervisory systemThe immediate job supervisor conducts the induction programme for the new entrants. *buddy or sponsor systemThe immediate supervisor assigns the responsibility of induction of the new entrant to an old employee. Formal-planned programme HR specialists

PHASES OF INDUCTION A carefully designed induction programme consists of the following three phases: 1.General induction 2.Specific induction 3.Follow-up induction

Socialisation
Socialisation is the process of adaptation. Socialisation is the process of adaptation that takes place as individuals attempt to learn the values and norms of work roles. Socialisation is the process of adaptation.

Feldoman
acquisition of work skills and abilities , adoption of appropriate role behaviour and adjustment to the norms and values of the work group.

Phases of socialisation process


1.Pre arrival :Refers to all the learning that occurs before a new member joins the organisation. 2.Encounter :The new member enters the organisation and role playing starts here.The member starts comparing expectations the image of the organisation which he had formed during pre-arrival phase with reality. 3.Metamorphosis : The member- masters the Skills required to adjust with the organisations norms and values. This is a stage going through changes.hence ,this is called metamorphosis stage.

Contents of socialization:
*Preliminary Learning. *Learning about the organisation. *Learning to function in the work group. *Learning how to perform the job. *Personal Learning.

1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

Benefits: Helps in understanding organisation culture. Contributes to employees long-term success. Helps in adjustment Helps in employee engagement. Provides job satisfaction.