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Safety in Scaffolds

What is a Scaffold?

An elevated, temporary work platform.

Elevated Temporary work platform

Supported (Independent) Scaffold

Tower or Mobile Scaffold

Suspended Scaffold

Fixed or travelling Permanent or temporary Manual or powered

Arial / Mobile Access Scaffold

Scaffold Erection
Scaffolds can only be erected, moved, dismantled or altered under the supervision of a competent person Competent person selects & directs these workers and determines the feasibility of fall protection

1. Supported type of Scaffold

Parts of scaffolds facade bracing

Ledger

Standard

Base Plate

Brace (Faade)

Parts of scaffolds ledger bracing


Transom

Bracing (dog-leg or zig-zag ledger)

Standard

Base Plate

Independent Tied Scaffold


Guard rails and toe boards Close boarded platform

Transom Bracing Ledger Standard

Timber sole plate

Facade bracing

Supported Scaffolds
Platforms supported by legs, outrigger beams, brackets, poles, uprights, posts, & frames Restrain from tipping by guys, ties, or braces Scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights must be on base plates and mud sills or other firm foundation

This support is not adequate!

ERECTION OF SCAFFOLDING

RISK ASSESSMENT AND METHOD STATEMENT CERTIFIED AND COMPITENT SCAFFOLDER TASK BRIEFING BEFORE ERECTION ENSUR THAT WORKER IS IN GOOD CONDITION DAMAGED COMPONENTS MUST NOT BE USED BASE PLAT SIZE MUST BE MINIMUM OF 15O MM ( 15X15) LEDGER BRACING MUST B IN 35 TO 45 DEGREE OF ANGLE

ERECTION OF SCAFFOLDING

SCAFFOLDING MUST BE TIED AT EVERY 4 METER VERTICAL AND 6 METER HORIZONTALLY, WHERE THE STRUCTURE IS MORE THAN 4 METER HEIGHT AND 6 METERS LONG. 1 SQMTR BASE DIMENTION CAN ERECT 4 MTR HEIGHT- 1 : 4 PLATFORM WHICH IS MORE THAN 2 MTR OF HEIGHT SHOULD HAVE PROPER EDGE PROTECTION. TOEBOARD MUST HAVE 15 CM OF HIGHT GUARD RAIL GAP MUST BE 45 CM GAP

Unsafe Foundation

Scaffold Foundations

Scaffold legs must be set on base plates & adequate mudsills. There is no base plate & the scrap plywood is not adequate. The scaffold frame could penetrate the plywood.

Never on Masonry!

Scaffolds should never be set on bricks, masonry blocks, etc. These are not structural elements and could crush under the scaffold load.

Scaffold Foundations

Scaffolds must have base plates, even when set on a concrete floor. Also, the lack of a base plate could damage the scaffold leg.

Base plate
The foot or base of any scaffold shall be placed on an adequate base plate to prevent displacement or sinking. Timber sole plates of at least 219mm wide and 25mm thick should be laid for the support of base plates.

Good Foundations

Unsafe access

Improper Access

Scaffold with interior ladders for access

Missing Planks

No guardrails on the open ends of scaffold

We have seen them somewhere

Unsafe Working Platform

Scaffold Platform Construction


No large gaps in front edge of platforms Each abutted end of plank must rest on a separate support surface Overlap platforms at least 12 inches over supports, unless restrained to prevent movement

Planks not properly overlapped

Scaffold Platform Construction



No paint on wood platforms Use scaffold grade wood Fully planked between front upright and guardrail support Component pieces used must match and be of the same type Erect on stable and level ground Lock wheels and braces

Hazards
Employees working on scaffolds are exposed to these hazards: Falls from elevation caused by slipping, unsafe access, and the lack of fall protection Struck by falling tools / debris Electrocution from overhead power lines Scaffold collapse - caused by instability or overloading Bad planking giving way

Simple..but.

Keen look.?

Unsafe condition?......

Men or material?....

Good practice?....

Dont look.

Negligence?............

Fall Hazards
Falls may occur:
While climbing on or off the scaffold

Working on

unguarded scaffold platforms

When scaffold

platforms or planks fail

Protecting Workers from Falls


If a worker on a scaffold is exposed to fall hazard protect him by Guardrails, and/or

Personal Fall Arrest Systems (PFAS)

Install along open sides & ends

Guardrails

Front edge of platforms not more than 14 inches from the work, unless using guardrails and/or PFAS Top rails - 38 to 45 inches tall Midrails halfway between toprail and platform Toeboards at least 3-1/2

Personal Fall Arrest Systems (PFAS)

Workers must be trained how to properly use PFAS PFAS include anchorage, lifeline and body harness.

Overhead Power Lines


The possibility of electrocution is a serious consideration when working near overhead power lines Check the clearance distances listed in the standard

Guardrails
Install along open sides & ends Front edge of platforms not more than 14 inches from the work, unless using guardrails and/or PFAS Top rails - 38 to 45 inches tall Midrails halfway between top rail and platform Toe boards at least 3-1/2

Scaffold Capacity

Must be able to support its own weight and 4 times the maximum intended load. Scaffolds must be designed by a qualified person. They must be built and loaded within design.

Scaffold Collapse

Damaged leg

Competent Persons
All scaffolds must be

erected, moved, Inspected / rectified dismantled or altered only under the supervision of a competent person

Plumb & Level The Scaffold


It all starts in the first bay

If it is set plumb and square, the rest will follow.

Full Guardrails

Mobile Scaffolds
Fully Planked Deck Proper Access

All Frame Bracing Stack Pins Locked Diagonal Brace

Level Surface

Total Height Less than 4 times Base

Quick Scaffold Inspection Checklist


Check for platforms Check for Check for Check for buildings

missing planks on missing guardrails proper access proper tying off to

Note: The first 3 points find 92% of unacceptable scaffolds

Scaffold Height
20 The height of the scaffold should not be more than four times its minimum base dimension unless guys, ties, or braces are used

Employees cant work on a moving scaffold unless: Surface is level Outriggers are installed on both sides of scaffolds Access is secured.

Moving Scaffolds

Employees cant be on scaffold part beyond the wheels Competent person must be on site to supervise Never move the scaffold when someone is there on the top.

Suspension Scaffolds
Platforms suspended by ropes or wires. Rope must be capable of supporting 6 times the load
Train employees to recognize hazards Secure/tie to prevent swaying Support devices must rest on surfaces that can support four times the load Competent person: evaluate connections to ensure the supporting surfaces can support load inspect ropes for defects before shift PFAS must have anchors independent of the scaffold support system

Competent Person
Person capable of identifying and promptly correcting hazards Determines if its safe to work on a scaffold during storms or high winds Trains workers to recognize hazards Selects qualified workers to conduct work

Scaffold Inspection
Competent person inspects scaffolds for visible defects before each shift and after any alterations Defective parts must be immediately repaired

Deformed bearer

Remember to:

Summary

Use appropriate scaffold construction methods Ensure stable access Use a competent person

Erect, move, or alter scaffold properly Protect from falling objects or tools

Train on scaffold construction and the hazards involved with scaffolds Inspect scaffold before each shift and after alterations Determine fall protection requirements