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Air Pollution

ORGANIC AIR POLLUTANTS


Acrylonitrile Benzene Butadiene Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane Formaldehyde Polycycli aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans(PCDDs/PCDFs) Styrene Tetrachloroethylene Toluene Trichlorethylene

INORGANIC AIR POLLUTANTS


Arsenic Asbestos Cadmium Chromium Fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Platinum Vanadium

CLASSICAL AIR POLLUTANTS


Nitrogen dioxide Ozone and other photochemical oxidants Particulate matter Sulfur dioxide

What is air pollution?

contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health Air pollution only occurs outdoors

Sources of Outside Air Pollution

Combustion of gasoline and other hydrocarbon fuels in cars, trucks, and airplanes Burning of fossil fuels (oil, coal, and dinosaur bones) Insecticides Herbicides Everyday radioactive fallouts Dust from fertilizers Mining operations Livestock feedlots

A major form of air pollution is emissions given off by vehicles.

The number of cars in EU has doubled between 1970 and 1994 3% per year

Whats in smog

particulates (especially lead) nitrous oxides potassium Carbon monoxide Other toxic chemicals

Sources of Indoor pollution

Efficient insulation Bacteria Molds and mildews Viruses animal dander and cat saliva plants house dust Mites Cockroaches pollen

Effects on the environment

Acid rain Ozone depletion Global warming In human populationrespiratory problems, allergies, strengthens lugs, and a risk for cancer

Acid rain

contains high levels of sulfuric or nitric acids contaminate drinking water and vegetation damage aquatic life erode buildings Alters the chemical equilibrium of some soils

Strategies

Air Quality Management Plan Development of new technology- electric cars, cleaner fuels, low nitrogen oxide boilers and water healers, zero polluting paints, less polluting BBQ lighter fluids Use of natural gas Carpooling Follow the laws enacted

Urban Emissions
There are small emissions of NOx from industrial processes
The main emissions are from combustion. There is negligible nitrogen in gasoline or diesel fuels so the nitrogen oxides arise from the N2 and O2 in the air. Sulphur dioxides arise from the sulphur present in most fuels. Particulate matter describes matter below 10m aerodynamic diameter.

Role of Engines and Fuel

Different engines and fuel combinations give out different emissions in different quantities.

Some engines have catalysts which effectively remove part of the harmful gases.

Catalytic Converters and Particle Traps

Catalytic converters can be fitted to cars to reduce NOx emissions.


CO + HC + NOx H2O + N2 + CO2
Platinum Honeycomb

Particle traps can be used to reduce PM10 and NOx, but the effectiveness is severely reduced if the fuel the vehicle burns has a high sulphur content. The major target in the battle for cleaner cities is diesel.

STRATEGIE
The Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) approach:

Based on scientific knowledge Using best available, quality-controlled real-world data With close involvement of stakeholders:
Project future emissions and air quality resulting from full implementation of current EU legislation Explore scope and costs for further measures Analyze cost-effective policy scenarios Estimate benefits of policy scenarios

1. 2. 3. 4.

Scope for further technical emission reductions CAFE baseline with climate measures, EU-25
100%
% of 2000 emissions

80%

60%

40%

20%

0% SO2 2000 NOx VOC NH3 PM2.5

CAFE baseline 2020, current legislation

Maximum technical reductions 2020

Main pollutants used in the CAFE assessment

Particulate Matter (PM ) Pollution


- Traffic emissions including diesel engines
- Small combustion sources burnng coal and wood - Reductions of SO2, N0x, NH3 and VOC

Ground level ozone


- VOC control to reduce ozone in cities
- N0x reduction from traffic - Control of N0x emissions from ships

- Methane reduction

Multi-pollutant/multi-effect analysis for identifying cost-effective policy scenarios


RAINS computer model

PM

SO2

NH3

NOx

VOC

Health

Eutrophication

Acidification

Ozone

CAFE policy targets for 2020

La cuisine photochimique : mais cest trs simple !


Une pince de NOx et quelques photons pour faire un peu dozone

NO2 + hn O + O2

NO + O (l < 430 nm) O3

Mais pas trop de NOx ce qui dtruit une partie de l'ozone form, Ni trop de COV ce qui en produit de trop !

O3 + NO NO2 + O2 RO2 + NO

Monitoring of NOX - COV


LES COV
40 BTX automatiques 50 Campagnes COV/an (tubes diffusion, canisters, ) CPG automatiques (31 composs)

LES NOX
505 NO2 automatiques
en sites fixes

Dpassements du seuil dinformation et de recommandation de la population 180g/m3/h t 2003


Nb dvnements de dpassement Dures cumules des dpassements

86 % des sites ont connu au moins 1 dpassement du seuil 180 Dure moyenne des dpassements : 34h par capteur, Principales rgions concernes : Alsace, Centre, Ile de France, PACA, Rhne Alpes Les zones habituellement pargnes du littoral Atlantique ont t touches

Lt 2003 sest galement caractris par des niveaux levs de <NO2 et de particules en raison dune forte activit photochimique
Echantillons darosols prlevs chaque semaine au Pic du Midi (3000m )depuis Juin 2002 (LA, LMTG, LGGE, LSCE)

Et 2002

t 2002

Et 2003 filtres du 1-8 Aot et Du 8-15 Aot Effet canicule ?

Source : C. Liousse et al. 2004 - CNRS

Dpassements du seuil dalerte de la nouvelle directive 2002/3/CE (240g/m3/h ) t 2003


Nb de dpassements du seuil 240/1h Nb de dpassements du seuil 240/3h 13 jours de dpassements

2 jours en juillet : le 10 et le 15 11 jours conscutifs du 2 au 13 aot PACA : 8j Paris :6j Centre, Lorraine : 3j RA : 2j - Alsace , Bretagne, L R : 1j

PRINCIPALES CONCLUSIONS Exceptional ozone pollution in time and space during summer 2003 85 days over the threshold 180/h in 2003

13 days over the threshold 240/h in 2003


strong correlation between day temperature /maximal ozone valuesq corrlation tempratures diurnes/valeurs maximales en ozone

High values of PM10 and NO2


More than 30 millions of person exposed at threshold over

Meteorologic conditions ( high temperatures, no wind, sunny, no cloud) explains this phenomenon

Expected benefits
Emission of road transport sector in Europe
Index 100: Ind ice 191996 95=100
140
120 100 80 60 40

20
0 1990 1995 CO NOx 2000 PM-diesel 2005 COV 2010 Benzne 2015 SO2 CO2 2020

(All sources in France)


-

Expected benefits

43% NOx between 2001 and 2010 - 37% COV between 2001 and 2010
programme

of rduction 2003-2010 (simulations by Prvair) : - duration of exposition to threshold (180g/m3) divided by 5 - exposition to concentrations higher than 120g/m3 divided by 2

Surveillance de la pollution : les rseaux


Les AASQUA (associations agres pour la surveillance de la qualit de lair) bnficient dune dlgation de service public pour : Surveiller de la qualit de lair Prvoir les pisodes de pollution Informer les autorits et les citoyens Evaluer limpact des mesures de rduction des missions

Des structures pluralistes o sont reprsents (4 collges) : LEtat et ses services Les collectivits locales et rgionales Les industriels et entreprises de transport Les associations de dfense de lenvironnement et de la qualit de vie
39 AASQUA trs diffrentes par la taille et les moyens Les outils : Matriel de mesures fixes, itinrantes ou temporaires Modlisation, cartographie.

Surveillance de la pollution : les alertes

La surveillance de la pollution repose encore essentiellement sur la notion de pic de pollution dfini par des seuils et des normes nationales. Les alertes, efficaces dans le cas de la pollution dorigine industrielle, le sont beaucoup moins dans le cas de la pollution photochimique.

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