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PRESENTED BY : BALAJI .

V,
USN 1GC10MSE03 4TH SEM M-TECH

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF : DR.A.R.ANWAR KHAN PROF & HEAD DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG.

INTRODUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY SCOPE OF PRESENT INVESTIGATION EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS CONCLUSION SCOPE FOR FUTURE STUDY

Composite materials are defined as material systems

consisting of mixture or combination of two or more micro


constituents insoluble in each other and differing in form and or

material composition.

Modern Technologies require materials with unusual combination of properties that cannot be met by the conventional metal alloys, Ceramics, and polymeric materials that are needed for aerospace, underwater and transportation applications. For example, aircraft engineers are increasingly searching for structural materials that have low densities, strong, stiff , abrasion, impact resistant and not easily corroded. Some of the properties that can be improved by forming a composite material are Strength, Stiffness, Corrosion and wear resistance, Weight Reduction, Fatigue life, Temperature dependent behavior, Thermal properties, Electrical properties.

Composite Material consists of

1. Matrix binder
Matrix is a material, which binds the filler and holds it. Any solid can be processed so as to embed and adherently grip a reinforcing phase in a potential matrix material. Ex: Polymer Matrix, Ceramic Matrix, Metal Matrix

2. Reinforcing filler
Reinforcing constituents in composites, as the word indicates, provide the strength that makes the composite what it is. But they also serve certain

additional purposes of heat resistance or conduction, resistance to corrosion


and provide rigidity. Ex: Fibers, Whiskers, Platelets and Flakes, Particulate

1. Fiber Reinforced Composites:


Fiber Reinforced Composites are composed of fibers embedded in matrix material. Such a composite is considered to be a discontinuous fiber or short fiber composite if its properties vary with fiber length.

2. Laminar Reinforced Composites:


Laminar Composites are composed of layers of materials held together by matrix. They can be described as materials comprising of layers of materials bonded together. These may be of several layers of two or more metal materials occurring alternately or in a determined order more than once, and in as many numbers as required for a specific purpose. Sandwich structures fall under this category.

3. Particulate Reinforced Composites:


Particulate Composites are composed of particles distributed or embedded in a matrix body. The particles may be flakes or in powder form. Concrete and wood particle boards are examples of this category.

Aerospace and Defence MMCs based on Al and Ti matrix are currently being used / evaluated for a variety of engine components. One of the successful application is Al MMC Fan Exit Vane (FEGV) in the gas turbine. Al 6061 MMCs are used for End closure, Nozzle retainer and Engine body tube in the Tempest sounding Rocket.

Automotive Applications Brake Discs / brake Drums Substitution of cast iron brake discs by Al MMC brake discs (in cars and railways) will increase vehicle dynamics and acceleration. Benefits occurred include 50% weight savings in braking system, less noise, superior thermal dissipation, improved mileage and improved life cycle economy
Cylinder liners Al MMC liners reinforced with a mixture of Al2O3 particles and graphite and integrally cast have been developed by Honda Motor Company of Japan. Engine block with Al MMC liners weighs only 50% of cast iron block, has also improved efficiency and wears resistance. Contd.

Push Rods Similarly, automotive push rods of AL MMCs have been developed for racing cars engines. These push rods weigh only 40% of their steel counter parts, and stronger and stiffer.

In addition to the above applications, MMCs are used in tennis rackets, skis and golf clubs, bicycle frames and yacht masts.

High resistance to fatigue and corrosion degradation. High strength or stiffness to weight ratio. Due to greater reliability, there are fewer inspections and structural repairs. Improved dent resistance is normally achieved. Composite panels do not sustain damage as easily as thin gage sheet metals. High resistance to impact damage. Composites are dimensionally stable i.e. they have low thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion. Manufacture and assembly are simplified because of part integration (joint/fasten reduction) thereby reducing cost. The improved weatherability of composites in a marine environment as well as their corrosion resistance and durability reduce the down time for maintenance. Close tolerances can be achieved without machining. Excellent heat sink properties of composites. Improved friction and wear properties.

High cost of raw materials and fabrication. Composites are more brittle than wrought metals and thus are more easily damaged. Transverse properties may be weak. Matrix is weak, therefore, low toughness. Reuse and disposal may be difficult. Poor public acceptance.

Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earths crust. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth's solid surface. Aluminium metal is too reactive chemically to occur natively. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium is remarkable for the metal's low density and for its ability to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon of passivation.

Density

2.7 g.cm-3 at 20C

Melting Point

660.4C

Boiling Point

2647C

A silvery and ductile member of the poor metal group of elements, aluminium is found primarily as the ore bauxite and is remarkable for its resistance to oxidation. In automobiles of all modern mirrors are made using a thin reflective coating of aluminium on the back surface of a sheet of float glass. Telescope mirrors are also coated with a thin layer of aluminium. The other applications are like electrical transmission lines, and packaging (cans, foil, etc.).

Kyanite is an alumino silicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5 whose name derives from the Greek word kuanos sometimes referred to as "kyanos", meaning deep blue, is a typically blue silicate mineral, commonly found in aluminium-rich metamorphic pegmatites and/or sedimentary rock.

Properties
Density Melting point 3.53 3.67gm/cm3 1350C it converts into mullite and free silica Mullite imparts highly desirable refractory properties of great strength and is stable upto 1810C

Solublility

Soluble in water at 700C

Kyanite is used to manufacture a wide range of products. An important use is in the manufacture of refractory products such as the bricks, mortars and kiln furniture used in high temperature furnaces. For foundries, the molds that are used for casting high temperature metals are often made with kyanite. Kyanite is also in products used in the automotive and railroad industries where heat resistance is important. Contd..

Mullite, a form of calcined kyanite, is used to make brake shoes and clutch facings. Use in High Refractory Strength Porcelain Kyanite has properties that make it exceptionally well suited for the manufacture of a high refractorystrength porcelain - a porcelain that holds its strength at very high temperatures. A familiar use of this type of porcelain is the white porcelain insulator on a spark plug.

Fig : The porcelain insulator on this spark plug was made with kyanite. Contd..

Use in Abrasive Products Kyanite's heat resistance and hardness makes it an excellent material for use in the manufacture of grinding wheels and cutting wheels. It is not used as the primary abrasive, instead it is used as part of the binding agent that holds the abrasive particles together in the shape of a wheel.

Fig: Kyanite is used as a heat resistant binding medium in cutting tools and grinding wheels.

Previously many composite products combining different types of matrix and reinforcements were prepared and found various properties . Some of them are : Al, Al 3XXX series, Al 6XXX series, Al 7XXX series, Cu, titanium, Mg etc. as matrices and Zircon, Silicon carbide, Graphite, alumina etc. as Reinforcements The composite parts of above combinations are produced by keeping aim to improve mechanical properties, weight loss, corrosion resistance of the parts. The present investigation is aimed at studying the mechanical and wear behaviuor of cast aluminium kyanite composites.

Kyanite has been chosen as the reinforcement as it posses high melting-point and excellent refractory properties. As the kyanite is used in high temperature applications such as porcelain insulator on the spark plug, in the manufacture of refractory products such as the bricks, mortars and kiln furniture used in high temperature furnaces, it can resist thermal distortion. The combination of aluminium kyanite composites is chosen to prepare the parts to improve mechanical properties, weight loss, corrosion resistance along with resistance to thermal distortion. This replaces the parts that fails because of high temperature applications such as Aluminium heat exchanger, aluminium capacitors, aluminium pans, heat sinks, wires etc.

Cast aluminium and kyanite composites have been produced by liquid metallurgy route which is a very popular technique owing to its economy and versatility coupled with large-scale production. The extent of incorporation of kyanite (Al2SiO5) in the matrix alloy has been tried out from base matrix, 3%, 5% and 7%. Microstructure studies, hardness, tensile tests, SEM study, wear test, corrosion test have conducted on the base matrix and composites.

Aluminium

Kyanite

Coal Fired Pit Furnace

Castings by Vortex method

Metallic mould

Composites prepared with varied percentage as 3%, 5% & 7% of Kyanite

Characterization

Microstructure

Hardness

Tensile test

Wear test

Corrosion test

SEM Study

Matrix Material :
Aluminium was used as matrix material owing to its excellent mechanical properties coupled with good formability and its wide applications in industrial sector.

Fig. Aluminium plates

The material was procured from M/s Jyothi Foundaries, Bangalore in the form of Plates at Rs 135/kg.
Elements % (Max) Si 0.15 Fe 0.15 Cu 0.03 Mn 0.02 Mg 0.02 Zn 0.03 Ti 0.03 V 0.05

Table 5.1 Chemical composition of Aluminium

Reinforcement :
Kyanite(Al2SiO5) was chosen as reinforcement owing to its high melting-point and excellent refractory properties.

Fig: Kyanite powder

Kyanite powder of particle size 16 - 30m procured from Navbhan Exporters, Bangalore at Rs 10/kg have been used in the present work.
Elements wt % Al2O3 50.0 - 55.0 SiO2 39.0 - 45.0 TiO2 0.5- 0.6 Fe2O3 0.80 -1.75

Table : Chemical composition of Kyanite

Crucible Furnace :

Crucible furnaces are small capacity typically used for small melting applications. Crucible furnace is suitable for the batch type foundries where the metal requirement is intermittent. The metal is placed in a crucible which is made of clay and graphite. The energy is applied indirectly to the metal by heating the crucible by coke, oil or gas. The heating of crucible is done by coke, oil or gas.

Coke-Fired Furnace.

Primarily used for non-ferrous metals Furnace is of a cylindrical shape Also known as pit furnace Preparation involves: first to make a deep bed of coke in the furnace Burn the coke till it attains the state of maximum combustion Insert the crucible in the coke bed Remove the crucible when the melt reaches to desired temperature

Fig. Coke-Fired Furnace.

The method adopted for preparation of composite was liquid metallurgy route. The matrix aluminium was heated and melted in a graphite crucible using an coke fired pit furnace. The maximum temperature limit is 20000C. Degassing is achieved by Hexachloroethane tablet which were immersed into molten metal before stirring. Coverall powder will be used to avoid oxidation. Ceramic coated impeller was immersed gently into the molten metal bath and rotated at a speed of 250 to 300 rpm to create the vortex. Pre heated kyanite Al2SiO5 was added slowly in the vortex of molten metal.

In order to get uniform distribution of Al2SiO5 particles, the composites was stirred continuously for duration of 10 minutes. The composites melt was then poured into preheated metal mould (Fig. 5.5) using ladle.

Fig. Metallic Moulds

Fig. Cast Composite Specimens

Al and its composites with reinforcement of 3%, 5% and 7% by weight is added and the specimens of 28mm diameter and 200mm long have been successfully casted.

Micro-Structure Hardness Tensile test Wear test Corrosion test SEM study on fractured tensile specimens

Fig. Metallurgical Microscope

The microstructure of specimen has been tested in Metallurgical Microscope, NIKON Japan, Model ECLIPSE LV 150.

A tensile test, also known as tension test, is probably the most fundamental type of mechanical test we can perform on material. For conducting tensile test , Computerized Universal Testing Machine TUE - 400 ( C ) has been used. The specimen are prepared as per ASTM E8M.

Fig.: Computerized Universal Testing Machines

Hardness may be defined as Resistance to permanent indentation/deformation under static/dynamic loads. But, hardness has a many definitions depending upon the experience of persons, for mineralogists is a resistance to scratch, for machinist is a resistance to cut, for lubricant engineer is a resistance to wear/abrasion etc. METHOD OF HARDNESS TESTING: Indentation Method : Is an most widely accepted and standardized method of hardness testing, in this method a steel ball indenter or a diamond pyramid indenter is used for indenting the surface at a load of 500-3000 kgs. The hardness test is performed on MRB 250 Brinell Hardness Tester.

The definition of wear may include loss of dimension from plastic deformation which is originated at the interface between two sliding surfaces. The wear test is performed on Pin On Disc Tester TR-20LE.

Fig. Pin On Disc Tester

Corrosion is the gradual destruction of material, usually metals, by chemical reaction with its environment. The corrosion test was carried out using static immersion weight loss method as per ASTM G69-80 test standards. The specimens were machined into standard discs of 20 mm diameter and 20 mm height. Before testing, the specimens surfaces were ground with silicon carbide paper of 1000 grit size and polished in steps of 1.5 to 3 m diamond paste to obtain a mirror surface finish. After subsequent rinsing with water and acetone and after drying thoroughly the specimens were weighed accurately to fourth decimal place before starting the test by weight loss method. The procedure adopted for measuring the corrosion rate is as described below. The polishing procedures as per ASTM standards were carried out for unreinforced and 3%, 5% and 7% kyanite reinforced composites and the uniform dispersion of particles was studied.

The corrodants used were different concentrations of NaCl, equimolar solution of NaCl and natural sea water. The corrosion tests were conducted using conventional weight loss method on all types of specimens and the exposure time was varied from 24 to 96 hours, in steps of 24 hours. The cradles containing the weighed specimens were kept inside the flask containing the corrodant. A ratio of 50 ml to 1 mm2 of surface area was maintained according to ASTM standards. To minimize the contamination of the aqueous solution and loss due to evaporation, the flasks were covered with paraffin during the entire test period. After the corrosion test, the specimens were immersed in acetone solution for 10 minutes and gently cleaned with a soft brush to remove adhered scales. After drying thoroughly, the specimens were reweighed to determine the percentage weight loss, weight loss per unit area of exposure and corrosion rate in mpy. Corrosion rate was calculated using the formula, Corrosion rate = 534 W/AT mpy,
where W is the weight loss in grams, is density of the specimen (g cm-3), A is the area of the specimen (inch) and T is the exposure time in hours.

The scanning electron microscope (SEM) uses a focused beam of highenergy electrons to generate a variety of signals at the surface of solid specimens. The signals that derive from electron-sample interactions reveal information about the sample including external morphology (texture), chemical composition, and crystalline structure and orientation of materials making up the sample.

The fractured tensile specimens is captured on JEOL JSM-840A Scanning Electron Microscope.

SAMPLE 1
Diameter Length Breaking Yield Stress Stress d (mm) l (mm) (MPa)
(MPa)

COMPOSITION : Aluminium + 0% Kyanite


HARDNESS TEST
Elongation (%) 8.45
Sample Hardness(HBW)

TENSILE TEST
Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa) 83.68

62.5

12.53

48.66

68.76

44.2

WEAR TEST
Load 2 Kg ( 19.62 N) 900 Sec 4 Kg ( 39.24N) 389 Sec 6 Kg ( 58.86 N) 335 Sec

CO-EFFICIENT OF FRICTION
Load 2 Kg ( 19.62 N) 4 Kg ( 39.24N) 6 Kg ( 58.86 N)

Wear (m)

94

1999

1740

Co-efficient of Friction

0.41

0.81

0.735

MICROSTRUCTURE

SEM PHOTOGRAPH

CORROSIONTEST
Time in Hour
24 48 72 96

Corrosion Rate (mpy)


0.0148 0.0088

0.0046
0.0045

SAMPLE 2
Diameter Length Breaking Yield Stress Stress d (mm) l (mm) (MPa)
(MPa)

COMPOSITION : Aluminium + 3% Kyanite


HARDNESS TEST
Elongation (%) 8.75
Sample Hardness(HBW)

TENSILE TEST
Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa) 80.95

62.5

12.49

73.45

73.45

43.6

WEAR TEST
Load 2 Kg ( 19.62 N) 900 Sec 4 Kg ( 39.24N) 389 Sec 6 Kg ( 58.86 N) 335 Sec

CO-EFFICIENT OF FRICTION
Load 2 Kg ( 19.62 N) 4 Kg ( 39.24N) 6 Kg ( 58.86 N)

Wear (m)

89

1322

305

Co-efficient of Friction

0.43

0.9

0.48

MICROSTRUCTURE

SEM PHOTOGRAPH

CORROSIONTEST
Time in Hour
24 48

Corrosion Rate (mpy)


0.0136 0.0086

72
96

0.0044 0.0042

SAMPLE 3
Diameter Length Breaking Yield Stress Stress d (mm) l (mm) (MPa)
(MPa)

COMPOSITION : Aluminium + 5% Kyanite


HARDNESS TEST
Elongation (%) 13.71
Sample Hardness(HBW)

TENSILE TEST
Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa) 98.27

62.5

12.51

53.04

83.95

41.8

WEAR TEST
Load 2 Kg ( 19.62 N) 900 Sec 4 Kg ( 39.24N) 389 Sec 6 Kg ( 58.86 N) 335 Sec

CO-EFFICIENT OF FRICTION
Load 2 Kg ( 19.62 N) 4 Kg ( 39.24N) 6 Kg ( 58.86 N)

Wear (m)

112

875

1240

Co-efficient of Friction

0.37

0.34

0.27

MICROSTRUCTURE

SEM PHOTOGRAPH

CORROSIONTEST
Time in Hour
24 48

Corrosion Rate (mpy)


0.0113 0.0058

72
96

0.0041 0.0034

SAMPLE 4
Diameter Length Breaking Yield Stress Stress d (mm) l (mm) (MPa)
(MPa)

COMPOSITION : Aluminium + 7% Kyanite


HARDNESS TEST
Elongation (%) 19.7
Sample Hardness(HBW)

TENSILE TEST
Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa) 100.04

62.5

12.46

53.8

83.97

43.4

WEAR TEST
Load 2 Kg ( 19.62 N) 900 Sec 4 Kg ( 39.24N) 389 Sec 6 Kg ( 58.86 N) 335 Sec

CO-EFFICIENT OF FRICTION
Load 2 Kg ( 19.62 N) 4 Kg ( 39.24N) 6 Kg ( 58.86 N)

Wear (m)

73

914

1929

Co-efficient of Friction

0.42

0.7

1.03

MICROSTRUCTURE

SEM PHOTOGRAPH

CORROSIONTEST
Time in Hour
24 48

Corrosion Rate (mpy)


0.0093 0.0052

72
96

0.0038 0.0029

Average Hardness Specimen Sample 1 Composites Base Matrix (HBW) 44.2

Sample 2
Sample 3 Sample 4

3% Kyanite
5% Kyanite 7% Kyanite

43.6
41.8 43.4

From the figure & table it is observed that sample 2, 3 & 4 are having less hardness of 1 to 3% when compared with Base matrix. There is a good reason for this phenomenon, since kyanite being a soft dispersoid, it does not contribute positively to the hardness of the composite. Such a monotonic decrease in the hardness of the composite as kyanite content is increased poses a limit to how much kyanite may be added to enhance its other mechanical properties. Since hardness is directly related to wear resistance, a compromise is necessary when deciding how much kyanite should be added to enhance the ductility, UTS, compressive strength, and Young's modulus of the composite without sacrificing too much of its hardness.

Breaking Stress Specimen Sample 1 Composites Base Matrix (MPa) 48.66

Sample 2
Sample 3 Sample 4

3% Kyanite
5% Kyanite 7% Kyanite

73.45
53.04 53.8

From the figure & table it is observed that sample 2 requires more load to break the specimen. This is due to the presence of less % of Kyanite & also has very low hardness. Increased content of reinforcement results in enhanced breaking load of composites for a given reinforcement content. Composites with kyanite reinforcement possess higher breaking load when compared with base matrix. Al - 3% kyanite composite posses a higher breaking stress of 34% when compared with Base matrix.

Specimen Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4

Composites Base Matrix 3% Kyanite 5% Kyanite 7% Kyanite

Yield Stress (MPa) 68.76 73.45 83.95 83.97

From the figure & table it is observed that sample 3 & 4 requires more load to yield the specimen. Increased content of reinforcement results in enhanced yield load of composites for a given reinforcement content. Composites with kyanite reinforcement possess higher yielding load when compared with base matrix. Al with 5% & 7% kyanite composite posses a higher yielding stress of 18% when compared with Base matrix.

Ultimate Tensile Specimen Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Composites Strength (MPa) Base Matrix 3% Kyanite 5% Kyanite 7% Kyanite 83.68 80.95 98.27 100.04

From the figure & table it is observed that sample 3 & 4 are having more tensile strength. Increased content of reinforcement results in enhanced tensile strength of composites for a given reinforcement content. Composites with kyanite reinforcement possess higher tensile strength except sample 2 when compared with base matrix. Al with 7% kyanite composite posses a higher tensile strength of 16% when compared with Base matrix.

Specimen Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4

Composites Base Matrix 3% Kyanite 5% Kyanite 7% Kyanite

Elongation (%) 8.45 8.75 13.71 19.7

From the figure & table it is observed that sample 4 are having more Elongation. Increased content of reinforcement results in enhanced elongation of specimen for a given reinforcement content. Al with 7% kyanite composite posses a higher elongation of 11% when compared with Base matrix.

Wear test under 2 kg (19.62N) load (Time 900 Sec, Speed 600 rpm, Track dia 80mm)
Specimen Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Composites Base Matrix 3% Kyanite 5% Kyanite 7% Kyanite Wear (m) 94 89 112 73

From the figure & table it is observed that sample 2 & 4 are having less wear. Increased content of reinforcement results in enhanced resistance to wear of composites for a given reinforcement content. Composites with kyanite reinforcement possess higher wear resistance except in sample 3 when compared with base matrix. Al with 7% kyanite composite posses a higher wear resistance of 22% under 2 kg load when compared with Base matrix.

Wear test under 4 kg (39.24N) load (Time 389 Sec, Speed 600 rpm, Track dia 80mm)
Specimen Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Composites Base Matrix 3% Kyanite 5% Kyanite 7% Kyanite Wear (m) 1999 1322 875 914

From the figure & table it is observed that sample 2, 3 & 4 are having less wear when compared to base matrix. Increased content of reinforcement results in enhanced resistance to wear of composites for a given reinforcement content under 4 kg load. Composites with kyanite reinforcement possess higher wear resistance when compared with base matrix. Al with 5% kyanite composite posses a higher wear resistance of 56% under 4 kg load when compared with Base matrix.

Wear test under 6 kg (58.86N) load (Time 335 Sec, Speed 600 rpm, Track dia 80mm)
Specimen Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Composites Base Matrix 3% Kyanite 5% Kyanite 7% Kyanite Wear (m) 1740 305 1240 1929

From the figure & table it is observed that sample 2 & 5 are having less wear. Increased content of reinforcement results in enhanced resistance to wear of composites for a given reinforcement content. Composites with kyanite reinforcement possess higher wear resistance except in sample 4 when compared with base matrix. Al with 3% kyanite composite posses a higher wear resistance of 82% under 6 kg load when compared with Base matrix.

Co-efficient of Friction under 2 kg (19.62N) load (Time 900 Sec, Speed 600 rpm, Track dia 80mm)
Specimen Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Composites Base Matrix 3% Kyanite 5% Kyanite 7% Kyanite Co-efficient of Friction 0.41 0.43 0.37 0.42

It can be seen that, Specimen 2 showed much higher coefficient of friction 0.43. Specimen 3 showed lower coefficient of friction 0.37. In dry sliding the reason for the decreased coefficient of friction of Al- Al2SiO5 composites as compared with the base alloy is attributable to the presence of the smeared kyanite layer at the sliding surface which acts as the solid lubricant. With increasing kyanite content the thickness of the lubricating film and the amount of kyanite in the lubricating film also increases. This results in lowering the coefficient of friction in the composites. But the coefficient of friction is high in specimen 2 and 4. This is because the amount of kyanite presence

Co-efficient of Friction under 4 kg (39.24N) load (Time 389 Sec, Speed 600 rpm, Track dia 80mm)
Specimen Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Composites Base Matrix 3% Kyanite 5% Kyanite 7% Kyanite Co-efficient of Friction 0.81 0.9 0.34 0.7

Fig. shows the relationship between Co-efficient of Friction and % of Al2SiO5 addition under 4 kg load. It can be seen that, Specimen 2 showed much higher coefficient of friction 0.9. Specimen 3 showed lower coefficient of friction 0.34.

Co-efficient of Friction under 6 kg (58.86N) load (Time 335 Sec, Speed 600 rpm, Track dia 80mm)
Specimen Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Composites Base Matrix 3% Kyanite 5% Kyanite 7% Kyanite Co-efficient of Friction 0.735 0.48 0.27 1.03

Fig. shows the relationship between Co-efficient of Friction and % of Al2SiO5 addition under 6 kg load. It can be seen that, Specimen 4 showed much higher coefficient of friction 1.03. Specimen 3 showed lower coefficient of friction 0.27.

Corrosion rate values in 3.5 % NaCl for different percentage of Kyanite with varying exposure time
Corrosion rate, mpy % Kyanite for reinforceme nt Time in Hour 24 48 72 96 0.016 0.014 0.012 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0 24 48 72 96 Exposure time in hour

0%

3%

5%

7%

0.0148 0.0088 0.0046 0.0045

Corrosion Rate (mpy) 0.0136 0.0113 0.0086 0.0044 0.0042 0.0058 0.0041 0.0034

0.0093 0.0052 0.0038 0.0029

0 3 5 7

After immersing in 3.5 % NaCl solution for 96 h, the mass loss of all samples is so slight that it can be almost ignored. After being immersed in 3.5% NaCl solutions for 96 h, the mass losses of base matrix and Al2SiO5 addition are shown in Fig.6.26. The mass loss of base matrix in 3.5% NaCl solution is 0.0045 mpy but that of 7% Al2SiO5 addition is only 0.0029 mpy, which indicates the better corrosion resistance of composites in comparison with base matrix. The immersion corrosion results confirm the above discussed effects of different percentage of Kyanite on corrosion resistance and shows obvious differences in corrosion performance of base matrix and composites.

Al Al2SiO5 composites have been successfully prepared by liquid metallurgy route. Up to 7wt% - Al2SiO5 has been successfully dispersed in the matrix. This study was to observe the effects of kyanite particulates reinforcement for the fracture of aluminium metal matrix composite. Microstructure studies reveal fairly uniform distribution of Al2SiO5 particles in the matrix with a good bonding between the matrix and the reinforcement. There is a significant increase in breaking stress with the increase of percentage weight of reinforcement. There is a significant increase in yield stress with the increase of percentage weight of reinforcement. Increase of reinforcement percentage posses increase in ultimate tensile strength except in Al- 3% Al2SiO5 composites.

Increase of reinforcement percentage posses increase in percentage elongation of specimen. Hardness does not improved satisfactorily and this attribute is due to the property that kyanite minerals hardness varies in different directions. Al- Al2SiO5 composites provides better resistance for thermal properties as the kyanite is used for higher thermal applications such as spark plug, lining in refractories of furnaces etc. Al- Al2SiO5 composites fabrication is much cheaper compared to other composites as the cost of kyanite is Rs 10/kg. The tensile fracture surface was rough and covered with a healthy population of voids of varying size, dimples of varying size and shape, and isolated pockets of fine microscopic cracks.

A compromise is necessary when deciding how much kyanite should be added to enhance the mechanical properties of the composite without sacrificing too much of its hardness and hence its wear resistance. Dry sliding wear of Al- Al2SiO5 particulate composite was found to decrease with kyanite content and touched a minimum wear rate. The coefficient of friction of Al- Al2SiO5 composite was also found to decrease with addition of 5wt% kyanite particles and recorded a 2 times lower value than the base matrix at 4 kg and 6 kg . In NaOH and NaCl solutions, Al- Al2SiO5 composite exhibits improved corrosion resistance in comparison with base matrix.

Hot worked (i.e., hot pressed) and mechanically processed (i.e., by secondary mechanical working like rolling, drawing, extrusion, etc) materials will definitely yield better results. Fabrication of aluminium kyanite MMCs with finer and higher percentage of reinforcements provide much improved properties. Alloys of aluminium like 6061. 7075, 8090, 2024, 7001 and 8091 can be used as the matrix materials with traces of kyanite sillimanite, alumina, and beryllium for crystal refinement. Percentage of alumina and silicon-di-oxide in kyanite may be varied and fabricated to obtain much better results.

Percentage of alumina and silicon-di-oxide other polymorphs of aluminasilicate like sillimanite, andalusite may be tried.