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Chapter 8
Qualitative Research

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Learning Objectives
Understand . . . how qualitative methodologies differ from quantitative methodologies the controversy surrounding qualitative research the types of decisions that use qualitative methodologies the different qualitative research methodologies

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The Importance of Qualitative Research

Most of what influences what we say and do occurs below the level of awareness. Thats why we need new techniques: to get at hidden knowledge to get at what people dont know they know. Jerry Zaltman

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Qualitative Research in the Research Process

Data Collection

Data Analysis

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Qualitative Research
Group Interviews Observation Focus Groups

Ethnography

Data Collection Techniques

IDIs

Case Studies

Action Research

Grounded Theory

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Why we use qualitative research


Polls and focus groups do a good job on issues where people have made up their minds, but there are a number of gridlock issues laden with complex trade-offs that people havent thought out.
Daniel Yankelovich Creator of Yankelovich Monitor and ViewPoint Learning

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Qualitative Research
Content Analysis Artifacts Behavioral Observations

Trace Evidence

Other Techniques
Debriefings

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Uses of Qualitative Research for Business


Market Segmentation Advertising Concept Development New Product Development Sales Analysis Sales Development Productivity Enhancement Benefits Management Package Design Brand Image Positioning Retail Design Process Understanding

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Data Sources
People Organizations Texts
Environments Artifacts/ media products

Events and happenings

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The Roots of Qualitative Research


Qualitative Research Economics

Psychology

Sociology
Semiotics

Anthropology

Communication

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Distinction between Qualitative & Quantitative

Theory Building

Theory Testing

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Exhibit 8-2 Focus of Research


Qualitative Understanding Interpretation Quantitative Description Explanation

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Exhibit 8-2 Researcher Involvement


Qualitative High Participation-based Quantitative Limited Controlled

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Exhibit 8-2 Sample Design and Size


Qualitative Non-probability Purposive Small sample Quantitative Probability Large sample

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Exhibit 8-2 Research Design


Qualitative Longitudinal Multi-method

Quantitative Cross-sectional or longitudinal Single method

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Exhibit 8-2 Data Type and Preparation


Qualitative Verbal or pictorial Reduced to verbal codes Quantitative Verbal descriptions Reduced to numeric codes

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Exhibit 8-2 Data Analysis


Qualitative Nonquantitative; human Judgment mixed with fact Emphasis on themes Quantitative Computerized analysis Facts distinguished Emphasis on counts

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Exhibit 8-2 Turnaround


Qualitative Shorter turnaround possible Insight development ongoing
Quantitative May be time-consuming Insight development follows data entry

Exhibit 8-3 Qualitative Research and the Research Process

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Pretasking Activities
Use product in home Bring visual stimuli Create collage Keep diaries Draw pictures

Construct a story

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Exhibit 8-4 Formulating the Qualitative Research Question

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Choosing a Qualitative Method


Projects purpose

Researcher characteristics

Schedule

Factors
Types of participants
Topics Budget

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NonProbability Sampling

Purposive Sampling

Snowball Sampling

Convenience Sampling

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Qualitative Sampling

General sampling rule:


You should keep conducting interviews until no new insights are gained.

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Exhibit 8-6 The Interview Question Hierarchy

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Interviewer Responsibilities
Recommends topics and questions Controls interview Plans location and facilities Proposes criteria for drawing sample Writes screener Recruits participants Develops pretasking activities Prepares research tools Supervises transcription Helps analyze data Draws insights Writes report

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Exhibit 8-7 Whats Included in a Recruitment Screener?


Heading Screening requirements Identity information Introduction Security questions Demographic questions Product/ brand usage/ purchase questions Lifestyle questions Attitudinal and knowledge questions Articulation and creative questions Offer/ Termination

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Interview Formats

Unstructured
Semi-structured Structured

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Requirements for Unstructured Interviews


Developed dialog

Probe for answers

Distinctions

Interviewer creativity

Interviewer skill

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The Interview Mode

Individual

Group

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Exhibit 8-5 IDI vs Group


Individual Interview
Research Objective Explore life of individual in depth Create case histories through repeated interviews over time Test a survey Topic Concerns Detailed individual experiences, choices, biographies Sensitive issues that might provoke anxiety Participants Time-pressed participants or those difficult to recruit (e.g., elite or high-status participants) Participants with sufficient language skills (e.g., those older than seven) Participants whose distinctions would inhibit participation

Group Interview
Orient the researcher to a field of inquiry and the language of the field Explore a range of attitudes, opinions, and behaviors Observe a process of consensus and disagreement Issues of public interest or common concern Issues where little is known or of a hypothetical nature Participants whose backgrounds are similar or not so dissimilar as to generate conflict or discomfort Participants who can articulate their ideas Participants who offer a range of positions on issues

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Exhibit 8-8 Types of Research using IDIs


Oral histories

Sequential interviewing

Life histories

Types
Cultural interviews
Ethnography

Critical incident techniques

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Projective Techniques
Laddering Association

Semantic Mapping

Sensory sorts

Data Collection Techniques

Sentence Completion

Cartoons

Component Sorts

Imagination Exercises

Thematic Apperception

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Group Interviews
Dyads Triads Mini-Groups Small Groups (Focus Group) Supergroups

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Determining the Number of Groups


Scope Number of distinct segments
Desired number of ideas Desired level of detail Level of distinction Homogeneity

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Group Interview Modes


Face-to-Face Telephone

Online
Videoconference

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Combining Qualitative Methodologies

Case Study

Action Research

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Merging Qualitative and Quantitative

Conduct studies simultaneously Perform series: Qualitative, Quantitative, Qualitative

Ongoing qualitative with multiple waves of quantitative Quantitative precedes Qualitative

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Dynamic Survey wins AMA EXPLOR Award

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Key Terms
Action research Case study CAPI Content analysis Creativity session Ethnography Focus groups Group interview IDI
Convergent interviewing Critical incident technique Cultural interviews Grounded theory Life histories Oral history Sequential interviewing

Interview

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Key Terms (cont.)


Interview guide Moderator Non-probability sampling Pretasking Probability sampling Projective techniques
Cartoons Component sorts Imagination exercises Laddering Semantic mapping Brand mapping Sensory sorts Sentence completion Thematic Apperception Test Word or picture association

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Key Terms
Qualitative research Quantitative research Recruitment screener Triangulation