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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S
E L E V E N T H E D I T I O N
W W W . P R E N H A L L . C O M / R O B B I N S

2005 Prentice Hall Inc.
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PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook


Chapter 3
Values, Attitudes, and
Job Satisfaction
After studying this chapter,
you should be able to:
1. Contrast terminal and instrumental values.
2. List the dominant values in todays workforce.
3. Identify the five value dimensions of national
culture.
4. Contrast the three components of an attitude.
5. Summarize the relationship between attitudes
and behavior.
6. Identify the role consistency plays in attitudes.
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After studying this chapter,
you should be able to:
7. State the relationship between job
satisfaction and behavior.
8. Identify four employee responses to
dissatisfaction.
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Values
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Values
Basic convictions that a specific
mode of conduct or end-state of
existence is personally or socially
preferable to an opposite or
converse mode of conduct or
end-state of existence.
Value System
A hierarchy based on a ranking of
an individuals values in terms of
their intensity.
Importance of Values
Provide understanding of the attitudes,
motivation, and behaviors of individuals
and cultures.
Influence our perception of the world
around us.
Represent interpretations of right and
wrong.
Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are
preferred over others.
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Types of Values at workplace
Milton Rokeach Value Survey (1973)
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Terminal Values (What do I want
to achieve?)
Preferred end-states of existence;
the goals that a person would like to
achieve during his or her lifetime.
Instrumental Values (How do I
want to achieve it?)
Preferable modes of
conduct/behavior or means of
achieving ones terminal values.
Values in the
Rokeach
Survey
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E X H I B I T 31
Source: M. Rokeach,
The Nature of Human
Values (New York: The
Free Press, 1973).
Values in the
Rokeach
Survey
(contd)
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E X H I B I T 31 (contd)
Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of
Human Values (New York: The Free
Press, 1973).
Mean Value Rankings of
Executives, Union Members,
and Activists
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E X H I B I T 32
Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, The Values
of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical
Description and Normative Implications, in W. C. Frederick
and L. E. Preston (eds.) Business Ethics: Research Issues
and Empirical Studies (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp.
12344.
Compulsory Readings
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Greenwood, R. A. and Murphy, Jr., E. F. (2008) An
Investigation of Generational Values in the
Workplace: Divergence, Convergence, and
Implications for Leadership, International
Leadership Journal

<available at \\Fileserver\Shahnawaz Adil\OB\Compulsory
Readings\Terminal and Instrumental values... (go to page 58).pdf>


Worksheet:
Dominant Work Values in Todays Workforce
w.r.t. Pakistan
310
Cohort
Entered the
workforce
Approximate
current age
Dominant Work Values
Senior
Citizens
1950s or
early 1960s
60+
Hard-working; least technology-oriented;
conservative; prefer to work in isolation with
own hands; conforming (i.e. meeting the
requirements); disciplined; long-term
commitment (i.e. loyalty) with the firm
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Organizational Stakeholders
Hofstedes Framework for Assessing
Cultures
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Power Distance
The extent to which a society accepts that
power in institutions and organizations is
distributed unequally.
low distance: relatively equal distribution
high distance: extremely unequal distribution
Compulsory Readings
\\Fileserver\Shahnawaz Adil\OB\Compulsory Readings\1. Geert Hofstede -
National cultures in 4 dimensions.pdf
PD in detail
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A power distance index (PDI) has been composed of the country scores on
the following three questionnaire items, which are inter-correlated with
coefficients between 0.54 and 0.67 {see also Hofstede, 1977, 1979a).

(1) the percentage of subordinates who perceive that their boss makes his
decisions in an autocratic or paternalistic (persuasive) way;
(2) subordinates' perceptions that employees in general (their colleagues)
are afraid to disagree with superiors
(mean score on a five-point scale from 1 = very frequently to 5 =
very seldom, multiplied by 25 to make it comparable with the percentage
scores for questions 1 and 3);
(3) the percentage of subordinates who do not prefer a boss who makes his
decisions in a consultative way, but who prefer a boss who decides either
autocratically or paternalistically or, on the other hand, who does not decide
himself, but goes along with the majority of his subordinates
Hofstedes Framework (contd)
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Collectivism
A tight social framework in
which people expect
others in groups of which
they are a part to look
after them and protect
them.
Individualism
The degree to which
people prefer to act as
individuals rather than
a member of groups.
Hofstedes Framework (contd)
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Achievement
The extent to which societal
values are characterized by
assertiveness, materialism and
competition.
Nurturing
The extent to which societal
values emphasize relationships
and concern for others.
Hofstedes Framework (contd)
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Uncertainty Avoidance
The extent to which a society feels threatened by
uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to
avoid them.
Hofstedes Framework (contd)
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Long-term Orientation
A national culture attribute
that emphasizes the future,
thrift, and persistence.
Short-term Orientation
A national culture attribute that
emphasizes the past and
present, respect for tradition,
and fulfilling social obligations.
The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures
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GLOBE stands for Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness
Compulsory Reading:

M. Javidan and R. J. House, Cultural Acumen for the Global Manager: Lessons from
Project GLOBE, Organizational Dynamics, Spring 2001, Volume: 29 Issue: 4, pp.
289305. (\\Fileserver\Shahnawaz Adil\OB\Compulsory Readings\GLOBE - Cultural
Acumen for the Global Manager - Lessons from Project GLOBE.pdf)
and
Page 432 to 435 from OB Fred Luthanss book , 11
th
edition
1. Assertiveness the degree to which individuals are assertive,
confrontational, and aggressive in their relationships with others.
2. Future Orientation the extent to which individuals engage in future-
oriented behaviors such as delaying gratification, planning, and investing
in the future.
3. Gender egalitarianism (or differentiation) expressed as the degree a
collective minimizes gender inequality.
4. Uncertainty avoidance the extent the society, organization, or groups
rely on norms, rules, and procedures to alleviate the unpredictability of
future events.

The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures
(contd)
319
5. Power distance the degree to which members of a collective expect
power to be distributed equally.
6. Individual/collectivism (or Institutional Collectivism) the degree to
which organizational and societal institutional practices encourage
and reward the collective distribution of resources and collective
actions.
7. In-group collectivism the degree to which individuals express pride,
loyalty, and cohesiveness in their organizations or families.
8. Performance orientation suggested by the degree to which a
collective encourages and rewards group members for performance
improvement and excellence.
9. Humane orientation the degree to which a collective encourages
and rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, generous, caring, and
kind to others.

Attitudes
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Attitudes

Predisposition or a
tendency to
respond positively
or negatively
towards a certain
idea, object,
person, or
situation.
Component: Affect (emotions or feelings)
Measured by: Physiological indicators (say, blood
pressure; galvanic skin response i.e. changes in
electrical resistance of skin that indicate emotional
arousal), verbal statements about feelings
e.g. I dont like my boss, I like this, I prefer that
Component: Cognition (Thought; reflects a persons
perceptions or beliefs)
Measured by: Attitude scales, verbal statements about beliefs
(asking about thoughts)
e.g. I believe my boss plays favorites at work. I believe Japanese
workers are industrious reflects the cognitive component of an
attitude
Component: Conative (inclination for actions)
Measured by: Observed behavior, verbal statements about
intentions
e.g. Women as a supervisor; I want to transfer to another
department.
The ABC Model of an Attitude
4
th
Component:
Evaluative:
Positive or negative
response to stimuli.

Types of Attitudes
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Job Involvement
Identifying with the job, actively participating in it,
and considering performance important to self-worth.
Organizational Commitment
Identifying with a particular organization and its
goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the
organization.
Job Satisfaction
A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that
an individual holds toward his or her job.
Types of Organizational Commitment
<we have already discussed in Chapter no. 1>
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Organizational Commitment
(The strength of an individuals identification with an organization)
Affective
Commitment
(individual intends to
remain in the
organization)
Normative
Commitment
(individuals
perceived obligation
to remain with an
organization)
Continuance
Commitment
(individual cannot
afford to leave the
organization)
Three types based on the fact that
The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
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Cognitive Dissonance
This is the feeling of uncomfortable tension which comes
from holding two conflicting thoughts in the mind at the same
time.

Dissonance increases with:
The importance of the subject to us.
How strongly the dissonant thoughts conflict.
Our inability to rationalize and explain away the conflict.
Cognitive Dissonance (contd)
324
Dissonance is often strong when we believe something about
ourselves and then do something against that belief. If I believe I am
good but do something bad, then the discomfort I feel as a result is
cognitive dissonance.

Cognitive dissonance is a very powerful motivator which will often
lead us to change one or other of the conflicting belief or action. The
discomfort often feels like a tension between the two opposing
thoughts. To release the tension we can take one of three actions:
Change our behavior.
Justify our behavior by changing the conflicting cognition.
Justify our behavior by adding new cognitions.

Dissonance is most powerful when it is about our self-image. Feelings
of foolishness, immorality and so on (including internal projections
during decision-making) are dissonance in action.
Cognitive Dissonance (contd)
325
Dissonance is most powerful when it is about our self-image. Feelings of
foolishness, immorality and so on (including internal projections during
decision-making) are dissonance in action.

If an action has been completed and cannot be undone, then the after-the-
fact dissonance compels us to change our beliefs. If beliefs are moved,
then the dissonance appears during decision-making, forcing us to take
actions we would not have taken before.

Cognitive dissonance appears in virtually all evaluations and decisions
and is the central mechanism by which we experience new differences in
the world. When we see other people behave differently to our images of
them, when we hold any conflicting thoughts, we experience dissonance.
Dissonance increases with the importance and impact of the decision,
along with the difficulty of reversing it. Discomfort about making the wrong
choice of car is bigger than when choosing a lamp.

Self-Perception Theory gives an alternative view.
Self-Perception Theory
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an alternative explanation for cognitive dissonance effects
Self-Perception Theory
327
People decide on their own attitudes and feelings from watching
themselves behave in various situations. This is particularly true when
internal cues are so weak or confusing they effectively put the person in
the same position as an external observer.

Self-Perception Theory provides an alternative explanation for cognitive
dissonance effects. For example Festinger and Carlsmith's experiment
where people were paid $1 or $20 to lie. Cognitive dissonance says that
people felt bad about lying for $1 because they could not justify the act.
Self-perception takes an 'observer's view, concluding that those who
were paid $1 must have really enjoyed it (because $1 does not justify the
act) whilst those who were paid $20 were just doing it for the money.
Note that this indicates how changing people's attitudes happens only
when two factors are present:

They are aroused, feeling the discomfort of dissonance.
They attribute the cause of this to their own behaviors and attitudes.
Research
An Application: Attitude Surveys
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Attitude Surveys
Eliciting responses from employees through
questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs,
work groups, supervisors, and the organization.
Sample Attitude Survey
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How Employees Can Express
Dissatisfaction
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Exit
Behavior directed toward
leaving the organization.
Voice
Active and constructive
attempts to improve
conditions.
Neglect
Allowing conditions to
worsen.
Loyalty
Passively waiting for
conditions to improve.
Responses to Job Dissatisfaction
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E X H I B I T 35
Source: C. Rusbult and D. Lowery, When Bureaucrats Get the Blues, Journal
of Applied Social Psychology. 15, no. 1, 1985:83. Reprinted with permission.