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MEASUREMENT OF

VARIABLES:
OPERATIONAL
DEFINITION AND SCALES
CHAPTER 8

HOW VARIABLES ARE


MEASURED?
Two types of variables:

Variable that lends itself to objective and precise


measurement
Variable that doesnt lend itself to accurate measurement
because of its subjective nature.

Abstract notions observable characteristic


behavior measurable in a tangible way called
operationalizing the concepts
Operational definition is a statement of the specific
dimensions and elements through which a concept
will become measurable

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: DIMENSIONS AND ELEMENTS

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: DIMENSIONS AND


ELEMENTS

SCALES
Nominal Scales: splits data into groups, e.g., men, women
Ordinal Scales: ranks data in some order, e.g., exercising
for 20 minutes is good, for 30 minutes is better, for 40
minutes is best
Interval Scales: sets data on a continuum, e.g.
1 2
3
4
5
very low

very high

Ratio Scales: starts with absolute zero and indicates


proportion, e.g.
0 5
10
ten is twice as big as five

MEASUREMENT:
SCALING,
RELIABILITY,
VALIDITY
CHAPTER 9

SCALING TECHNIQUES:
1.
Rating
Rating
Scales Scales

Dichotomous Scales yes or no answer


Category Scales uses multiple items to elicit a single
response
Likert Scales to examine how strongly subjects agree
or disagree with statement on a 5-point scale
Semantic Differential Scales several bipolar
attributes are identified at the extremes of the scale
Numerical Scales similar with Semantic Differential
Scales with number on 5 or 7 point scale are provided

SCALING TECHNIQUES:
1. Rating Scalescont

Itemized Rating Scales a 5 or 7 point scale with


anchors is provided for each item and the respondent
state the appropriate number on the side of each item
Fixed or Constant Sum Rating Scales the
respondents are asked to distribute a given number of
points across various items, the sum is constant
Stapel Scales measure both direction and intensity
of the attitude toward the item under study
Graphic Rating Scales placing a mark at the
appropriate point on the line

SCALING TECHNIQUES
2. Ranking Scales
Ranking Scales

Paired Comparisons used when, among small


number of objects, respondents are asked to choose
between two objects at a time.
Forced Choice enables respondents to rank objects
relative to one another, among alternatives provided.
Comparative Scales provides a benchmark or a point
of reference to assess attitude toward the current object,
event, or situation under study.

GOODNESS OF MEASURES
Stability

Test-retest reliability
Parallel-form reliability

Internal Consistency

Split-half reliability
Interitem consistency reliability

Validity
Content Validity

Face validity

Criterion-Related Validity

Concurrent validity
Predictive validity

Construct Validity