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WOOD POLISH,

VARNISH AND PAINTS


MADE BY :MANU GARG
SWATI SINGH
SHRUTI SETHI
DUSHYANT
SINGH
ADITI GAUR
RUMAN
SIDDIQUI
ANKITA GOEL

WOOD FINISHES
Wood finishing refers to the process of refining or protecting a wooden surface,
especially in the production of furniture.
There are three major types of finish:
Evaporative-Wax is an evaporative finish because it is dissolved in turpentine or
petroleum distillates to form a soft paste.
Reactive-finishes may use solvents such as white spirits and naphtha as a base.
Coalescing- Water based finishes

TYPES OF FINISHES
Surface Coating : Highly durable for
e.g. shellac, lacquer polish and
varnish.
Natural finishes : Add lustre warmth
and character to the wood while
protecting from wear and tear .
Pigmented finishes : looks like paint
for e.g. black lacquer.
Penetrating finishes : Penetrates the
wood grain rather than setting up on
the surface and leaves no appreciable
surface coating or film . This is done
with oil.

VARNISH
It is a transparent , hard, protective finish or film primarily used in
wood finishing.
It is a combination of dry oil , a resin and a thinner or solvent.
Varnish is made by cooking a curing or semi-curing oil (linseed oil
,tung oil) with a resin (pine tree)
TYPES OF VARNISH
Exterior grade varnishes- weather resistant
Yacht varnish which will with stand exposure to salt water,
especially suitable for coastal climates.
Clear varnish that dry to matte, satin or gloss finish.
Tinted varnish available for colouring wood .As it does not
penetrate the wood like a true stain, there is always the
possibility of colour loss. It is useful for adjusting the colour of the
work piece that has already been varnished.

TYPE OF VARNISHES BASED ON THE TYPE OF RESIN


Phenolic resin varnish - 1st synthetic varnish
Alkyd resin varnish It is cheaper then phenolic varnish
Polyurethane varnish heat resistant, water proof and extremely hard
wearing.
Epoxy Resin- Thick, high-gloss, and transparent. Easy pour-on
application for flat surfaces.
TYPES OF VARNISHES BASED ON THE SOLVENT USED
1.Oil varnishes Linseed oil is used as solvent in this type of varnish.
oil varnishes dry slowly. but they form hard and durable surface.
2. Spirit varnishes Methylated spirits of wine are used as solvent in
this type of varnish.
3. Water varnishes Shellac is dissolved in hot water and enough
quantity of either ammonia or borax or potash or soda is added such
that shellac is dissolved. these varnishes are used for varnishing
maps, pictures, etc
4.Turpentine varnishes Turpentine is used as solvent in this .These
varnishes dry quickly and posses light colours. they are not durable

CHARACTERISTICS OF VARNISH
Varnish has six primary characteristics, each of which is the result of its
reactive curing.
Resistance to heat, wear, solvents, acids, and alkalis.
Resistance to water and water-vapour exchange.
Long curing time: Slow oxidation allows you plenty of time to brush
varnish without it getting tacky and dragging. But this also causes dust
problems.
Difficulty in repairing and stripping.- This is the flip side of good solvent
and chemical resistance.
Difficulty in rubbing to an even sheen: This is the flip side of good scratch
resistance.
Skinning over in the can.- Since varnish cures by absorbing oxygen, any
air left in a can of varnish will begin to cure it. If there is enough air, the
varnish will skin over.
Secondary characteristics
1.It should render the surface glossy.
2.It should dry rapidly and present a finished surface which is uniform in
nature and pleasing in appearance.

APPLYING VARNISH
STEP 1 Preparation of surface the wood work is
thoroughly rubbed down by means of sand paper or
pumice stone. The surface is then made smooth
and clean.
STEP 2 Finishing bare wood with clear or tinted
varnish apply a sealer coat thinned with mineral
spirit. Use a soft cloth pad/brush to rub it.
STEP 3 Apply 2nd coat by brush not less than 6 hours
later.
STEP 4 For a hard wearing surface apply a 3rd coat
in the same way.
STEP 5 If dust particles settle on final gloss surface,
either rub down and varnish again or modify the
finish with steel wool and wax

POLISH ON WOOD
It is a substance used to give something a smooth and shiny surface
when rubbed in.
The primary ingredients used to prepare polishes are polishing agents,
solvents, and emulsifiers. Auxiliary materials include preservatives,
colorants, and fragrance.
The waxes, polymers, and oils are used to improve the condition of the
furniture surface can be loosely grouped together and labeled as
polishing agents.
Common solvents include mineral spirits, turpentine, and naphtha.
Proper blending of oil and water-soluble ingredients requires special
chemicals known as surfactants.
Propellants are liquefied gases, which are used to dispense aerosol
products as a spray.
PROCESS OF APPLYING POLISH
Wooden surface is first painted with a putti made by mixing chalk
powder and spirit or the ready made putti is also used.
Then the surface is smoothened by rubbing it through sand paper.
After this, as told earlier, a pad is made of cotton cloth and polish is
applied on the wooden surface through this pad.
After 2-3 coats, the pad is dipped in only spirit and then last finishing
touch is applied with loose hands.

SPRAY POLISH- Easy to handle but cause damage to wood as it contains


silicone oils and other contaminants as their ingredients. Some sprays
damages varnish
LIQUID POLISH
Emulsion type : Waxes , oils and organic solvents in a water solution
that it can be applied easily on the furniture
Oil type polish : non-drying and drying oils.
FRENCH POLISH
The polish is made by dissolving shellac , a secretion of the lac insect
, in industrial alcohol. It can be burnished to an almost glass- like
texture .
Applying French polish
It is vulnerable to scratching , Use
susceptible
to alcohol
andan
water
a soft brush
to apply
even.
coat.
Then after 15 to 20 min rub down
lightly with self lubricating silicon
2nd coat .
Then apply third coat and rub it with
steel wool dipped in wax polish.

POLYURETHANE (PU) POLISH V/S REGULAR


POLISH
POLYURETHANE POLISH
REGULAR POLISH
Type
There are two different types of
polyurethane polishes, waterbased and solvent-based.
Both leave a strong protective
coat on the wood.
PU polish is comparatively
expensive compared to
Melamine based polish and
carpenters prefer this polish as it
can give superior shining in
shorter time using less labour.
The PU polish is available in
multiple stains that help getting
the desired shade of wood.

Type
spirit and Melamine based
polishes are two options.
Spirit polish is very economical
and provides good gloss to wood
but it is not that durable and
does not resist scratches or
stains. It also looses shine
quickly.
Melamine is more expensive
than spirit polish but adds great
beauty to the woodwork and
resists scratches. The polish is
available in multiple stains that
help getting the desired shade of
wood.

Raw Material
Include monomers, polymers,
stabilizers which protect the
integrity of the polymer, and
colorants.

Raw Material
Wood filler/ filling materials,
staining, sealing material and top
coat as per finish required such as
Varnish, Spirit , Melamine based

POLYURETHANE (PU) POLISH V/S REGULAR


POLISH
Advantages

Advantages
PU polish can give good finish in a
Provides radiant beauty to the
shorter time.
wood.
Both water-based and solvent-based
Helps in protecting the wood by
polyurethane finishes can provide a
binding the surface.
beautiful finish in matt, glossy or
Helps to prevent hairline cracks
satin style.
and absorb the effects of
Water based Polyurethane is the most
scratching and external damage.
environmentally friendly finish.
It is odorless and quick drying.
Helps in reducing the transfer of
It reduces the maintenance
moisture between the wood and
requirement in a furniture item as it
the surrounding weather.

creates a surface that has excellent


resistance to scratches and moisture.
Water base polyurethane is available
in commercial and domestic quality
depending on the durability required.

Disadvantages

Disadvantages
higher cost of the product.
Become yellowish with age.
In solvent-based, the fumes are
It requires more labour and hard
generated while the polish is applied .
work to achieve a good finish on
They can give a slight yellow tone to
the furniture.

PAINTS

PAINTS PROVIDE A COLOURFUL AND PROTECTIVE FINISH FOR WOODS.


IT MAY BE USED OUTSIDE OR INSIDE.

THERE ARE A NUMBER OF THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN PAINTING;


SOFTWOOD KNOTS NEED TO BE SEALED WITH SHELLAC TO PREVENT
RESIN FROM OOZING OUT. THIS SEALER IS OFTEN CALLED KNOTTING.

SHARP CORNERS NEED TO BE SLIGHTLY ROUNDED OFF TO PREVENT


THE PAINT SURFACE FROM SPLITTING.

WHEN PAINTING A PRODUCT IT SHOULD BE SEALED WITH A PRIMER.


SECONDLY UNDERCOATS SHOULD BE APPLIED, SANDING DOWN
BETWEEN EACH COAT WITH A FINE GLASS PAPER.

THERE ARE LOTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF PAINTS AVAILABLE IN MANY


DIFFERENT COLOURS FROM MATT, EGGSHELL TO GLOSS.

EMULSION PAINTS, VINYL OR ACRYLIC RESIN ARE ALL WATER BASED


PAINTS. THEY ARE NOT WATERPROOF OR VERY DURABLE.

OIL BASED PAINTS SOME OF WHICH ARE NON-DRIP ARE MORE


DURABLE AND WATERPROOF.

POLYURETHANE PAINTS GO HARD WHEN EXPOSED TO AIR. THEY


PROVIDE A SCRATCH RESISTANT, TOUGH SURFACE SUITABLE FOR TOYS

PAINTING SYSTEMS FOR WOODEN


SURFACES
NATURAL/ MANUFACTURED
CLEANING & SMOOTHING

FILLING

HARD/SOFT/PLY WOOD, PARTICLE


BOARD, ACOUSTIC BOARD, ETC.
REMOVING KNOTS, SURFACE RESINS,
ETC.
USE OF BEEWAX, ADHESIVES &
SAWDUST, ETC.

PROGRESSIVE SANDING

USE OF FINE GRAINED SANDPAPER FOR


SMOOTH CLEAR & CLEAN SURFACE

SEALER/PRIMER & PUTTY

TO ENSURRE ABSENCE OF POROSITY,


SURFACE RESINS, ETC. FOR A DAMAGE
FREE FINISH

FINISH COATS

ENAMEL, POLYURETHANE, MELAMINE,


VARNISH, BEEWAX, ETC.

MARKET SURVEY
CLEAR VARNISH RS.140-200 per litre
POLISH
Lakh dana Rs. 300 per kg
Spirit Rs. 120 per litre
Lacquer 400 per litre
Melamine polish Rs. 300 per litre
PU Polish Rs. 600 per litre
Touchwood Rs. 200per litre
Enamel paints Rs. 250 per litre
PU Paints Rs. 500 per litre
Metallic colours Rs. 350 per litre

How to Varnish Wood.mp4