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Line Coding Schemes

Line coding is the process of converting binary data, a


sequence of bits to a digital signal.
Course Name: Data Communications

Level : UG

Learning Objectives
After interacting with this Learning Object, the learner will be able to:
Convert the sequence of binary digits into a digital signal

Considerations for choosing a good


signal element referred to as line
encoding

Baseline wandering - If the incoming signal does not vary over a long period of
time, the baseline will drift and thus cause errors in detection of incoming data elements.

A good line encoding scheme will prevent long runs of fixed amplitude.

DC components - when the voltage level remains constant for long periods of time,

there is an increase in the low frequencies of the signal.


This will require the removal of the dc component of a transmitted signal.

Self synchronization - the clocks at the sender and the receiver must have the

same bit interval.


If the receiver clock is faster or slower it will misinterpret the incoming bit stream.

4.3

Definitions of the components/Keywords:

1
2
3
4
5

Binary data can be transmitted using a number of different


types of pulses. The choice of a particular pair of pulses to
represent the symbols 1 and 0 is called Line Coding.

1
2

Master Layout
Input
Data

3
Digital
Signal

Step 1:

unipolar NRZ (Non Return to Zero)

Representation of 0

Representation of 1

Instruction for the animator


The first fig should appear then the
second fig should appear.
In parallel to the figures the text
should be displayed.

Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)


Bit 0 is mapped to amplitude close to zero
Bit 1 is mapped to a positive amplitude
A DC component is present

Step 2:

Polar NRZ (Non Return to Zero)

Representation of 0

Representation of 1

Instruction for the animator


The first fig should appear then the
second fig should appear.
In parallel to the figures the text
should be displayed.

Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)


Bit 0 is mapped to a negative amplitude
Bit 1 is mapped to a positive amplitude
A DC component is present

Step 3:

Polar RZ (Return to Zero)

Representation of 0

Representation of 1

Instruction for the animator


The first fig should appear then the
second fig should appear.
In parallel to the figures the text
should be displayed.

Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)


A bit 0 is mapped to a negative amplitude A for the first half of the
symbol duration followed by a zero amplitude for the second half of
the symbol duration.
A bit 1 is mapped to a positive amplitude +A for the first half of the
bit duration followed by a zero amplitude for the second half of the bit
duration.

Step 4:

NRZI (Non Return to Zero Inverted)

Representation of 0

Representation of 1

2
Fig. A

Instruction for the animator


The first fig should appear then the
second fig should appear.
In parallel to the figures the text
should be displayed.

Fig. B

Fig. C

Fig. D

Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)


Bit 0 mapped to no signal level transition
Bit 1 is mapped to signal level transition at the beginning of the bit
interval
Assumption:
The signal level to the left of the bit is high Fig. A and Fig. C
The signal level to the left of the bit is low Fig. B and Fig. D

Step 5:

Manchester coding

Representation of 0

Representation of 1

3
4

Instruction for the animator

Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

The first fig should appear then the


second fig should appear.

Bit 0 is sent by having a mid-bit transition from high to low.

In parallel to the figures the text


should be displayed.

Bit 1 is sent by having a mid-bit transition from low to high.

Step 6:

Differential Manchester coding

Representation of 0

Representation of 1

2
Fig. A

Instruction for the animator


The first fig should appear then the
second fig should appear.
In parallel to the figures the text
should be displayed.

Fig. B

Fig. C

Fig. D

Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)


Bit 0 is mapped to signal level transition at the beginning of the bit
interval.
Bit 1 is mapped to absence of signal level transition at the beginning
of the bit interval.
Assumption:
The signal level to the left of the bit is high Fig. A and Fig. C
The signal level to the left of the bit is low Fig. B and Fig. D

The corresponding waveforms should be shown in the demo part when a


particular line code is selected.

Illustration of different line coding schemes

Bipolar - AMI and Pseudoternary


Code uses 3 voltage levels: - +, 0, -, to
represent the symbols (note not transitions to
zero as in RZ).
Voltage level for one symbol is at 0 and the
other alternates between + & -.
Bipolar Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) - the
0 symbol is represented by zero voltage and
the 1 symbol alternates between +V and -V.
Pseudoternary is the reverse of AMI.

4.14

Figure 4.9

4.15

Bipolar schemes: AMI and pseudoternary

Representing Multilevel Codes


We use the notation mBnL, where m is
the length of the binary pattern, B
represents binary data, n represents the
length of the signal pattern and L the
number of levels.
L = B binary, L = T for 3 ternary, L = Q
for 4 quaternary.

4.16

Figure 4.10

4.17

Multilevel: 2B1Q scheme

For example: B8ZS substitutes eight


consecutive zeros with 000VB0VB.
The V stands for violation, it violates the
line encoding rule
B stands for bipolar, it implements the
bipolar line encoding rule

4.18

Figure 4.19

4.19

Two cases of B8ZS scrambling technique

HDB3 substitutes four consecutive


zeros with 000V or B00V depending
on the number of nonzero pulses after
the last substitution.
If # of non zero pulses is even the
substitution is B00V to make total # of
non zero pulse even.
If # of non zero pulses is odd the
substitution is 000V to make total # of
non zero pulses even.

4.20

Figure 4.20

4.21

Different situations in HDB3 scrambling technique

Assumption: The signal level to the left of the bit is high

Line coding
Scheme
Include
Slides
13 and
14 in the
theory
part

Unipolar NRZ

Polar NRZ

Polar RZ

Representation
of 0

Representation
of 1

Line coding
Scheme
NRZI

Manchester

Differential
Manchester

Representation
of 0

Representation
of 1

Electrical Engineering
Slide
1
Introduction

Slide
3
Definitions

Slide
14,15
Analogy

Slide
17

Slide
16

Test your understanding


Want to know more
Lets Sum up (summary)
(Further Reading)
(questionnaire)

Interactivity:
Input
Data

Try it yourself

Select the coding scheme

Uni polar NRZ

Digital
Signal

Polar NRZ
Polar RZ
NRZI
Manchester
Differential Manchester
Enter 11 bit input data

24
Credits

Questionnaire

1. What is the Differential Manchester waveform corresponding to


the bit string 1101101
Note: The signal level before the first bit is assumed to be high

Answers:
a)

4
5

b)

Questionnaire

2. What is the Differential Manchester waveform for the bit string 11100
Note: The signal level to the left of the first bit in the string is low

2
3

4
5

Answers:
a)

b)

Links for further reading


Reference websites:
Books: Communication Systems by Simon Haykin, fourth Edition
Data and Computer Communications by William Stallings, eighth Edition

Research papers:

Summary

Binary data can be transmitted using a number of different types of pulses.


The choice of a particular pair of pulses to represent the symbols 1 and 0 is
called Line Coding.

Line coding is the process of converting binary data, a sequence of bits to a


digital signal.