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Stress may be understood as a state of tension experienced by
individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints or opportunities.
Stress is the spice of life and there is way to avoid it totally. A certain
minimum level of stress, in fact, may help executives to stretch their
capabilities fully. This is where psychologists draw the line between
constructive stress and destructive stress.
~  this is positive stress that accompanies achievement
and exhilaration
~  this is harmful stress, characterised by a loss of feelings
of security and adequacy.
An optimum level of stress, as research evidence indicates, is needed
to spur people to peak performance.
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Vonstructive stress Destructive stress


High

Rustout Burnout
Low

Low Moderate High

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Hans Selye called the three phases of the defence reaction that a
person establishes when stressed as the general adaptation
syndrome.
~ The alarm stage
~ The reaction stage
~ The stage of exhaustion

  


~ Biological
~ Psychological
~ Behavioural

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àmportant sources of stress may be listed thus:

   


1. Organisational demands
2. Role conflict
àntrasender conflict
àntersender conflict
ànterrole conflict
Person-role conflict
3. Role ambiguity
4. Role overload
5. Role underload
6. ànterpersonal relationships
7. àneffective communication
8. Responsibility

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`. Job change
10. Vlimate within a company
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11. The impact of life change

   


)*! +"*"
Death of spouse 100
Divorce 73
Marital separation 65
Jail term 63
Death of close family member 63
Major personal injury or illness 53
Marriage 50
Fired from work 47
Marital reconciliation 45
Retirement 45
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Major change in health of family member 44


Pregnancy 40
Sex difficulties 3`
ain of a new family member 3`
Business readjustment 3`
Vhanges in financial state 38
Death of a close friend 37
Vhange to a different line of work 36
Vhange in number of arguments with spouse 35
Mortgage over $ 10,000 31
Foreclosure of mortgage or loan 30
Vhange in responsibilities at work 2`
Son or daughter leaving home 2`
Trouble with in-laws 2`
Outstanding personal achievement 28
Wife begins or stops work 26
Begin or end school 26
Vhange in living conditions 25

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Revision of personal habits 24


Trouble with boss 23
Vhange in work hours or conditions 20
Vhange in residence 20
Vhange in schools 20
Vhange in recreation 1`
Vhange in church activities 1`
Vhange in social activities 18
Mortgage or loan less than $ 10,000 17
Vhange in sleeping habits 16
Vhange in number of family get-togethers 15
Vhange in eating habits 15
Vacation 13
Vhristmas 12
Major violations of the law 11

Source: Rahe. L.O. & Holmes. T.H. Scaling of Life Vhange: Vomparison of direct and indirect methods, Journal
of Psychosomanic
Research, 1`71.

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12. Type A and Type B personalities


 a 
~ Always moves, walks and eats rapidly
~ Feels impatient with the pace of things, hurries others, dislikes waiting
~ Does several things at once
~ Feels guilty when relaxing
~ Tries to schedule more and more in less and less time
~ Uses nervous gestures such as clenched fist, banging hand on table
~ Does not have time to enjoy life

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~ às not concerned about time


~ às patient
~ Does not brag
~ Plays for fun, not to win
~ Relaxes without guilt
~ Has no pressing deadlines
~ às mild mannered
~ às never in a hurry

13. Externals vs. ànternals and the belief in external locus of control
14. Other reasons.

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Subjective effects: Anxiety, aggression, apathy, boredom, depression, fatigue,


frustration, guilt and shame, irritability and bad temper, moodiness, low self-esteem,
tension, nervousness, and loneliness.
~ *" ))+ Accident proneness, drug use, emotional outbursts,
excessive eating or loss of appetite, excessive drinking and smoking, excitability,
impulsive behaviour, impaired speech, nervous laughter, restlessness and
trembling.
~ #!* ))+ ànability to make decisions and concentrate, frequent
forgetfulness, hypersensitivity to criticism and mental blocks
~ V1"#+" ))+ àncreased blood and urine catecholamines and
corticosteroids, increased blood glucose levels, increased heart rate and blood
pressure, dryness of the mouth, sweating, dilation of the pupils, difficulty in
breathing, hot and cold spells, lump in the throat, numbness and tingling in parts
of the limbs.
~ #!!" ))+ Absenteeism, poor industrial relations and poor
productivity, high accident and labour turnover rates, poor organisational
climate, antagonism at work and job dissatisfaction.
(Source: T.Vox, Stress, Baltimore, University Park Press, 1`78)
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There are a variety of ways in which individuals cope or deal with


stress at work. Broadly speaking, these could be classified into two
categories:
!$*$" +!# #
~ Time management
This would require identification of factors that cause wastage of
time and finding appropriate solutions to each one of the identified
time wasters.

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~ Physical exercise
~ Meditation and relaxation
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~ Oeep a pet
~ Say your prayers
~ Sing aloud
~ Laughter, the elixir
~ Sleep right
~ Be good at loving
~ Spend time with children
~ Take a walk
~ Make friends
~ Enjoy the idiot box
~ Vultivate interests
~ Dare to dream

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#!!"+!##
~ Role clarity
~ Supportive climate
~ Vlearer career paths
~ Vompany-wide programmes

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~ Job enrichment
~ Employee counselling
~ Training and development programmes
~ Establishing autonomous work groups
~ Establishing variable work schedules
~ Setting up health clubs and offering health facilities
~ Service benefits including marriage gifts, birthday bonus, transport subsidy, long
service bonus ( ààT for example, offers this to those employees who stay with
the company for more than 5 years. ànfosys Technologies offers the stock option
plan to all employees who remain committed and loyal etc.) family planning gifts,
health club memberships, credit cards, housingcar loans etc.

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Burnout is the total depletion of physical and mental resources


caused by excessive striving to reach an unrealistic work-related
goal. The following self-test clearly reflects what executive burnout
is

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~ Are you working more now and enjoying it less?
~ Do you find it more difficult to confide in others?
~ Must you force yourself to do routine things?
~ Are you listless, bored, constantly seeking excitement?
~ Would you rather be somewhere else?
~ Have you lost the joy of sex?
~ Do you drink more than you used to?
~ Do you need a tranquiliser to face the day«..a sleeping pill to get through the
night?
~ Are you resigned about your future?
~ às your need for a particular crutch increasing? (smoking, nail biting etc.)

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$+!# !
~ àdentification
~ Prevention
~ Mediation
~ Remediation


%  !
3Spend time reading those books you have been promising yourself you would read.
3 o to the movies.
3Listen to good music.
3Work it off by exercising.
3Avoid striving. Shun the Superperson urge.
3 ive in more often.
3Vreate a quiet scene and escape for a while V 

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3Use "not now" buttons.


3Plan your work.
3Write a letter.
3Take an adult education course.
3Take a walk..
3Talk it out, confide in someone you trust.
3Vry.
3Take a bubble bath.
3Focus on enjoyment.
3Avoid making too many big changes at once.
3Be realistic.
3Tackle one task at a time.
3Hit a tennis ball against a wall and work off your anger.
3Do something for others.
3 o easy with criticism.
3Establish a nutritious diet

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Vounselling is a dyadic relationship between a manager who is


offering help and an employee to whom such help is given.
Vounselling helps a person overcome emotional problems and
weaknesses related to performance.

Õ

~ The focus is on developmental, educational, preventive concerns
~ Processes such as guidance, classification, suggestion etc., are commonly
employed
~ The emphasis is on problem-solving and situational difficulties
~ The relationship between the counsellor and the counsellee is friendly,
advisory, helpful and trustworthy.
~ The aim is to clear the mind (of a counseller) of cob-webs, mental
blocks and improve personal effectiveness.
Source: .O Singh, HRM, Excel Books, ew Delhi 1```.

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+)+!""!#
~ Rapport building
~ Exploration
~ Action planning

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Effective counselling requires active participation from the


subordinates, fair and objective evaluation of performance-related
factors by the superior with an intention to rectify mistakes and
improve subordinates¶ performance and a proper organisational
climate built around mutual trust and understanding.

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A helping relationship is one in which at least one of the parties has


the intent of promoting the growth, development, maturity, improved
functioning, improved coping with the life of the other. Helping can
be reactive or proactive.

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Helping behaviour, thus, depends on three essential things


~ The task
~ The helper
~ Vommunicate
~ Be positive
~ ive freedom
~ Show empathy
~ Accept the client's personality unconditionally
~ The receiver
~ The helping climate

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àn effective helping relationships, the recipient is able to:
~ explore new possibilities
~ visualise things about oneself that one was not aware of
~ able to µunfreee¶ himself
~ face the realities of the situation confidently
~ get on well with colleagues, by having a better grip over events and situations
~ notice the consequences of one¶s actions
~ take a holistic view of people, events, situations, behaviours, and
consequences.

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Mentoring is the use of an experienced person to teach and train


someone with less knowledge in a given area. Technical,
interpersonal and political skills can be conveyed in such a
relationship from the older to the younger person.

Ô &   ''


~ Share knowledge and skills related to the job
~ Explain unwritten rules of conduct and behaviour of the organisation
~ Prevent the protege from doing wrong things and committing mistakes
~ Provide important insights into the corporate affairs
~ Extend emotional support and guidance continuously so that the protege
can develop his skills and knowledge over a period of time and stand on his
own.

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~ Establishing trusting relationship between the mentor and the
protégé
~ Modelling behavioural norms for the young persons
~ Listening to the job related problems of the protégé
~ Helping the protégé to find alternative ways to resolve the
problems
~ Responding to the emotional needs of the protégé, without
making him dependent on the mentor
~ Developing a long lasting relationship based on mutual trust and
understanding.

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