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Hazing in Higher Education

Danger Lurks in the Band


Presentation by:
Ryan Bradshaw
George Mason University

Learning Outcomes
Learn where to find hazing statutes

applicable to your state


Be able to define your duty to act, as
dictated by federal statutes
Learn two best practices to help prevent
hazing on your campus

Hazing defined
Hazing is any action or situation, with or
without the consent of the participants,
which recklessly, intentionally, or
unintentionally endangers the mental,
physical, or academic health or safety of a
student.

University of Michigan, Dean of Students Office

Presentation Format
Will focus on 2 case studies that reveal:
Criminal statutes
Civil litigation
Federal statutes

Case 1
Florida A&M University Marching 100

http://youtu.be/FrviGJ1Dvvk?t=1m54s

Robert Champion

Source: Associated Press, file photo (2011, November 19).

FAMU Marching 100


Founded in 1892 with 16 members
Today has over 420 members
Has performed for Presidential Inaugurations,

the Super Bowl, at the Grammys with Kanye


West, and represented U.S. at French bicentennial of the Revolution

Source: Florida A&M University. (n.d.). FAMU Marching 100 History Timeline. Retrieved from Florida Agricultural and
Mechanical University: http://www.famu.edu/index.cfm?marching100&HistoryTimeLine

FAMU Marching 100


Almost half the members of the band receive

scholarships or financial aid tied to their


membership in the band
Most are from Florida, but many are away
from home for the first time

Source: Kunerth, J., & Balona, D. (2012, February 5). FAMU death: Brutal rituals defied ban, band members say.
Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.sun-sentinel.com/os-famu-hazing-narrative-20120204story.html#page=1

FAMU Marching 100


History of Hazing
1998 Ivery Luckey is paddled approximately

300 times by approximately 25 band-mates


(mostly female) and then slapped in the face
Was nauseous, had chills, urinated blood
Experienced renal-failure and spent 2 weeks in hospital
Won a $50,000 settlement with the band

2001 Marcus Parker is paddled over 30 times

by fellow band members


Experienced renal-failure and was hospitalized
Won a $1.8 million lawsuit against his attackers (plus

$100,000 from FAMU)


Sources: Wilmath, K. (2011, November 23). Latest death evokes night of severe hazing endured by former FAMU
band member. Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved from http://www.tampabay.com/news/education/college/latest-deathevokes-night-of-severe-hazing-endured-by-former-famu-band/1203285
Kunerth, J., & Balona, D. (2012, February 5). FAMU death: Brutal rituals defied ban, band members say. Orlando
Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.sun-sentinel.com/os-famu-hazing-narrative-20120204-story.html#page=1

FAMU Marching 100


History of Hazing
October 31, 2011 Bria Hunter, a freshman, is

punished by the Red Dawg Order for lying and


missing an initiation ceremony
Is made to march in place and play her trumpet while
band members punch her legs
Has to return the next day and perform the same
routine while being hit with a metal ruler across the
thighs
A week later, can no longer stand
Hospital visit reveals a blood clot in her leg and a broken femur

Source: Kunerth, J., & Balona, D. (2012, February 5). FAMU death: Brutal rituals defied ban, band members say. Orlando
Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.sun-sentinel.com/os-famu-hazing-narrative-20120204-story.html#page=1

FAMU Marching 100


FAMU Response
Since 1998, as a result of the Luckey incident, all band

members have gone through a hazing education class


at the beginning of the school year
Told hazing is wrong, against school policies, against
the law, and that band members can face
repercussions for it, including loss of scholarship
Band members sign a pledge not to haze at the
conclusion of the meeting

Source: Kunerth, J., & Balona, D. (2012, February 5). FAMU death: Brutal rituals defied ban, band members say. Orlando
Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.sun-sentinel.com/os-famu-hazing-narrative-20120204-story.html#page=1

FAMU Marching 100


FAMU Response
In response to the Bria Hunter incident, band director Julian

White suspends 16 members of the band within days of the


incident
Three band members are charged with felony hazing by
criminal system
Two plead no contest to misdemeanor hazing
Serve

probation in Georgia, 30 days in work camp

Source: Kunerth, J., & Balona, D. (2012, February 5). FAMU death: Brutal rituals defied ban, band members say. Orlando Sentinel.
Retrieved from http://www.sun-sentinel.com/os-famu-hazing-narrative-20120204-story.html#page=1
Hudak, S., & Haughney, K. (2012, May 17). Two FAMU band members admit hazing female clarinet player. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved
from http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2012-05-17/features/os-famu-hazing-pleas-bria-hunter-20120517_1_hazing-incident-bandmembers-campus-police

FAMU Marching 100


November 19, 2011
Marching 100 play at annual Florida Classic

game culmination of the season


Following the game, band members board buses
to return to hotel

Source: Kunerth, J., & Balona, D. (2012, February 5). FAMU death: Brutal rituals defied ban, band members say.
Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.sun-sentinel.com/os-famu-hazing-narrative-20120204story.html#page=1

FAMU Marching 100


November 19, 2011
Band members are divided amongst buses based on year in

the band higher the letter, more senior the member


Bus C has a reputation for hazing rituals
Hot Seat
Crossing the bus

On return bus ride from game, several members are Hot

Seated
Upon return to hotel, several members crossed the bus

Source: The New York Times. (2012, May 22). Witness Interviews in the Robert Champion investigation. The New York Times.
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/05/24/us/hazing-interviews-documents.html?ref=us

FAMU Marching 100


November 19, 2011
Champion had stayed away from hazing and

refused to take part in hazing activities throughout


his involvement in the band up to this point
Why did he do it?

Source: The New York Times. (2012, May 22). Witness Interviews in the Robert Champion investigation. The New
York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/05/24/us/hazing-interviewsdocuments.html?ref=us

FAMU Marching 100


November 19, 2011
After crossing the bus, Champion complains of being

thirsty and dizzy, then vomits.


He collapses on the bus and is cold to touch and
unresponsive
Two anonymous 911 calls are placed
Paramedics transport him to hospital where he is
pronounced dead
Cause of death hemorrhagic shock due to blunt force trauma

Source: The New York Times. (2012, May 22). Witness Interviews in the Robert Champion investigation. The New York
Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/05/24/us/hazing-interviews-documents.html?ref=us
Kunerth, J., & Balona, D. (2012, February 5). FAMU death: Brutal rituals defied ban, band members say. Orlando Sentinel.
Retrieved from http://www.sun-sentinel.com/os-famu-hazing-narrative-20120204-story.html#page=1

FAMU Marching 100


The Fallout
Band is suspended by the University President days after

the incident takes place


Julian White, the band director, is fired 10 days later
Reason cited being incompetence for failing to recognize hazing and

take action
White is later reinstated at the urging of the Florida Department of
Law Enforcement asking FAMU to wait until the investigation is
carried out

White then retires, unexpectedly, in May, 2012

Sources: Armario, C. (2011, November 29). Julian White, Fired FAMU Band Director Says His Hazing Warnings Were Ignored.
Associated Press. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/11/29/julian-white-fired-famu-b_n_1118349.html
Balona, D. (2012, May 10). FAMU band director Julian White retires unexpectedly. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved from
http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2012-05-10/features/os-famu-hazing-white-retires-20120510_1_band-director-florida-a-m-bandhazing-death

FAMU Marching 100


The Fallout
It is later revealed that two of the band members

suspended (and later criminally charge in the


Hunter incident) travelled with the band to the
Florida Classic and were participants on Bus C
100 other members of the band, 60 of whom
travelled to the Florida Classic, were also not
currently enrolled in classes

Sources: Armario, C. (2011, November 29). Julian White, Fired FAMU Band Director Says His Hazing Warnings
Were Ignored. Associated Press. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/11/29/julian-white-firedfamu-b_n_1118349.html
Balona, D. (2012, May 10). FAMU band director Julian White retires unexpectedly. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved
from http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2012-05-10/features/os-famu-hazing-white-retires-20120510_1_banddirector-florida-a-m-band-hazing-death

FAMU Marching 100


The Fallout
FAMU President James Ammons resigns after

FAMU Trustees vote no-confidence in his


leadership abilities as a result of his handling of
the hazing allegations both prior to and after the
Robert Champion incident

Source: Fineout, G. (2012, July 11). Florida A&M president resigns in wake of scandal. Associated Press. Retrieved
from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2012/jul/11/florida-m-president-resigns-wake-scandal/

FAMU Marching 100


The Fallout
15 band members are charged criminally in the incident
12 with Felony Hazing, two with misdemeanor hazing
12 later charged with Manslaughter
Jessie Baskin pleads guilty to Manslaughter, is sentenced

to 51 weeks of jail time


Four others plead guilty to Manslaughter and receive
probationary sentences
Three others plead guilty to Hazing Causing Death and
receive community service sentences
Two have charges dropped against them (misdemeanor
hazing)
Three final band members found guilty of felony hazing in
April, 2015 to be sentenced later this month
Source: Fineout, G. (2012, July 11). Florida A&M president resigns in wake of scandal. Associated Press. Retrieved from
http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2012/jul/11/florida-m-president-resigns-wake-scandal/
Florida v. Baskin, 2012-CF-005695-A-O (Circuit Court of the Ninth Judicial Circuit For Orange County, Florida 2012).

FAMU Marching 100


The Fallout
Dante Martin
Transcripts of police interviews with band members during the
investigation indicate that Martin is the President of Bus C
As President, he decides who receives what treatment and when
Hot Seats
Bus Crossings
After trial, jury finds him guilty of:
Manslaughter
Hazing Resulting in Death
Hazing (2 counts)
Sentenced to 77 months in prison (maximum could have been
22 years)
Source: Florida v. Martin, 2012-CF-005695-M-O (Circuit Court of the Ninth Judicial Circuit for Orange County, Florida 2012).
The New York Times. (2012, May 22). Witness Interviews in the Robert Champion investigation. The New York Times. Retrieved
from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/05/24/us/hazing-interviews-documents.html?ref=us

FAMU Marching 100


The Fallout
Dante Martin
Martins lawyers attempted to defend the incident
by calling it a competition and attesting that
Champion decided to take part voluntarily

Source: Hightower, K. (2014, October 31). Dante Martin, Ex-FAMU Marching Band Member, Guilty Of
Manslaughter In Hazing Case. Associated Press. Retrieved from
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/10/31/dante-martin-hazing-famu-manslaughter_n_6084670.html

FAMU Marching 100


The Fallout
Civil Charges
Champions family/estate filed a wrongful death suit against
FAMU, the Bus Company, the Bus Driver, and the Hotel
Suit against FAMU awarded family $300,000, maximum
under Florida Sovereign Immunity law
Suit against hotel dropped
Bus Company and Driver settle out of court for undisclosed
amount

Sources: FL Stat. 768.28-5 (2014)


Hudak, S. (2014, September 10). Drum major Robert Champion's parents settle with bus company, driver in FAMU
hazing lawsuit. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.orlandosentinel.com/news/breaking-news/os-famu-hazingrobert-champion-settlement-20140910-story.html

FAMU Marching 100


The Fallout
Final Thoughts
Hazing had become a part of being a band member
Students were afraid of speaking up against hazing
due to fear of losing position in the band and their
scholarship
Band was suspended for over a year, returned in
summer 2013

Anti-Hazing Laws
44 States (plus the District of Columbia) have

anti-hazing laws

Source: StopHazing. (n.d.). States With Anti-Hazing Laws. Retrieved from http://www.stophazing.org/laws/states-with-antihazing-laws/

Anti-Hazing Laws
Laws vary from state to state
Arizona:
Educational Institutions must have their own anti-hazing policies, with

punishments determined by the school


Defined as: any intentional, knowing or reckless act committed by a
student, whether individually or in concert with other persons, against
another student in order to become affiliated with or maintain
membership in an organization at an educational institution contributes
to a substantial risk of potential physical injury, mental harm or
degradation or causes physical injury, mental harm or personal
degradation.

Maryland:
A person may not recklessly or intentionally do an act or create a situation

that subjects a student to the risk of serious bodily injury for the purpose of
an initiation into a student organization of a school, college, or university.
May not use implied or express consent as a defence
Penalty: Misdemeanor not more than 6 months in prison and/or maximum
$500 fine
Sources: AZ Rev Stat 15-2301 (through 1st Reg Sess 51st Leg. 2013)
Md. CRIMINAL LAW Code Ann. 3-607 (2014)

Anti-Hazing Laws
Laws vary from state to state
Florida:
First degree misdemeanor: intentionally or recklessly commits any

act of hazing upon another person who is a member of or an


applicant to any type of student organization and the hazing creates
a substantial risk of physical injury or death to such other person.
First degree misdemeanor: Term of imprisonment of not more than
one year
Third degree felony: intentionally or recklessly commits any act of
hazing and the hazing results in serious bodily injury or death of
such other person.
Third degree felony: Term of imprisonment not exceeding 5 years

Sources: FL Stat 775.082(4)(a) (2014)


FL Stat 775.082(6)(b)(2)(e) (2014)
FL Stat 1006.63 (2014)

Take Away Points


Know the legal statutes in your state
www.stophazing.org

Educate your club leaders and students

about the laws in your state


Criminal laws
Potential for civil charges

Be aware of what is going on with your

clubs there are many potential


repercussions
Sovereign Immunity Clauses

Case 2
Ohio State University Marching Band

Ohio State University Marching


Band
Band dates back to the 1800s
Women first allowed into band in 1973
Result of Title IX
21% of the band is female
Over 400 students per year audition for 225 positions
Nickname: The Best Damn Band In The Land (TBDBITL)

Sources: The Ohio State University Office of University Compliance and Integrity. (2014). Investigation Report: Complaint against
Jonathan Waters, Director of the OSU Marching Band. Columbus, OH: Author. Retrieved from
http://www.osu.edu/assets/pdf/Investigation-Report.pdf
The OSU Marching Band Culture Task Force. (2014). OSU Marching Band Culturarl Assessment & Administrative Oversight
Review. Columbus, OH: Author. Retrieved from http://www.osu.edu/assets/pdf/Task%20Force%20Report%20Final.pdf
The OSU Marching Band. (n.d.). The Ohio State University Marching Band. Retrieved from https://osumarchingband.com/osumb/

Ohio State University Marching


Band
May 23, 2014: Parent of a band member reports

concerns about bands culture:


Members were made to swear secrecy oaths about

objectionable traditions and customs


Culture was sexualized

Office of University Compliance and Integrity (OUCI)

begins a Title IX investigation, as required by federal


law

Source: The Ohio State University Office of University Compliance and Integrity. (2014). Investigation Report: Complaint against
Jonathan Waters, Director of the OSU Marching Band. Columbus, OH: Author. Retrieved from
http://www.osu.edu/assets/pdf/Investigation-Report.pdf

Ohio State University Marching


Band
OCUI conducts 16 interviews with current and

former, band members, staff, and the complainant


parent
Found numerous activities that led to finding that:
The Marching Bands culture facilitated acts of sexual

harassment, creating a hostile environment for students

Source: The Ohio State University Office of University Compliance and Integrity. (2014). Investigation Report:
Complaint against Jonathan Waters, Director of the OSU Marching Band. Columbus, OH: Author. Retrieved from
http://www.osu.edu/assets/pdf/Investigation-Report.pdf

Ohio State University Marching


Band
Findings:
Midnight Ramp
Nicknames
Tricks
Rookie Introductions
Rookie Midterms and Physical Challenges
Trip Tic
Songbook
Changing Clothes on Buses
Other Misconduct on Buses
Oaths of Secrecy Fessler Night
Sources: The Ohio State University Office of University Compliance and Integrity. (2014). Investigation Report:
Complaint against Jonathan Waters, Director of the OSU Marching Band. Columbus, OH: Author. Retrieved from
http://www.osu.edu/assets/pdf/Investigation-Report.pdf
The OSU Marching Band Culture Task Force. (2014). OSU Marching Band Culturarl Assessment & Administrative
Oversight Review. Columbus, OH: Author. Retrieved from http://www.osu.edu/assets/pdf/Task%20Force
%20Report%20Final.pdf

Ohio State University Marching


Band
Rookie Midterms:

Source: The Ohio State University Office of University Compliance and Integrity. (2014). Investigation Report: Complaint against Jonathan
Waters, Director of the OSU Marching Band. Columbus, OH: Author. Retrieved from http://www.osu.edu/assets/pdf/Investigation-Report.pdf

Ohio State University Marching


Band
Songbook:

Source: The Ohio State University Office of University Compliance and Integrity. (2014). Investigation Report: Complaint against Jonathan
Waters, Director of the OSU Marching Band. Columbus, OH: Author. Retrieved from http://www.osu.edu/assets/pdf/Investigation-Report.pdf

Ohio State University Marching


Band
Title IX States:
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be
excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be
subjected to discrimination under any education program or
activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
Office of Civil Rights (OCR) of the U.S. Dept. of

Education: defines sexual harassment of students as:


unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature it can deny or limit, on

the basis of sex, the students ability to participate in or to


receive benefits, services, or opportunities in the schools
program.

Sources: Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C. 1681 (1972)


U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. (2001). Revised Sexual Harassment Guidance: Harassment of Students by School
Employees, Other Students, or Third Parties. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from
http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/shguide.pdf

The Ohio State University Office of University Compliance and Integrity. (2014). Investigation Report: Complaint against Jonathan
Waters, Director of the OSU Marching Band. Columbus, OH: Author. Retrieved from http://www.osu.edu/assets/pdf/InvestigationReport.pdf

Ohio State University Marching


Band
OCRs 2011 Dear Colleague Letter also states:
Title IX prohibits gender-based harassment, which may
include acts of verbal, nonverbal, or physical aggression,
intimidation, or hostility based on sex or sex-stereotyping,
even if those acts do not involve conduct of a sexual nature
If a school knows or reasonably should know about studenton-student harassment that creates a hostile environment,
Title IX requires the school to take immediate action to
eliminate the harassment, prevent its recurrence, and
address its effects (emphasis added)

Sources: U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. (2011). Dear Colleague Letter, April 4, 2011. Washington,
DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague-201104.pdf
The Ohio State University Office of University Compliance and Integrity. (2014). Investigation Report: Complaint against
Jonathan Waters, Director of the OSU Marching Band. Columbus, OH: Author. Retrieved from
http://www.osu.edu/assets/pdf/Investigation-Report.pdf

Ohio State University Marching


Band
OUCI found that the culture of the band resulted in acts of

sexual harassment, which created a hostile learning


environment for students, in violation of Title IX
Band director Jonathan Waters failed to take action to

eliminate the harassment, prevent its recurrence, and


address its effects.
Waters is subsequently fired days after OUCI report is released

Sources: The Ohio State University Office of University Compliance and Integrity. (2014). Investigation Report: Complaint against
Jonathan Waters, Director of the OSU Marching Band. Columbus, OH: Author. Retrieved from
http://www.osu.edu/assets/pdf/Investigation-Report.pdf
Binkley, C. (2014, July 25). Ohio State band director Jonathan Waters may fight firing. Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved from
http://www.dispatch.com/content/stories/local/2014/07/24/ohio-state-band-waters.html?utm_medium=twitter&utm_source=twitterfeed

Take Away Points


Do you know who the Title IX coordinator is

on your campus?
Do you know what other offices there are on
your campus to assist you if there is an
issue?
George Mason University Office of Case

Management

If you suspect or knows or reasonably should

know about student-on-student harassment


that creates a hostile environment, YOU
MUST ACT IMMEDIATELY

Relevant Laws & Policies


Individual State Hazing Statutes
Title IX
Plus subsequent clarifying reports from OCR

Individual Institutions Hazing and Sexual

Harassment Policies

Institutions Hazing and Sexual


Harassment Policies
Almost all institutions have their own policies

that pertain to hazing and sexual harassment


As a Club Sports professional, you should be
aware of these policies
Generally found in:
Student

Code of Conduct (hazing policies as they


relate to students)
Non-discrimination policies (responsibilities of
staff/faculty as they relate to hazing and
discrimination)

Relevant Cases
Lloyd v. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity
Court ruled that co-defendant Cornell University did not have
a duty of care for the plaintiff as it did not know about prior
hazing incidents
Furek v. University of Delaware
University was liable for damages as university could not

abandon its residual duty of control once it was aware of the


incident

Sources: Lloyd v. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, 1999 WL 47153 (N.D.N.Y. 1999).
Furek v. University of Delaware, 594 A.2d 506 (Del.1991)

Implications for Higher Education


Professionals
Proper education of students and staff about

hazing
What is it?
Law and policies that are associated with it in your

jurisdiction
How to address it

Be aware of what is taking place around you


Duty to act if you become aware of a

potential hazing situation, contact your


institutions Compliance (or like-titled) office
immediately
Once an institution employee is aware, must
take actions to immediately relieve the hostile
environment and ensure it does not reoccur

FAMU and OSU Resources


www.famu.edu/hazing
http://www.osu.edu/bandculturetaskforce

Learning Outcomes
Learn where to find hazing statutes

applicable to your state


Be able to define your duty to act, as
dictated by federal statutes
Learn two best practices to help prevent
hazing on your campus

Works Cited
Armario, C. (2011, November 29). Julian White, Fired FAMU Band Director Says His Hazing
Warnings Were Ignored. Associated Press. Retrieved from
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/11/29/julian-white-fired-famu-b_n_1118349.html
Associated Press, file photo (2011, November 19).
AZ Rev Stat 15-2301 (through 1st Reg Sess 51st Leg. 2013)
Balona, D. (2012, May 10). FAMU band director Julian White retires unexpectedly. Orlando
Sentinel. Retrieved from Armario, C. (2011, November 29). Julian White, Fired FAMU Band
Director Says His Hazing Warnings Were Ignored. Associated Press. Retrieved from
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/11/29/julian-white-fired-famu-b_n_1118349.html
Binkley, C. (2014, July 25). Ohio State band director Jonathan Waters may fight firing.
Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved from
http://www.dispatch.com/content/stories/local/2014/07/24/ohio-state-band-waters.html?
utm_medium=twitter&utm_source=twitterfeed
Cannon, S./Associated Press (2014, November 22).
Fineout, G. (2012, July 11). Florida A&M president resigns in wake of scandal. Associated
Press. Retrieved from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2012/jul/11/florida-m-presidentresigns-wake-scandal/
FL Stat 775.082(4)(a) (2014)
FL Stat 775.082(6)(b)(2)(e) (2014)
FL Stat 768.28-5 (2014)
FL Stat 1006.63 (2014)

Works Cited
Florida A&M University. (n.d.). FAMU Marching 100 History Timeline. Retrieved from Florida Agricultural
and Mechanical University: http://www.famu.edu/index.cfm?marching100&HistoryTimeLine
Florida v. Baskin, 2012-CF-005695-A-O (Circuit Court of the Ninth Judicial Circuit For Orange County,
Florida 2012).
Florida v. Martin, 2012-CF-005695-M-O (Circuit Court of the Ninth Judicial Circuit for Orange County,
Florida 2012).
Furek v. University of Delaware, 594 A.2d 506 (Del.1991)
George Mason University Office of Student Conduct. (2014). GMU Code of Student Conduct 2014-15.
Fairfax, VA: Author. Retrieved from http://studentconduct.gmu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/20142015-Code-of-Student-Conduct.pdf
George Mason University. (2008 (Revised 2012)). University Policy - Non-Discrimination Policy 1201.
Fairfax, VA: Author. Retrieved from http://universitypolicy.gmu.edu/policies/non-discrimination-policy/
Hightower, K. (2014, October 31). Dante Martin, Ex-FAMU Marching Band Member, Guilty Of
Manslaughter In Hazing Case. Associated Press. Retrieved from
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/10/31/dante-martin-hazing-famu-manslaughter_n_6084670.html
Hudak, S. (2014, September 10). Drum major Robert Champion's parents settle with bus company,
driver in FAMU hazing lawsuit. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved from
http://www.orlandosentinel.com/news/breaking-news/os-famu-hazing-robert-champion-settlement20140910-story.html
Hudak, S., & Haughney, K. (2012, May 17). Two FAMU band members admit hazing female clarinet
player. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved from http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2012-05-17/features/osfamu-hazing-pleas-bria-hunter-20120517_1_hazing-incident-band-members-campus-police

Works Cited
Kunerth, J., & Balona, D. (2012, February 5). FAMU death: Brutal rituals defied ban, band
members say. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.sun-sentinel.com/os-famu-hazingnarrative-20120204-story.html#page=1
Lloyd v. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, 1999 WL 47153 (N.D.N.Y. 1999)
Md. CRIMINAL LAW Code Ann. 3-607 (2014)
StopHazing. (n.d.). States With Anti-Hazing Laws. Retrieved from
http://www.stophazing.org/laws/states-with-anti-hazing-laws/
The New York Times. (2012, May 22). Witness Interviews in the Robert Champion
investigation. The New York Times. Retrieved from
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/05/24/us/hazing-interviews-documents.html?
ref=us
The Ohio State University Office of University Compliance and Integrity. (2014). Investigation
Report: Complaint against Jonathan Waters, Director of the OSU Marching Band. Columbus,
OH: Author. Retrieved from http://www.osu.edu/assets/pdf/Investigation-Report.pdf
The OSU Marching Band Culture Task Force. (2014). OSU Marching Band Culturarl
Assessment & Administrative Oversight Review. Columbus, OH: Author. Retrieved from
http://www.osu.edu/assets/pdf/Task%20Force%20Report%20Final.pdf
The OSU Marching Band. (n.d.). The Ohio State University Marching Band. Retrieved from
https://osumarchingband.com/osumb/
Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C. 1681 (1972)

Works Cited
U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. (2001). Revised Sexual
Harassment Guidance: Harassment of Students by School Employees, Other
Students, or Third Parties. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from
http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/shguide.pdf
U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. (2011). Dear Colleague
Letter, April 4, 2011. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from
http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague-201104.pdf
VA Code 18.2-11(a) (2014)
VA Code 18.2-56 (2014)
Wilmath, K. (2011, November 23). Latest death evokes night of severe hazing
endured by former FAMU band member. Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved from
http://www.tampabay.com/news/education/college/latest-death-evokes-nightof-severe-hazing-endured-by-former-famu-band/1203285

Thank you for your time!


Ryan Bradshaw
George Mason University
rbradsh5@gmu.edu