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Corruption

in India

Corruption in India

As with many developing nations, corruption


is widespread in India. India is ranked 84 out
of a 180 countries in Transparency
International's Corruption Perceptions Index,
although its score has improved consistently
from 2.7 in 2002 to 3.4 in 2008 (Although this
may be due to the change in polling that the
survey has undergone). Corruption has taken
the role of a pervasive aspect of Indian
politics and bureaucracy.

Corruption in India

Corruption
across various States
of India

Corruption in India

Extent of corruption in Indian states, as measured in a 2005


study by Transparency International India.
As per Transparency International India, "India Corruption Study
2005", Kerala is the least corrupt State in India. Bihar, on the
other hand, is the most corrupt State. Jammu & Kashmir ranks
next to Bihar. Himachal Pradesh followed by Gujarat is ranked
second IRILMMs Digest of Readings on Vigilance & Ethics in
Public Procurements 4 and third respectively after Kerala. This
study was carried across eleven public services.
Kerala was found least corrupt in all these services. Himachal
Pradesh was found less corrupt. In Gujarat services such as
education, judiciary and land administration was ranked as more
corrupt compared to other states. However in other services,
Gujarat ranked better.

Corruption in India

Politics
Criminalization of Indian politics is a problem.
In July 2008 The Washington Post reported that
nearly a fourth of the 540 Indian
Parliament members faced criminal charges,
"including human trafficking, immigration
rackets, embezzlement, rape and even murder". At
state level, things are often worse. In
Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections 2002, candidates
with criminal records won the
majority of seats.

Corruption in India

Police

Despite state prohibitions against torture and custodial


misconduct by the police, torture is widespread in police
custody, which is a major reason behind deaths in
custody. The police often torture innocent people until a
'confession' is obtained to save influential and wealthy
offenders. G.P. Joshi, the programme coordinator of the
Indian branch of the Commonwealth Human Rights
Initiative in New Delhi comments that the main issue at
hand concerning police violence is a lack of accountability
of the police.

Corruption in India

The chief economic consequences of corruption are the loss to


the, an unhealthy climate for investment and an increase in the
cost of government-subsidised services. The TI India study
estimates the monetary value of petty corruption in 11 basic
services provided by the government, like education,
healthcare, judiciary, police, etc., to be around Rs. 21,068
crores. India still ranks in the bottom quartile of developing
nations in terms of the ease of doing business, and compared
to China and other lower developed Asian nations, the average
time taken to secure the clearances for a start up or to invoke
bankruptcy is much greater.

Corruption in India

Anti-corruption
efforts

Corruption in India

Right to Information Act


The Right to Information Act (2005) and equivalent
acts in the states, that require government officials to
furnish information requested by citizens or face
punitive action, computerisation of services and
various central and state government acts that
established vigilance commissions have considerably
reduced corruption or at least have opened up
avenues to redress grievances. The 2006 report by
Transparency International puts India at the 70th
place and states that significant improvements were
made by India in reducing corruption.

Corruption in India

Computerization

Bhoomi is a project jointly funded by the Government of India


and the Government of Karnataka to digitize the paper land
records and create
a software mechanism to
control changes to the land registry in Karnataka.
The project was designed to eliminate the long-standing
problem of inefficiency and corruption.

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