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TOPIC: BRAINARD

OCCUPATIONAL PREFERENCE
INVENTORY FORM R by Raul P.
Brainard/ Ralph T. Brainard

-The Brainard Occupational Preference Inventory is one instrument designed for the systematic
- This is specially sited for students in Grades 8- 12 and for adults whose level of reading skill is relatively low.

study

of

persons

interests.

- It is a questionnaire- type
inventory
which
do
not
necessarily
analyse
ones
vocational
fitness
but
his
responses for attaining his goals
which he can effectively discuss
with his advisers or counsellors.

However, the counsellor


should be aware of existing
variables such as general
ability. Special abilities, sex
and age.
-

Description of the Inventory


- The Brainard Occupational
Preference Inventory provides
scores in the six general
occupational fields for each
sex.

- Both sexes are expected to give responses in the following fields:


Commercial, Mechanical, Professional, Aesthetic and Scientific.
- Only boy answers the agriculture field and the girls, the personal service items.

- Each area contains twenty


questions
divided
equally
among four occupational areas.
The respondent indicates his
answers by underlining his
response.
Ex.: a. strongly dislikes it b.
dislikes it c. neutral about it d.
strongly likes it

Administration
1. Preparation
- Factors to consider in
choosing a testing room: good
lighting, comfortable
ventilation, and freedom from
distraction.

- There should be adequate


space provisions for working
through familiarity or mastery
of the instructions, specifically
the method of marking
answers.
- One or more proctors are
needed if more than 25
persons are to take the

- The proctor should also master


the
instructions.
All
testing
materials shall be under the care
and
responsibility
of
the
examiner.
2. Materials
Each
respondent
shall
be
provided with the following
materials:
question
booklet,
answer sheet, pencil and eraser.

- If the answer sheets are to be


machined
scored,
the
respondent shall use a lead
pencil
specified
for
this
purpose.
- Question booklets are revised
so it is important to warn the
subject to keep them free from
marks.

3. Time
There is no time limit
because this is an inventory,
but 30 minutes may be
enough for most persons.
4. Procedures
- Scripted

Sample:
Distribute the question booklet, answer sheets
and pencils. Say. Dont make any marks on the
question booklet. Do not write on the answer
sheet until I tell you to do so. After filling up the
identifying information on their answer sheets,
ask for questions regarding the marking of
response then say, When I tell you to begin, open
the booklet to the question page and put your
answers on the separate sheet by drawing line as
described in the instructions. When you get to
Part 2, begin with question number (10) on page
7. Answer the questions on the left side of the
page for males and left side of the page for
females. Remember to make the marks heavy
and black. Now begin.

4. Scoring
- Six fields scores are obtained
from the Brainard Occupational
Preference Inventory. Scoring
may be done either by hand or
by test scoring machine.
Weighs for various responses
are:
1- For SD
3- for N
2- For D
4- for L

5. NORMS
Normative data were
obtained by administering the
inventory to almost 10, 000
students in 14 school systems.
Both sexes were tested in
Grades 8- 12.

6. INTERPRETATION OF
SCORES
- In testing abilities, raw scores
are rather meaningless. They
must be converted into some
sort of normative ranks.
- A test score of 90 is
meaningless unless ranked with
the scores of the others who took
the test. In measuring interest,

Example:
Jane Santos
Dolores Jones
Score Rank
Score Rank
I-Commercial
69 C- - average 68 C- - average
III-Professional
69 B--- high
63 C- - average
V - - Scientific
69 A- - very high 68 C- - average

OCCUPATIONAL INTRES
INVENTORY
by Edwin Lee and Louis P. Thorpe
The Test
The Occupational Interest
Inventory is designed to appraise
and analyse the vocationally
significant interests of the
individual.

- It is not a test on occupational


abilities
or
skills
but
on
occupational preferences.
- The use of interest patterns in
educational
and
vocational
guidance enhances a success of
clients and counsellors as well.
- Its purpose is to aid individuals
in
discovering
the
basic
occupational interests possessed

- This information can be used


to help him become an
interested, well- adjusted and
effective
employee
and
person.
-

The choice of a vocation may


be on the basis of his personal
qualities, his abilities and
other related factors.

Description of the Test


- This test will help students and
young adults find their field of
interests. The inventory gives
ten scores that enable the
examinee
to
evaluate
his
interests in terms of the different
vocational categories or fields.

The three groups of scores of


the Inventory are as follows:
1. Fields of Interest
i. Personal- Social
ii. Natural
iii. Mechanical
iv. Business
v. The Arts
vi. The Sciences

2. Types of Interest
i. Verbal
ii. Manipulative
iii. Computational
3. Level of Interest

PERSONAL- SOCIAL
- Examinees with high scores
in this area like people; they
have a real desire to improve
the lot of others. This is
expressed through interests in
physical
care,
protection,
personal attention, instruction
and counsel.

NATURAL
- Examinees getting high in this
field can be expected to be
interested in agriculture and
protection of natural resources
includes raising cattle, poultry,
crops, and pond products; the
extraction minerals; the care of
forests and fishing.

MECHANICAL
- Examinees scoring high in the
mechanical field are interested
in taking things apart and
putting them together. Curiosity
on motors and machines is a
primary factor in activities
involving use of tools of
production, including the use
mechanical principles to make

- Most of the items in this field


are on jobs involving
processing, manufacturing,
building, constructing and
repairing.
BUSINESS
- All interests in business are
grouped in this area. They
include business contact and
business detail of office pursuits.

are interested in selling,


management, finance,
distributive activities,
secretarial and office work,
banking and investment
pursuits.
THE ARTS
High scores obtained in arts
shows that the subject is

- The desire for the aesthetic


qualities
of
life
through
everyday activities such as
arrangement of flowers and
furniture in the house and
attractive landscaping of the
yard are reflected in the items
of the Arts fields. All of these
items are performance items.

THE SCIENCES
- In this field, the desire to
understand and manipulate the
physical environment is basic.
The
use
of
experimental
techniques reflected in these 40
items. The science area contains
items
involving
research,
invention and determination of
cause and effect relationships.

TYPES OF INTERESTS:
Ninety items constitute Part I.
Three symbols are used:
a. Verbal
b. Manipulative
c. Computational

1. Verbal- the verbal items


makes use of words in a
vocational context . The
words may either be spoken
or written but they are always
used to communicate ideas
successfully.
The
ideas
expressed vary but they can
used to help others to accept
an idea or to make a

2. Manipulative- subjects
scoring
high
here
enjoy
working with things.
3.
Computationalthe
computational type consists of
items dealing with numerical
symbols
and
concepts.
Working with numbers in
financial,
scientific
undertakings or rather related

Levels of Interest
- The inventory identified in Part
II are the levels on which an
individuals basic interest lies. It
contains 30 triads. There are six
major fields, each containing five
triads. It is possible for an
individual to have a high,
average, or low interest score
regardless of his basic interest

RELIABILITY
The
reliability
of
the
Occupational
Interest
Inventory
has
been
determined by a test- retest
method after an interval of
one week. It was given to 177
twelfth graders, 93 boys and
84 girls.

VALIDITY
- Factors that determine built
in validity are:
1) Item selection
2) Item description
3) Range and balance of items
4) Manner of item presentation.

1.Item
Selectionthe
original items were based on
the United States census
data. It contains thousands
of occupations which are
coded according to the
dictionary of occupational
titles.

2. Description of Items- the


halo effect gives a distorted
picture of the results of the
interest inventories that utilize
occupational titles.
- In 1920, Thorndike warned
against this phenomenon while
Symonds discussed it in his
textbook. The genuine interest
disappears
when
the
tasks

3. Balance of Items- Two


hundred forty items (240) groups
of activities associated with six
major interests fields are
presented by the inventory.
4. Presentation of Items- The
forced- choice used in the
inventory requires some choices
between two groups of activities,

KUDER PREFERENCE RECORD


(PERSONAL DATA)
- It is made up of five scales
describing different types of
personal and social activities. It
identifies many of the elements
that contribute to occupational
satisfaction. The other form
which is the Vocational Form
supplements Personal Form A in

DEVELOPMENT AND
CONSTRUCTION OF THE
SCALES
- An intensive 5- year research
was done in the development of
the Kuder Preference RecordVocational.
The
preliminary
scales were tried out in various
age and sex groups. About
2,500 adults and 2,000 students

Kuder Preference Record


- is a test used to assess
participants
suitability
for
various fields of employment.

ADMINISTRATION
- The administration of the Kuder
Preference Record may be done
with or without supervision,
individually or in groups. The
instructions are printed on the
first page and the subject is
expected to read them carefully.

- The Kuder Preference RecordVocational is given ahead and


then Kuder Preference RecordPersonal is given after.
- Both forms have no time
limits. Adults may complete
the test in about 40 minutes
while high school students
may take a little longer.

SCORING AND PROFILING


- Scoring can be done quickly
and easily by the person taking
the test. Directions for machine
scoring are furnished with the
scoring stencils. After scoring, a
subject can construct his own
profile
by
following
the
directions printed on the profile
sheets.

INTERPRETATION
- The 75th and the 25th percent
cut off points for high and low
scores, respectively. In
interpreting the scores, it is
good to look at both high and
low scores.

- Occupations that involve leastliked and most liked activities


should
be
taken
into
consideration
because
low
scores some scales predict job
satisfaction
in
certain
occupations.

VALIDITY
- The criteria such as personal
adjustment, grades in specific
courses, popularity, marital
adjustment, personality
characteristics and job
satisfaction, success in various
jobs, job perseverance, as well as
occupation were studied.

Results were generally


consistent with the results from
an early study, results of the
skilled and semi- skilled groups
were markedly different from the
other groups.
RELIABILITY
- Was computed using the Kuder
Richardson Formula.

OCCUPATIONAL TESTING
- are tests that are commonly
employed as aids to
occupational decisions,
including both individual
counselling and institutional
decisions concerning the
selection and classification of
personnel. This is to be viewed
by the institutions responsible

Major
application
of
occupational
testing
also
covered in both versions of the
Testing Standards- is in the
licensing and certification of
persons deemed qualified to
practice in any of a large number
of trades and professions.

VALIDATION OF
EMPLOYMENT TESTS
- From the standpoint of both
employee and employer, it is
obviously of prime importance
that individuals be placed in
jobs for which they have
appropriate qualifications.

- Effective placement also implies


that traits irrelevant to the
requirements of the particular job
should
not
affect
selection
decisions, either favourable or
unfavourable.

- If a mechanical ability test


requires a much higher level
or reading comprehension that
does the job, its use would not
lead to the most effective
utilization of personnel for that
job.

GLOBAL PROCEDURES FOR THE


ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE
Probationary appointment- tasks
is actually part of the work to be
performed on the job, but the
tasks and working conditions are
uniform for all applicants.

Assessment Centre techniquesused largely in evaluating


managerial or administrative
personnel. This includes
situational tests.
- This tests provides a carefully
prepared set of incoming letters,
memoranda, reports, papers to
be signed and similar items.

Examinee has the opportunity to


study background materials for
orientation and information
regarding the hypothetical job.
Ex. Most hypothetical job
interview questions begin by
asking: What would you do if.
followed by some kind of
situation, such as you had to
make a big decision? or you

JOB ELEMENT AND THE JOB


ELEMENT METHOD
- To obtain a well- rounded picture
of job activities, the job analyst
may draw upon several sources of
information. Published training and
operating manuals, performance
records and especially subject
matter experts such supervisors,
instructors or experienced workers
in field are frequently consulted

- An effective job analysis also


should concentrate on those
aspects of performance that
differentiate
most
sharply
between the better and the
poorer workers.
- Job analysis is one of the oldest
and most viable methods
developed
in
industrial
psychology

THE PREDICTION OF JOB


PERFORMANCE
Synthetic validation it is
possible to identify skills ,
knowledge and other
performance requirements
common to many different jobs.
Validity generalizationoriginally developed by Schmidt
and Hunter. Findings obtained

THE CRITERION OF JOB


PERFORMANCE
Multiple factor theory- uses
rubric as criteria.
OCCUPATIONAL USE OF TESTS
Assessment tools used:
Interview
Background data
Academic Intelligence Test
(Wonderlic Personnel Tests- a

CAREEER PLANNING TESTS


1. Kuder Occupational Interest
Survey( KOIS)
2. Strong Interest Inventory(SII)
- Occupational Interest inventories
do not attempt to predict whether
you would be successful in various
occupations, but likely to job
satisfaction than a job success.

STRONG INTEREST INVENTORY (SII)


The
Strong
Interest
Inventory
assessment is one of the worlds most
widely respected and frequently used
career planning tools. It has helped both
academic and business organizations
develop the brightest talent and has
guided thousands of individualsfrom
high school and college students to
midcareer workers seeking a changein
their search for a rich and fulfilling career.

How It Helps
The Strong Interest Inventory assessment is
ideal for a wide range of applications, including
the following:
Choosing a college majorhelps students
uncover their career interests and identify
which areas of study are appropriate or
required for a particular field.

Career explorationopens up the world of


work to first-time career seekers and those
considering career transition by identifying
their interests and demonstrating how they

Career developmenthelps heighten


individuals self-awareness and provide
deeper understanding of individual strengths
and blind spots, including work style and
risk-taking orientation.

Employee engagementhelps employees


align their interests with areas of
responsibility in their job that reflect those
interests.

Reintegrationhelps individuals navigate


the reintroduction process after a period of
disconnection.

THE END
Thank you
for
listening.