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Project Mgmt and HR Mgmt Advice

and HRMS Implementation

Module 5

Module 11 Objectives

Understand how the use of PM approaches, techniques, and tools help throughout the
entire SDLC
Be able to describe what factors are used to develop program evaluation and review
technique (PERT), critical path method (CPM), and Gantt charts
Understand how monitoring the project activities carefully on a Gantt chart will ensure
project completion on time
Be able to construct a Gantt chart
Understand how Six Sigma can be used in HR and project management
Understand how the combination of knowledge from the IT and HRM literature makes the
development and implementation of the HRIS successful
Be able to describe how IT factors can affect HRIS project success
Understand how knowledge from HRM literature provides guidance for handling the
behavioral problems and issues that arise in HRIS development
Understand the different roles of the steering committee, the CBA team, and the PM team
in the HRIS project
Be able to describe how training and documentation are important to both the
development and implementation of an HRIS
Be able to describe how critical success factors affect the success or failure of an HRIS
Michael J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource
project.
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Project Management and HRM


Advice for HRIS Implementation

CHAPTER 6
Michael J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource
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STATISTICS

It Has Been Estimated That The Failure Of


HRIS Projects Costs Organizations In The
United States Alone At Least $100 Billion A
Year (Ewusi-Mensah, 1997).
Of Those Systems That Are Completed,
More Than 55% Will Exceed Cost And Time
Estimates By A Factor Of 2.
Only 13% Of The IS Projects That Are
Completed Are Considered Successful By
The Executives Who Sponsor Them

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PROJECT MANAGEMENT PHASES

Initiation
Development Of Project Concept And
Project Proposal (Project Charter)
Required Tasks
Work Breakdown Structure
Work Plan & Packages
Project Execution
Tracking And Periodic Progress
Reports
Project Close-out
Implementation, Evaluation And
Maintenance Of The HRIS
5

Michael J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource


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PROJECT MANAGEMENT QUALITY


CONSIDERATIONS

Six Sigma

Used To Assess The Effectiveness Of


HR Processes
Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve
And Control (DMAIC) Approach

Develop An Overall Work Plan

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PM APPROACHES AND TOOLS

Performance Evaluation And Review


(PERT)

The Critical Path Method (CPM)

Gantt Chart

Major Benefit Is A Tighter Control Over


The Process To Ensure Successful
Implementation Of The HRIS.
Michael J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource
Information Systems: Basics, Applications, and Future Directions, 2e 2012 SAGE
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PM APPROACHES AND TOOLS:


PERT

Method For Analyzing The Tasks


Involved In Completing A Given Project,
The Time Needed To Complete Each
Task, And The Minimum Time Needed To
Complete The Total Project.

Michael J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource


Information Systems: Basics, Applications, and Future Directions, 2e 2012 SAGE
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PM APPROACHES AND TOOLS:


CPM

Uses A Mathematically Based Algorithm


For Scheduling A Set Of Project
Activities

Developed By Dupont And Remington


Rand Corporation For Managing Plant
Maintenance Projects.

Michael J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource


Information Systems: Basics, Applications, and Future Directions, 2e 2012 SAGE
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PM APPROACHES AND TOOLS:


GANTT

A Graphical Representation Of The Duration


Of Tasks Against The Progression Of Time In
A Project.
Most People Have Probably Constructed A
Gantt Chart In Formally Without Realizing
That They Had Done So.
Instructions For How To Develop A Gantt
Chart And Then Covert It To A Pert Chart Are
Contained In The Following Website:
Http://Ganttproject.Biz/.

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Example of a Gantt Chart

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IT FACTORS AFFECTING PM
SUCCESS
Solve The Right Problem.
2. Have Systems Developers Who Are
Sensitive To Hr Issues And Willing To Learn
About The Constraints In Hr Functionality.
3. Have Project Managers Who Understand
The Dynamic Nature Of Any HRIS Project
And The Interrelations Among Various
Factors
In Addition, Three General Factors That Affect
Successful PM Are Time, Cost, And Scope.
1.

Michael J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource


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THE HRM PERSPECTIVE:


ORGANIZATIONAL
REQUIREMENTS
1. Identification Of Steering Committee
And Project Charter
Selection Of Project Sponsor
2. Configuring The PM Team
Representatives From The Functional
Units Affected, Most Notable HR And
IT
Team Training
3. Identification Of Available Resources
And Constraints

Michael J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource


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THE HRM PERSPECTIVE:


ORGANIZATIONAL
REQUIREMENTS
4. Controlling Project Creep
Project Creep Is Defined As The
Enlargement Of The Original
Boundaries Of The Project As Defined
In The Project Charter.
5. Selection Of The Implementation Team
The Implementation Team Also Has
Primary Responsibility For
Communication With The Entire
Organization

Michael J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource


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THE HRM PERSPECTIVE:


ORGANIZATIONAL
REQUIREMENTS
6. Training And Documentation
Complete, Accurate, And Up-to-date
Documentation Of The System Is
Critical For The Implementation Of A
Successful HRIS.
Training In Both Group Processes And
Change Management Methods.
Training On The New System
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Barriers to Success

Inadequate resources Lack of


management commitment
Project team instability
Organizational Politics
Poor needs analysis
Omission of key persons on project
team
Failure to include key groups in needs
analysis
Inadequate control/involvement by HR

Michael J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource


Information Systems: Basics, Applications, and Future Directions, 2e 2012 SAGE
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Critical Success Factors

Top Management Support


Provision Of Adequate & Timely
Resources
Ongoing Communication
Conducive Organizational Culture
User Involvement
Project Champions (Steering
Committee)
Organizational Structure
Change Management Methodology
Project Control & Monitoring
Cross Integration Between Business

J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource


Michael
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Inc.

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Creating an Environment of
Motivation

Consider rewards of recognition.

They dont have to be large, but they need


to be a standard part of operating
procedures to create a motivating project
environment.
Be sure to include all project employees, not
just the highly visible ones, or those above a
certain rank.

Recognizing work done well and keeping


communications open are the two most
important operating procedures for any
project manager.

Michael J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource


Information Systems: Basics, Applications, and Future Directions, 2e 2012 SAGE
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18

CHAPTER 16
Information Security and
Privacy in HRIS

INTRODUCTION

A Great Deal Of Confidential Information


Employees are Captured and Stored by
Organizations

Employee Personal Details


Pay And Benefits History
Medical Records
Disciplinary Records

Data Are Stored Electronically And Transmitted


Across Networks.
Increasing Integration Of HRIS Has Made
Information Security Management A Complex
AndMohan
Challenging
Undertaking
Michael J. Kavanagh,
Thite, and Richard D. Johnson
- Human Resource

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Information Security in
HRIS

Protecting Information In The HRIS From


Unauthorized

Access, Use, Disclosure, Disruption,


Modification, and estruction

Objectives of Information Security

Protect Confidentiality, Integrity And


Availability Of Information (Pfleeger, 2006;
Wong, 2006b).

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COMPONENTS OF
INFORMATION SECURITY

Three Main Principles Of Information Security

The HRIS Is Composed Of Three Components

Confidentiality
Integrity
Availability
Hardware
Software
Communications

As Mechanisms Of Protection

Physical
Personal
Organizational Levels

Michael J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource


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COMPONENTS OF INFORMATION
SECURITY
Figure 16.1

SOURCE: Wikipedia (2007)


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LEGAL REQUIREMENTS
FOR INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY

Personal Information Protection And Electronics


Document Act (Canada)

Security Breach Notification Law (California,


USA)

Supports And Promotes Electronic Business By


Protecting Personal Information That Is Collected,
Used Or Disclosed

Requires Organizations To Notify Customers Or


Employees When Unencrypted Personal Information
May Be Compromised, Stolen Or Lost.

Computer Misuse Act 1990 (UK)


Proposed To Make Computer Crime (e.g. Hacking Or
Cyber-terrorism) A Type Of Criminal Offense.

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LEGAL REQUIREMENTS FOR


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (Cont.)

The European Union Data Protection Directive


(EUDPD)

Requires That All EU Members Must Adopt National


Regulations To Standardize The Protection Of Data
Privacy For Citizens Throughout The European Union.

Health Insurance Portability And Accountability


Act (USA)

Sets National Standards for Electronic Healthcare


Transactions and Requires Healthcare Providers,
Insurance Companies And Employers To Safeguard
The Security Of Health Information Of Individuals.

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THREATS TO INFORMATION
SECURITY

Human Errors In Data Entry & Handling

Damage By Employee

Disgruntled & Ill-informed Employees: Critical Role Of


HR

Misuse Of Computer Systems:

Unauthorized Access To Or Use Of Information

Computer-based Fraud

Viruses, Worms & Trojans: Cyber Terrorism

Hackers
Natural Disasters

Michael
J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource
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26

BEST PRACTICES IN HR
INFORMATION SECURITY

Adopt A Comprehensive Privacy Policy

Store Sensitive Personal Data In Secure


Computer Systems And Provide Encryption

Dispose Of Documents Properly Or Restore


Computer Drives And CD-ROMs

Build Document Destruction Capabilities Into


The Office Infrastructure

Conduct Regular Security Practice Training

Conduct Privacy Walk-throughs

(Canavan, 2003; David, 2002; Tansley & Watson,


2000)
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ADDITIONAL BEST
PRACTICES IN HR
INFORMATION SECURITY

The Careful Selection Of Staff with Regard to


their Honesty and Integrity

Raise Information Security Awareness and


Ensure Employees Understand Corporate
Security Policies

Institute Measures To Address The Personal


Problems Of Staff, Such As Gambling And Drug
Addictions, Which Might Lead Them Indulge In
Abuse For Financial Gains

Provide Access To Effective Grievance


Procedures
Kovach, Hughes, Fagan,
and Maggitti (2002)
Grundy, Collier, and Spaul (1994)
Since The Motivation For Much Computer Abuse
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Inc. Retaliation Against Management
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SECURITY
MANAGEMENT FOR
HRIS

ISO/IEC 27002

Administrative/Procedural

Logical/Technical

Physical Controls

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INFORMATION PRIVACY

Comprises Ethical, Moral, And Legal Dimensions


And Has Assumed Greater Importance With The
Increased Adoption Of The Internet And Web 2.0.

Privacy Is A Human Value Consisting Of Four


Elements (Kovach & Tansey, 2000):

Solitude: The Right To Be Alone Without Disturbances


Anonymity: The Rights To Have No Public Personal
Identity
Intimacy: The Right Not To Be Monitored
Reserve: The Right To Control Ones Personal Information
Including The Methods Of Dissemination Of That
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CONTROLLING ACCESS TO
HR DATA

Administrative Controls

Logical (Technical) Controls

Physical Controls

Security classification for Information

Access control

Cryptography

Defense in depth

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31

INFORMATION PRIVACY
AND HRIS

Concerns

Types Of Employee Information that Can be Collected


And Stored In The System

Who Can Access And Update The Information

(Noe et

al., 1994; Sadri & Chatterjee, 2003)

Considerations

Collect and store information Based On Sound And


Valid Business Reasons (Hubbard Et Al., 1998)

Collect only information which is Necessary, Lawful,


Current, And Accurate (Camardella, 2003)

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HRIS SECURITY BEST


PRACTICES
1. Train Users On How To Securely Use And Handle
The Equipment, Data, And Software.
2. Train Employees To Log Off Personal Computers
After They Are Through Using Them.
3. Do Not Allow Passwords To Be Shared. Change
Passwords Frequently.
4. Run Software Through A Virus-detection Program
Before Using It On The System.
5. Ensure That Backup Copies, Data Files, Software,
And Printouts Are Used Only By Authorized Users.
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(Noe et al., 1994; Pfleeger, 2006)

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HRIS SECURITY BEST


PRACTICES
1. Make Backup Copies Of Data Files And

Programs.

2. Ensure That All Software And Mainframe

Applications Include An Audit Trail (A Record Of


The Changes And Transactions That Occur In A
System, Including When And Who Performed
The Changes).

3. Use Edit Controls (Such As Passwords) To Limit

Employees' Access To Data Files And Data


Fields.

(Noe et al., 1994; Pfleeger, 2006)


4. Employees Take Responsibility For
Updating

Their Employee Records Themselves 34Via The


Self-service System.

Michael J. Kavanagh, Mohan Thite, and Richard D. Johnson - Human Resource


Information Systems: Basics, Applications, and Future Directions, 2e 2012 SAGE
Publications, Inc.