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Hashish in Morocco and

Lebanon

Similarities between Morocco and


Lebanon in terms of Hashish

Morocco and Lebanon became


major producers of hashish in many
market around Europe, Africa, and
the Middle East

Farmers became specialized in


farming

Increased production

Increased potency

Exporting was a HUGE part of


profits

Similarities in Morocco and Lebanon


Cont.

Marginalized areas of production

Repressive legislation

Huge international demand

Global prohibition

Backlash from government

Perfect Climate

Hot, dry days and humid nights, with no rain during the cannabis plant's
flowering and fruiting season

Differences between the countries hash


market
Morocco (Rif)

Lebanon (Beqaa)

Stability in region

traditional market in Morocco

absence of local market for hashish

Significant domestic market

repression against cannabis cultivation

cannabis cultivation was tolerated

Fertilizer, insecticides used


Large irrigation systems to produce
mass quantity of product

Farmers used extensive farming

Farmers used intensive farming

Instability in region

Large-scale production became popular

High production; Lower price

Use little insecticide

Very few use fertilizer

Less production; Higher price

Higher quality

Current Trends

Morocco

Morocco's cannabis cultivation fell from an estimated high of 134,000 ha in 2003, to 47,500 ha
in 2011, or a 65% decrease (Chouvy and Afsahi, 2014, UNODC, 2003 and UNODC, 2013).

Market looks to trend upwards

Lebanon

In 2004 and 2005, the area given over to cannabis cultivation was estimated at 3275 ha and
6150 ha respectively

But almost all of these crops were then destroyed in eradication campaigns, and production
was negligible (In 2004, 87% of the cultivated areas were destroyed, and in 2005, that number
reached 97% based on data provided by the Lebanese security services).

Today there are no official sources in Lebanon. Production is believed to have increased
significantly in past years, as producers take advantage of political instability in the region.

The Syrian Civil War made closed the drug routes to Jordan and Turkey and the major
production is sent to Saudi Arabia, Egypt and East European countries.

The global prohibition of cannabis and the global sustained demand have created
opportunities for poor farmers in the Rif and the Beqaa regions to survive and get wealthy.

Conclusion

Lebanon has always been a producer of hashish and cannabis for export but production is
dropping

Production has fallen off the grid due to


political instability and war.
Morocco is taking advantages of the lowered production in Lebanon and is capturing the
market in Europe.

Morocco production increased since the introduction of hybrids.

Lebanon stays relevant because of its high quality which comes with a higher price.