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Harmful

Chemicals

* neurotoxin

* young children
and fetuses
are the most
vulnerable

Sources of Lead Exposure


ceramic glaze
ammunition

picture tube

pipes & solder

Reducing Lead Exposure

* neurotoxin

* young children
and fetuses
are the most
vulnerable

Sources of mercury in the environment


elemental (Hg) and inorganic (Hg2+)

NATURAL

weathering

ANTHROPOGENI
C

waste incineration

How mercury enters humans


* inhalation (elemental & inorganic)

* Eating fish contaminated with methyl mercury (CH 3Hg)


Once inorganic mercury falls into
the water, bacteria convert it to an
organic form, methyl mercury.
This is easily biomagnified because
of its solubility in fats (lipids).
** Acid deposition can accelerate conversion to methyl mercury **

Reducing Mercury Exposure

* Toxic & persistent


* Can cause respiratory
problems
* Organochlorines may
act as endocrine
disrupters

Uses of Chlorine

TCE
chlorinated
solvents

disinfectant in water treatment

production
of PVC

Reducing use of Chlorine


use O3 or H2O2 to
bleach pulp/paper

alternatives to chlorine
based cleaners

use O3 to disinfect
drinking water

use plant based plastics


instead of PVC plastic

* Chlorinated
hydrocarbon
compounds
* Some are
carcinogenic
* Endocrine,
reproductive, and
immune disruptors

Where do dioxins come from?


* Unwanted by-products of
industrial processes that use
chlorine

production
of PVC
* Incineration of municipal & medical waste

Most human exposure comes from . . .

FOOD
most notably contaminated fatty
meats & dairy products

POPs
Treaty

persistent organic
pollutants

* 2001 international treaty


* Dirty Dozen pollutants including DDT,
PCBs, and dioxins
* GOALS 1> ban/phase out use of dirty dozen
2> detoxify/stockpile dirty dozen

* The United States still has not ratified the treaty

Banned/highly
restricted
chemicals

Pesticides
Insecticides
Industrial Waste

Stockholm
Convention on
Persistent Organic
Pollutants

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Aldrin
Chlordan
DDT
Dieldrin
Endrin
Heptachlor
Hexachlorobenzene
Mirex
Toxaphene
PCBs
Polychlorinated
Dioxins
Polychlorinated
Furans