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Ceramic Conventional

Overview
ceramic are made from inorganic and
non metallic material.
So ceramic conventional is....
ceramic are made from natural
material like clay, feldspar,
y
coalin/nepheline, silica, dolomite talc, Ball cla
etc

China clay
Nepheline /
coalin
Properties of ceramics
material
- Mechanical properties of ceramics
Hard
Wear resistances
Brittle
High melting point
thermal insulators
electrical insulators
nonmagnetic,
oxidation resistant
prone to thermal shock
- Chemical properties of ceramic
Have the electrically neutral
chemically stable
Structure of Ceramics
AX-Type Crystal
Structures
Some of the common
ceramic materials are those
in which there are equal
numbers of cations and
anions. These are often
referred to as AX
compounds, where A
denotes the cation and X the
anion.
example : NaCl
AmXp-type crystal
structure
If the charges on
the cations and anions
are not the same, a
compound can exist
with the chemical
formula where m
and/or p 1.
example : CaF2
AmBnXp - Type
Crystal Structures
It is also possible
for ceramic
compounds to have
more than one type
of cation; for two
types of cations.
Example : BaTiO3
CERAMICS
PROCESSING
Batching and mixing
Forming
Pressing
Casting
Extrusion
Injection molding
Hot Isostatic Pressing

Cold Isostatic
Pressing
Drying

To remove water (and organic


binders) before firing
Improving green strength
Carried out at 100-300oC
Firing
Three stages on process firing:
1. Reaction preliminary to sintering,
which include organic burn out and
the elimination of gaseous products
of decomposition and oxidation
2. Sintering
3. Cooling
CERAMICS
PROCESSING
Product of ceramic material
Whats product of ceramics
conventional?
As we know that the product of
ceramics conventional such as :
Tableware
Bricks
Electrical Porcelain
Refractory
Glass etc.
Whiteware (Keramik Putih)
The product of ceramics has white
color and soft texture. This ceramic is
maked with relatively high
temperature (1200-1500 oC) in the
klin.
types of whiteware are
1. Carthenware (keramik tanah)
2. Chinaware (keramik-cina)
3. Porcelain (porselin)
4. Sanitary ware (keramik-saniter)
5. Stone ware (keramik-batu)
6. Whiteware tile (ubin keramik)
Refractory
Oneofanumberofceramicmaterialsforuseinhigh temperature structures or
equipment. Thetermhightemperatures is some whatindefinite butusually means
aboveabout1830F(1000C),or temperaturesatwhich,becauseofmeltingor
oxidation, the common metals cannotbeused.Insomespecialhigh temperature
applications, theso called refractory metals such astungsten, molybdenum, and
tantalum areused.
Thegreatestuseofrefractoriesisinthesteelindustry,wheretheyareusedforcon
structionofliningsofequipmentsuchasblastfurnaces,hotstoves,andopen-
hearthfurnaces.Otherimportantusesofrefractoriesareforcementkilns,glassta
nks,nonferrousmetallurgicalfurnaces,ceramickilns,steamboilers,andpaperplan
ts.Specialtypesofrefractoriesareusedinrockets,jets,andnuclearpowerplants.
Manyrefractorymaterials,suchasaluminumoxideandsiliconcarbide,arealsover
yhardandareusedasabrasives;someapplications,forexample,aircraftbrakelini
ngs,makeuseofbothcharacteristics.
Refractorymaterialsarecommonlygroupedinto(1)thosecontainingmainlyalumi
nosilicates;(2)thosemadepredominantlyofsilica;(3)thosemadeofmagnesite,do
lomite,orchromeore,termedbasicrefractories(becauseoftheirchemicalbehavio
r);and(4)amiscellaneouscategoryusuallyreferredtoasspecialrefractories.
Porcelaine
Porcelain is aceramicmaterial made by heating materials, generally including
kaolin, in akilnto temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400C (2,200 and 2,600F).
The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of
pottery, arises mainly fromvitrificationand the formation of the mineralmullite
within the body at these high temperatures.
While ceramics have been around for thousands of years,porcelainis a
comparatively new development. Porcelain is made from a clay that has a paste-
like quality and is fired at high temperatures. The process was first mastered in
China in the 1300s, andproducesthe white, glass-like, finish that we associate with
porcelain.
And this is where some confusion about the terms arises. Porcelain is technically a
specific type of ceramic, highly prized for its many fine qualities, but is reproducible
in many areas of the world with only varying degrees of success. Thus, ceramics
that aim to achieve the same level of quality as porcelain may be referred to as
porcelain, although they do not technically qualify. True porcelain will often come
with acertification for that reason.

Proses porselin
Video of refractory