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Japan

The period of the Japanese occupation


lasting three years (1942-1945) was of
the darkest interludes in the history of
the Philippines.
Kura

*most feared word


(inward wave of hand meant come
here! signified disaster and outward
wave of hand meant dismiss or
scram)
Five mortal enemies of Filipinos:

1. Japanese militaries
2. diseases
3. guerillas
4. hunger
5. Japanese-paid Filipinos
* Japanese encouraged the
development of Tagalog and gave it an
impetus never before witnessed.
* Education Re-orientation: as embodied in Japanese
education policy, its basic points were:
1. Propagation of Filipino culture
2. Dissemination of the principle of Greater
East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
3. Spiritual rejuvenation of the Filipinos
4. Teaching and propagation of Niponggo
5. Diffusion of vocational and elementary
education
6. Promotion of love of labor
Famous Events
Plaza
Cuartel
With the prohibition of writing literary pieces
in English language, Filipino literature was
given a break. Many Filipino writers wrote
plays, poems, short stories, etc. in the
Tagalog and other vernacular language.
Topics and themes were often about life in
the provinces to escape Japanese control
and censorship.
Except
Tribune
Philippine Review

The weekly Liwayway was placed under


strict surveillance until it was managed by a
Japanese named Ishiwara.
The only contact with the outside world was
done with utmost secrecy through the
underground radio program called
Voice of Freedom.
-The drama experienced a lull during the Japanese period
because movie houses showing American films were closed.
- The big movie houses were just made to show stage shows.

A few of the playwriters were:


1. Jose Ma. Hernandez
wrote PANDAY PIRA
2.Francisco Soc Rodrigo
wrote sa PULA, SA PUTI
3.Clodualdo del Mundo
wrote BULAGA (an expression in the game Hide and
Seek).
4. Julian Cruz Balmaceda
wrote SINO BA KAYO?, DAHIL SA ANAK, and HIGANTE NG
PATAY.
Three types of poems emerged during this period.

Tanaga
- like the haiku, it is short, but has
measure and rhyme. Each line has
seventeen syllables and is also
allegorical in meaning.
Karaniwang Anyo (Usual Form)
the usual and common form of
poetry
Haiku

a poem of free verse that the Japanese liked.


It is made up of seventeen (17) syllables divided into
three (3) lines. The first line has five, the second
seven and the third five. It is allegorical in meaning,
short and covers a wide scope in meaning.

Haiku normally features allegorical meaning. It is


usually short but it covers a wide scope. The favorite
topics of haiku writers include nature, love, patriotism,
nationalism, friendship and the human emotions.
Haiku samples

TagalogEnglish
TutubiDragonfly
Hila moy tabak, -5- You pull a saber,
Ang bulaklak nanginig, -7- The flower is shivering,
Sa paglapit mo. -5- Moment you approached.

Anyaya Invitation
Ulilang damo, -5- A lonely grass,
Sa tahimik na ilog, -7- By the edge of the river,
Halika, sinta. -5- Come with me, my love.
Tanka

Tankapoem is very similar to haiku but Tanka poems


have more syllables and it uses simile, metaphor and
personification. Tanks poems are written about
nature, seasons, love, sadness and other strong
emotions. This form of poetry dates back almost
1200 years ago.

The 31 syllables are divided into 5 lines with: first


line with 5, second line with 7, third line with 5,
fourth line with 7,and the fifth line with 7 as
illustrated by the example below:
Tanka Sample

Winter
Beautiful mountains,
-5-
Rivers with cold, cold water,
-7-
White cold snow on rock,
-5-
Trees over the place with frost,
-7-
Karaniwang Anyo (Usual Form)

the usual and common form of


poetry
Filipino Short Stories

-The field of the short story widened during


the Japanese Occupation.

Many wrote short stories.


-Among them were:
Brigido Batungbakal Macario
Pineda
Serafin Guinigindo Liwayway
Arceo,
Narciso Ramos NVM
Gonzales,
As a result of this selection

the following got the first three prizes:


First Prize:
Narciso Reyes with his LUPANG TINUBUAN
Second Prize:
Liwayway Arceos UHAW ANG TIGANG NA
LUPA
Third Prize:
NVM Gonzales LUNSOD NAYON AT DAGAT-
DAGATAN
Other literary Pieces

Nick Joaquin produced THE WOMAN WHO


LOOKED LIKE LAZARUS. Fred Ruiz Castro
wrote a few poems.
HISNATIVE SOIL by Juan Laya (Novel)
President Manuel L. Quezons autobiography
THE GOOD FIGHT was published
posthumously.