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HRP CONCEPTS

(PART 1)
V I D H YA S R I N I VA S
INTRODUCTION

Human resource planning is a process by which an organization


ensures that

it has the right number and kinds of people

at the right place

at the right time

capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the
organization achieve its overall strategic objectives
INTRODUCTION

HR planning must be

linked to the organizations overall strategy to compete


domestically and globally

translated into the number and types of workers needed

Senior HRM staff need to lead top


management in planning for HRM issues.
AN ORGANIZATIONAL FRAMEWORK

A mission statement defines what business the


organization is in, including

why it exists

who its customers are

strategic goals set by senior management to establish targets for the


organization to achieve
Goals are generally defined for the next 5-20 years.
LINKING ORGANIZ ATIONAL STRATEGY TO
HR PL A NNING

During a corporate assessment,

SWOT (Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats) analysis


determines what is needed to meet objectives

strengths and weaknesses and core competencies are identified

HRM determines what knowledge, skills, and abilities are needed by


the organizations human resources through a job analysis.
LINKING ORGANIZ ATIONAL STRATEGY TO HR
PL A NNING
STRATEGIC DIRECTION HR LINKAGE

mission determining organizations


business

setting goals and


objectives and goals
objectives

strategy determining how to attain


goals and objectives

determining what jobs need to be


structure
done and by whom

matching skills, knowledge,


people and abilities to required jobs
L I N K I N G O R G A N I Z ATI O N A L S T R ATE G Y T O H R P L A N N I N G

Decreases in internal supply come about through:


retirements easiest to forecast

dismissals possible to forecast

transfers possible to forecast

layoffs possible to forecast

sabbaticals possible to forecast

voluntary quits difficult to forecast

prolonged illnesses difficult to forecast

deaths hardest to forecast


LINKING ORGANIZ ATIONAL STRATEGY TO HR
PL A NNING

To match labor demand and supply, HR

compares forecasts for demand and supply of workers

monitors current and future shortages, and overstaffing. Sometimes, strategic


goals must change as a result

uses downsizing to reduce supply and balance demand


LINKING ORGANIZ ATIONAL STRATEGY TO
HR PL A NNING
Employment Planning and
the Strategic Planning Process

demand for labor Outcomes

demand exceeds recruitment


assess current supply
define establish human resources compare demand
organization corporate goals -- - - - - - - - - - - - - for and supply of
mission and objectives HRMS: human resources
job analysis supply exceeds
demand decruitment

supply of
human resources
JOB ANALYSIS

Job analysis is a systematic exploration of the


activities within a job.

it defines and documents the duties, responsibilities, and accountabilities of a


job and the conditions under which a job is performed

See
http://www.staffing-and-recruiting-essentials.com/Sample-Job-Analy
sis.html
for a sample job analysis.
J O B A N A LYS I S

understand the purpose review draft


of the job analysis with supervisor

understand the roles of


develop draft
jobs in the organization

benchmark positions seek clarification

determine how to collect


job analysis information
J O B A N A LYS I S
Almost all HRM activities
are tied to job analysis;
it is the starting point for
sound HRM. recruiting
labor selection
relations

HR
safety &
planning
health
job analysis
job description
job specifications
employee
compensation development

performance employee
management training
career
development
JOB ANALYSIS
Job design is how a position and its tasks are organized.
great job design enriches and motivates through
skill variety task identity task significance
autonomy feedback from job itself
flexible work schedules keep employees motivated
and loyal
flex time job sharing telecommuting

part of HR planning and job analysis is finding team


members with
technical and interpersonal skills

Video: Jim Harris, Three Keys


to Maximize Productivity
WORK-FLOW ANALYSIS

Work-flow analysis are useful in:


providing a means for the managers to understand all the tasks required to
produce a high-quality product
providing the skills necessary to perform those tasks
Work flow analysis includes:
analyzing work outputs
analyzing work processes
analyzing work inputs
DEVELOPING A WORKFLOW ANALYSIS

Raw Inputs
- material
- information

Equipment ACTIVITY OUTPUT


- facilities what tasks - product/service
- systems are required? - how measured?

People
- knowledge
- skills
- abilities
JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION

Job Description is a list of tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs)

Job Specification is a list of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other


characteristics (KSAOs)
SAMPLE JOB DESCRIPTION

Job Title: Maintenance Mechanic


General Description of Job: General maintenance and repair of all equipment
used in the operations of a particular district. Includes the servicing of
company used vehicles, shop equipment, and machinery used on job sites.
1. Essential duty (40%) Maintenance of Equipment
2. Essential duty (40%) Repair of Equipment
3. Essential duty (10%) Testing and Approval
4. Essential duty (10%) Maintain Stock

Nonessential functions: Other duties assigned


JOB DIMENSIONS AND JOB TASKS OF A UNIVERSITY
PROFESSOR

Teaching Research
prepares and prepares research
presents lecture reports for
material in publication in
class journals

Advising Service
gives career serves on
counseling advice departmental
to students committees as
Consulting
needed
performs
work for
external
organizations
JOB DESIGN

Job design
Job redesign
Four approaches used in job design are:
mechanistic approach
motivational approach
biological approach
perceptual-motor approach
MECHANISTIC APPROACH

Has its roots in classical industrial engineering.


Focuses on designing jobs around the concepts of:
task specialization
skill simplification
repetition
Scientific management
is one of the earliest mechanistic approaches
sought to identify the one best way to perform the job through the use
of time-and-motion studies
MOTIVATIONAL APPROACH

The motivational approach to job design focuses on the job


characteristics that affects
the psychological meaning
motivational potential of job design.
A focus on increasing job complexity through:
job enlargement
job enrichment
the construction of jobs around sociotechnical systems.
JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL
A model of how job design affects employee reaction is the
Job Characteristics Model.

Core Job Dimensions Psychological States Work Outcomes

Skill Variety Meaningful Work High Motivation

Task Identity Responsibility High Quality of Work


for Outcome
Task Significance High Satisfaction
Knowledge
Autonomy of Results Low Absenteeism
and Turnover
Feedback
BIOLOGICAL APPROACH

Comes primarily from the sciences of biomechanics, or the study of body


movements
Ergonomics
The goal of this approach is to minimize the physical strain on the worker.
Focuses on outcomes such as:
physical fatigue
aches and pains
health complaints
PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR APPROACH

Has its roots in the human-factors literature.


Focuses on human mental capabilities and limitations.
The goal is to design jobs that do not exceed people's mental capabilities.
Tries to improve reliability, safety, and user reactions by designing jobs in a
way that reduces the information processing requirements of the job.
TRADE-OFFS AMONG DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO JOB
DESIGN
Job Design Approach Positive Outcomes Negative Outcomes
Higher job satisfaction Increased training time
Higher motivation Lower utilization levels
Motivational Greater job involvement Greater likelihood of error
Lower absenteeism Greater chance of mental overload
and stress
Decreased training time Lower job satisfaction
Higher utilization levels
Mechanistic Lower likelihood of error Lower motivation
Less chance of mental overload Higher absenteeism
and stress
Less physical effort
Less physical fatigue Higher financial costs because
Biological Fewer health complaints of changes in equipment or
Fewer medical incidences job environment
Lower absenteeism
Higher job satisfaction
Lower likelihood of error
Lower likelihood of accidents Lower job satisfaction
Perceptual-Motor Less chance of mental overload Lower motivation
and stress
Lower training time
Higher utilization levels
TYPES OF INFORMATION COLLECTED
Work
activities

Human Human
requirements behaviors
Information
Collected Via
Job Analysis
Machines, tools,
Job
equipment, and
context
work aids

Performance
standards
USES OF JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION
Recruitment
and selection

compliance Compensation
Information
Collected via
Job Analysis
Discovering
Performance
unassigned
appraisal
duties

Training
COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS
INFORMATION
Methods for Collecting Job Analysis
Information

Questionnaire
Interviews Observations Diaries/Logs
s
STEPS IN JOB ANALYSIS
Steps in doing a job
analysis:
1 Decide how youll use the information.

2 Review relevant background information.

3 Select representative positions.

4 Actually analyze the job.

5 Verify the job analysis information.

6 Develop a job description and job specification.


JOB ANALYSIS: INTERVIEWING
GUIDELINES
The job analyst and supervisor should work togetherto identify the workers
who know the job best.
Quickly establish rapport with the interviewee.
Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists open-ended questions
and provides space for answers.
Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of importance and frequency
of occurrence.
After completing the interview, review and verify the data.
METHODS FOR COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS
INFORMATION: THE INTERVIEW

Information Sources
Individual employees
Groups of employees
Supervisors with
knowledge of the job
Interview Formats
Structured (Checklist)
Advantages
Unstructured
Quick, direct way to
find overlooked
information
Disadvantage

METHODS FOR COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS
INFORMATION: QUESTIONNAIRES

Information Source
Have employees fill out Advantages
questionnaires to
describe their job- Quick and efficient way
related duties and to gather information
responsibilities from large numbers of
employees
Questionnaire Formats
Disadvantages
Structured checklists
Expense and time
Open-ended questions
consumed in preparing
and testing the
questionnaire
Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job Descriptions

Note: Use a questionnaire


like this to interview job
incumbents, or have them
fill it out.
Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job Descriptions (contd)
Example of Position/Job Description Intended for Use Online
FIGURE 44 Example of Position/Job Description Intended for Use Online (contd)
METHODS FOR COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS
INFORMATION: OBSERVATION

Advantages
Information Source Provides first-hand
information
Observing and noting
Reduces distortion
the physical activities of of information
employees as they go
about their jobs by Disadvantages
managers. Time consuming
Reactivity response
distorts employee behavior
Difficulty in capturing
entire job cycle
Of little use if job involves
a high level of mental
activity
METHODS FOR COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS
INFORMATION: PARTICIPANT DIARIES/LOGS

Information Source Advantages


Workers keep a Produces a more
chronological diary or complete picture of the
log of what they do job
and the time spent on Employee participation
each activity
Disadvantages
Distortion of
information
Depends upon
employees to
accurately recall their
QUANTITATIVE JOB ANALYSIS
TECHNIQUES
Quantitative Job
Analysis

Department of
Position Analysis Functional Job
Labor (DOL)
Questionnaire Analysis
Procedure
Portion of a Completed Page from the Position Analysis Questionnaire

The 194 PAQ elements are


grouped into six dimensions.
This exhibit lists 11 of the
information input questions
or elements. Other PAQ
pages contain questions
regarding mental processes,
work output, relationships
with others, job context, and
other job characteristics.
Sample Report Based on Department of Labor Job Analysis Technique
INTERNET-BASED JOB ANALYSIS

Advantages
Collects information in a standardized format from geographically dispersed
employees
Requires less time than face-to-face interviews
Collects information with minimal intervention or guidance
WRITING JOB DESCRIPTIONS
Job
identification

Job Job
specifications summary

Sections of a
Typical Job
Working Description Responsibilities
conditions and duties

Standards of Authority of
performance the incumbent
THE JOB DESCRIPTION
Job Identification Responsibilities and
Job title
FLSA status section Duties
Preparation date Major responsibilities and
Preparer duties (essential
Job Summary functions)
General nature of the job
Major functions/activities Decision-making
Relationships authority
Reports to: Direct supervision
Supervises:
Budgetary limitations
Works with:
Outside the company: Standards of
Performance and
Working Conditions
What it takes to do the
job successfully
Sample Job Description, Pearson Education
Sample Job Description, Pearson Education (contd)
Preliminary Job Description Questionnaire
WRITING JOB SPECIFICATIONS
What human traits
and experience are
required to do this job
well?

Job specifications
Job specifications Job specifications
for trained versus
based on based on
untrained
judgment statistical analysis
personnel
WRITING JOB SPECIFICATIONS
(CONTD)
Steps in the Statistical Approach
1. Analyze the job and decide how to measure job performance.
2. Select personal traits that you believe should predict successful performance.
3. Test candidates for these traits.
4. Measure the candidates subsequent job performance.
5. Statistically analyze the relationship between the human traits and job
performance.
JOB ANALYSIS IN A WORKER-EMPOWERED
WORLD

Job Design:
From Specialized
to Enriched Jobs

Job Job Job


Enlargement Rotation Enrichment
OTHER CHANGES AT WORK

Changing the
Organization and
Its Structure

Flattening the Using self- Reengineering


organization managed work business
teams processes
THANKS!