You are on page 1of 10

THE EVOLUTION OF HANBALIYYAH

The fourth orthodox school of law within Sunni Islam.


The Hanbali madhhab is the smallest of four major Sunni
schools, the others being the Hanafi, Maliki and Shafi'i.
The madhhab is generally regarded as the most stringent,
a reputation enhanced by its adoption, in modified form by the
Wahabbis as an official school of law in Saudi Arabia

It is named after the Iraqi scholar Ahmad ibn Hanbal.


The true Shaykh of Islam and leader of the Muslims in his time,
the hadith master and proof of the Religion.
It derives its decrees from the Qur'an and the Sunnah, which it
places above all forms of consensus, opinion or inference.

The school accepts as authoritative an opinion given by a


Companion of the Prophet, providing there is no disagreement
with another companion.
In the case of such disagreement, the opinion of the Companion
nearest to that of the Quran or the Sunnah will prevail.

Hanbali school is the strict traditionalist school of jurisprudence


in Sunni Islam.
The Hanbali school experienced a reformation in the
Wahhabi-Salafist movement.
During the 18th to early-20th century Muhammad ibn Abd
al-Wahhab and Al Saud greatly aided its propagation around the
world by way of their interpretation of the school's teachings.
CRITICISMS:
It affected the principal influence of Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

It has been argued that Ibn Hanbals own beliefs played no


real part in the establishment of the central doctrines of
Wahhabism.

As evidence, the older Hanbalite authorities had doctrinal


concerns very different from those of the Wahhabis.
SOURCES OF LAW:
Qur'an and Sunnah
Found in Hadiths (compilation of sayings, actions and customs of
Muhammad).

The Hanbali school, unlike Hanafi and Maliki schools, rejected


that a source of Islamic law can be jurists personal discretionary
opinion or consensus of later generation Muslims on matters that
serve the interest of Islam and community. Hanbalis hold that this
is impossible and leads to abuse.
Ibn Hanbal rejected the possibility of religiously binding
consensus (Ijma), as it was impossible to verify once later
generations of Muslims spread throughout the world, going
as far as declaring anyone who claimed as such to be a liar.
Ibn Hanbal did, however, accept the possibility and validity
of the consensus of the Sahaba. the first generation of
Muslims.
DISTRICT RULINGS:

Wudu One of the seven things which nullifies the minor purification
includes, touching a woman for the purpose of carnal desire.
Al-Qayyam to place ones hands below the navel. Another position
is that hands are positioned above the navel or on the chest while
standing in prayer.
Ruku The hands are to be raised (Rafa al-Yadayn) before going to
ruku, and standing up from ruku.
Tashahhud The finger should be pointed and not moved, upon mentioning
the name of Allah.
Tasleem Is considered obligatory by the Madh'hab.
Salat-ul-Witr Hanbalis pray Two Rak'ats consecutively then perform
Tasleem, and then One Rak'at is performed separately. Dua Qunoot is recited
after the Ruku' during Witr, and Hands are raised during the Dua.

In the absence of a valid excuse, it is obligatory (at least for adult men) to
pray in congregation rather than individually.
The majority of the Hanbali school considers admission in a court of law to
be indivisible; that is, a plaintiff may not accept some parts of a defendant's
testimony while rejecting other parts. This position is also held by the Zahiri
school, though it is opposed by the Hanafi and Maliki schools.
THEOLOGY

Ibn Hanbal taught that the Qur'an is uncreated due to


Muslim belief that it is the word of God, and the word of God
is not created.
Hanbali madhab remained largely traditionalist or Athari in
theology and it was primarily Hanbali scholars who codified
the Athari school of thought.