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PRECIPITATIO

N
GROUP 6
LINESEY SALVADOR
RENZ HILARIO
JEPHANEL DE GUZMAN
DEFINITION
ALL TYPES OF MOISTURE REACHING THE SURFACE OF
EARTH FROM ATMOSPHERE.
PRECIPITATION IS THE BASIC INPUT TO THE HYDROLOGY .

Factors determining precipitation


or the amount of atmospheric
moisture over a region
Climate
Geography
Ocean surfaces is the chief source
of moisture for precipitation
Kinds of
precipitat
ion
FORMS OF PRECIPITATION
1) RAIN
- Made up of liquid
- Most common
kind of
precipitation.
- Falls if
temperature is
RAIN
RAIN IS THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF PRECIPITATION IN
OURATMOSPHERE. RAIN IS WHEN LIQUID DROPLETS FALL TO
THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH.
THERE ARE TWO DIFFERENT FORMS OF RAIN, EITHER IN THE
FORM OF
SHOWERS
DRIZZLES

SHOWERS ARE HEAVY, LARGE DROPS OF RAIN AND


USUALLY ONLY LAST A PERIOD OF TIME. Light
I = 2.5mm/hr
DRIZZLES HOWEVER USUALLY LAST LONGER AND ARE
MADE UP OF SMALLER DROPLETS OF WATER.
Moderate
RAIN CAN EITHER BE FORMED AS ICE CRYSTALS MELT OR IT CAN I = 2.8-
BE SMALLER WATER DROPLETS. 7.6mm/hr

Heavy
I > 7.6 mm/hr
-
2) SNOW
Made up of ice
crystals.
- Caused when air
temperature is so
cold that the vapor
changes directly to
SNOW
SNOW IS THE SECOND MOST COMMON PRECIPITATION IN THE NORTH
EAST.
SNOW FORMS WHEN WATER VAPOR TURNS DIRECTLY INTO ICE
WITHOUT EVER PASSING THROUGH A LIQUID STATE. THIS HAPPENS AS
WATER CONDENSES AROUND AN ICE CRYSTAL.

Density of freshly
fallen snow varies
between 125-500mm
of snow required to
equal 25mm of liquid
water

Average density
(specific gravity) =
0.1
3) SLEET
- Made up of frozen
Cause when rain
-rain.
falls through a
layer of freezing
cold air.
- Rain turns to ice
SLEET
SLEET CONSISTS OF TRANSPARENT, GLOBULAR, SOLID GRAINS OF ICE
FORMED BY THE FREEZING OF RAINDROPS OR FREEZING OF LARGELY
MELTED ICE CRYSTALS FALLING THROUGH A LAYER OF SUB FREEZING
AIR NEAR THE EARTHS SURFACE.
4) HAIL
- Round pieces of ice.
1)Rain freezes.
2) Falls to a warmer part of air where
vapor condenses on it, then it goes
up to a cold part of air where the
vapor freezes forming another layer
of ice.
HAIL
HAIL IS CREATED WHEN MOISTURE AND WIND ARE TOGETHER. INSIDE THE
CUMULONIMBUS CLOUDS ICE CRYSTALS FORM, AND BEGIN TO FALL TOWARDS THE
SURFACE OF EARTH. WHEN THIS STARTS TO HAPPEN WIND GUSTS START TO PICK UP THE
ICE CRYSTALS PUSHING THEM UP HIGH INTO THE CLOUDS. AS THEY START TO FALL DOWN
AGAIN THEY CONTINUE TO GROW IN SIZE. A WIND GUST MIGHT CATCH THE HAIL STONE
AGAIN WHICH WILL PUSH IT BACK UP INTO THE CLOUD. THIS WHOLE PROCESS GETS
REPEATED SEVERAL TIMES BEFORE THE HAIL STONE BECOMES SO BIG THAT IT IS TOO
HEAVY FOR THE WIND TO CARRY SO IT MUST FALL TOWARDS EARTH.

Shapes of hail particles


1. Spherical
2. Conical
3. Irregular

Diameter range 5 to 125 mm


Specific gravity = 0.8

Average density (specific


gravity) = 0.1
5) FOG
There is really no different between fog and the
clouds that are high in the sky. In simple terms
fog is; a cloud that has formed near the surface
of theARE
THERE Earth.
FOUR MAIN TYPES OF FOG,
RADIATION FOG
ADVECTION FOG
UPSLOPE FOG
EVAPORATION FOG
6) DEW
THE SMALL DROPS OF WATER WHICH CAN BE FOUND ON COOL SURFACES LIKE GRASS IN
THE MORNING.
THIS IS THE RESULT OF ATMOSPHERIC VAPOR CONDENSING ON THE SURFACE IN THE
COLDER NIGHT AIR.
DEW POINT IS THE TEMPERATURE IN WHICH CONDENSATION STARTS TO TAKE PLACE OR
WHEN DEW IS CREATED.
7)
MIST/DRIZZLE
MIST IS A BUNCH OF SMALL DROPLETS OF WATER WHICH ARE IN THE AIR.
THIS OCCURS WITH COLD AIR WHEN IT IS ABOVE A WARM SURFACE, FOR
EXAMPLE WATER.
FOG AND MIST ARE VERY SIMILAR, THE ONLY DIFFERENCE IS THEIR
VISIBILITY.
IF YOU CANNOT SEE 1 KILOMETER OR LESS YOU KNOW YOU'RE DEALING WITH FOG.
YOU CAN SEE VISUALS THROUGH MIST AND IT IS MOREHAZELOOKING THAN A
THICKER SUBSTANCE.

Diameter range
between 0.1 and 0.5
mm/hr
8) RIME
RIME IS THE WHITE OPAQUE DEPOSIT OF ICE GRANULES MORE OR LESS
SEPARATED BY TRAPPED AIR AND FORMED BY RAPID FREEZING OF SUPER
COOLED WATER DROPS IMPINGING ON EXPOSED OBJECTS.

Specific gravity may be as low as 0.2-


0.3
9) GLAZE
GLAZE IS THE ICE COATING, GENERALLY CLEAR AND SMOOTH,
FORMED ON EXPOSED SURFACES BY THE FREEZING OF SUPER
COOLED WATER DEPOSITED BY RAIN OR DRIZZLE.

Specific gravity may be as high as 0.8-


0.9
FORMS OF PRECIPITATION
PRODUCTION OF PRECIPITATION
PRECIPITATION IS FORMED FROM WATER VAPOR IN THE
ATMOSPHERE.
FACTORS INFLUENCING PRECIPITATION FORMATION.

i. MECHANISM OF COOLING

ii. CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPORS

iii.GROWTH OF DROPLETS

iv.ACCUMULATION OF MOISTURE
PRODUCTION OF PRECIPITATION

MECHANISM OF COOLING:
THERE REDUCTION IN PRESSURE WHEN AIR ASCENDS FROM THE SURFACE OF
EARTH TO UPPER LEVELS IN THE ATMOSPHERE IS THE ONLY MECHANISM
CAPABLE OF PRODUCING THE DEGREE AND RATE NEEDED TO ACCOUNT FOR
HEAVY RAINFALL.
THE CAPACITY OF A GIVEN VOLUME OF AIR TO HOLD A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF
WATER VAPORS IS LOWERED DUE TO COOLING.
SUPER SATURATION IS KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE ATMOSPHERE SO THE
EXCESS MOISTURE OVER SATURATION CONDENSES THROUGH THE COOLING
PROCESS WHICH ULTIMATELY RESULTS IN PRECIPITATION.
PRODUCTION OF PRECIPITATION
CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPORS:
IT NORMALLY OCCURS WHEN THERE IS 100% RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND A
CONDENSATION NUCLEI HAVING AN AFFINITY FOR WATER IS PRESENT.
SOURCES OF THESE CONDENSATION NUCLEI ARE THE PARTICLES OF SEA SALT,
CARBON DIOXIDE AND THE SULFUROUS AND NITROGENOUS OXIDES EMANATING
FROM SURFACE OF THE EARTH INTO THE ATMOSPHERE.
THERE APPEARS TO BE ALWAYS SUFFICIENT NUCLEI PRESENT IN THE
ATMOSPHERE.
CONDENSATION WILL ALWAYS OCCUR IN AIR THE LOWER ATMOSPHERE IS
COOLED TO SATURATION, OFTEN BEFORE THE SATURATION POINT IS REACHED.
PRODUCTION OF PRECIPITATION

GROWTH OF DROPLETS:
IT IS REQUIRED SO THAT THE LIQUID PARTICLES PRESENT IN THE CLOUDS CAN REACH THE
GROUND
THERE ARE TWO PROCESS REGARD AS MOST EFFECTIVE FOR DROPLET GROWTH.

i. COALESCENCE OF DROPLETS THROUGH COLLISION.


ii.CO-EXISTENCE OF ICE CRYSTALS AND WATER DROPLETS.
i. COALESCENCE OF DROPLETS THROUGH COLLISION:
COALESCENCE OF DROPLETS THROUGH COLLISION DUE TO DIFFERENCE IN SPEED OF
MOTION BETWEEN LARGER AND SMALLER DROPLETS RESULTS IN THE GROWTH OF THE
DROPLETS.
THE GROWTH OF THE DROPLETS INCREASES THEIR WEIGHT AS A RESULT OF
PRODUCTION OF PRECIPITATION
WHICH THEIR RATE OF FALL IS ALSO INCREASED WHEREBY MORE COLLISION
WITH OTHER DROPLETS AND MORE GROWTH OF DROPLETS TAKES PLACE.

ii.CO-EXISTENCE OF ICE CRYSTALS AND WATER DROPLETS.


THE GROWTH OF DROPLETS IS ALSO ACHIEVED BY THEIR CO EXISTENCE WITH
THE ICE CRYSTALS.
THIS GENERALLY HAPPENS IN A TEMPERATURE RANGE OF 10OF TO 20OF
BERGERONS THEORY.
WHEN ICE CRYSTALS AND WATER DROPLETS CO EXIST IN A CLOUD, AN
IMBALANCE IS CAUSED DUE TO LOWER SATURATION VAPOR PRESSURE OVER
ICE AS COMPARED TO WATER THIS RESULTS IN THE EVAPORATION OF WATER
DROPLETS AND CONDENSATION OF MUCH OF THESE DROPLETS ON ICE
CRYSTALS ALSO CAUSING THEIR GROWTH AND ULTIMATE FALL THROUGH
CLOUDS.
PRODUCTION OF PRECIPITATION
ACCUMULATION OF MOISTURE:
HEAVY RAINFALL AMOUNT OVER A RIVER BASIN EXCEED BY FAR
THE AMOUNT OF WATER VAPOR AT THE ATMOSPHERIC VOLUME
VERTICALLY ABOVE THE BASIN AT THE BEGINNING OF THE
RAINFALL.
CONVERGENCE:
THE NET HORIZONTAL INFLUX OF AIR PER UNIT AREA IS CALLED
CONVERGENCE.
CLEARLY THERE MUST BE A LARGE NET HORIZONTAL INFLOW OF
WATER VAPOR INTO THE ATMOSPHERE ABOVE THE BASIN AREA.
THE MOISTURE ADDED TO THE ATMOSPHERE OVER A BASIN MAY
BE TRANSPORTED VERY LARGE DISTANCE IN THE LOWEST LAYER
OF THE ATMOSPHERE. WHEN THIS MOIST CURRENT REACHES A
REGION OF ACTIVE. VERTICAL MOTION IT RISES THOUSANDS OF
FEET AND LOSES MUCH OF ITS CONTAINED WATER VAPOR IN JUST
A FEW HOURS.
CAUSES OF PRECIPITATION

Causes of precipitation is classified into following types based upon the lifting
mechanism. Cycloni
c

i. CONVECTIONAL PRECIPITATION

ii. OROGRAPHIC PRECIPITATION

iii. CYCLONIC PRECIPITATION

CONVECTIONAL PRECIPITATION:-
EARTH BECOMES HEATED DUE TO SOLAR
ENERGY.
AIR WHEN COMES TO CONTACT WITH
HEATED EARTH BECOMES LIGHTER THAN
THE AIR AROUND IT.
CAUSES OF PRECIPITATION
ITS CREATES ATMOSPHERIC INSTABILITY AND THE LAPS RATE INCREASE
NEAR THE EARTH SURFACE INCREASE RAPIDLY.

LIGHTER AIR RISES BY CONVECTION , POTENTIALLY CAUSING CONVECTIVE


PRECIPITATION.

IN CONVECTIONAL PRECIPITATION THE MAIN ELEMENT IS THERMAL


CONVECTION OF THE MOISTURE LADEN AIR.

SOURCE OF HEAT IS ONLY THE SOLAR RADIATION AND IT HEATS THE


MAJOR PORTION OF THE EARTH.
AIR WHEN COMES INTO A LOW PRESSURE ATMOSPHERIC SYSTEM ALSO
CREATS CONVECTION PRECIPITATION.
CAUSES OF PRECIPITATION

OROGRAPHIC PRECIPITATION:-
MOISTURE LADEN AIR MASSES ARE LIFTED BY CONTACT WITH
OROGRAPHIC BARRIERS AND IT OCCURS EXPANSION AND CONDENSATION.
OROGRAPHIC PRECIPITATION IS MOST PRONOUNCED ON THE WINDWARD
SIDE OF MOUNTAIN RANGE, GENERALLY HEAVIEST PRECIPITATION OCCURS
WHERE FAVORABLE OROGRAPHIC EFFECTS ARE PRESENT.

HEAVIEST PRECIPITATION DUE TO SOUTH EASTERLIES IN THE


SUBCONTINENT OCCURS ALONG THE SOUTHERN SLOPES OF HIMALAYA
AND ITS OTHER RANGES.

MONSOON RAINFALL (JUNE TO OCTOBER) DECREASES GRADUALLY AS THE


DISTANCE FROM THE LINE OF HEAVIEST RAINFALL INCREASES.
CAUSES OF PRECIPITATION

CYCLONIC PRECIPITATION:-

PRECIPITATION IN PLAIN REGIONS IS GENERALLY CYCLONIC IN CHARACTER


AND DEPENDING UPON WHETHER THEY OCCUR WITHIN OR BEYOND THE
TROPICS IT IS DIVIDED INTO FURTHER TWO TYPES.
TROPICAL
EXTRA TROPICAL

PRECIPITATION IN THE INDO-PAK SUBCONTINENT ARE OF TROPICAL VARIETY.

IN WARD MARITIME AIR-MASS OF LOW LATITUDE IN HIGH TEMPERATURE


TROPICAL CYCLONES ARE VIOLENT STORMS FORMED. THESE ARE KNOWN AS
TYPHOONS OR CYCLONES.
CAUSES OF PRECIPITATION

IN THE CENTER OF THE CYCLONIC STORM THERE IS SMALL LOW


PRESSURE AIR. THE ISOBARS AROUND SUCH A LOW PRESSURE ARE VERY
NEARLY CIRCULAR IN SHAPE AND GENERALLY GREATER THAN THE EXTRA
TROPICAL CYCLONES.

TROPICAL CYCLONES HAVE A AVERAGE DIAMETER OF OVER 300 TO 400


MILES AND THE WIND SPEED AROUND CYCLONES MAY BE AS HIGH AS 60
TO 90 MILES PER HOUR.

IN SEPTEMBER, OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER THESE STORMS ARE VERY


DESTRUCTIVE IN BANGLADESH AND CAUSE CONSIDERABLE LOSS OF LIFE
AND PROPERTY OVER THE COASTAL DISTRICTS.
Distribution of precipitation over different
types of surfaces
Precipitation and Flow

Types Of Flow
i. Ground Water Flow
ii. Shallow Subsurface Flow
iii. Horton Overland Flow
Stream Reaches

Types Of Stream Reaches:-


i. Influent Stream Reach
ii. Effluent Stream Reach
Infiltration and Runoff

i. Infiltration Rate
ii. Runoff Rate
Overland flow and depression
storage
MECHANISM OF PRECIPITATION

THERE ARE DIFFERENT KINDS OF


PRECIPITATION :

CONVECTIONAL: IN THIS PROCESS, A FLUID IS


HEATED BY A WARM SURFACE ,EXPANDS AND
RISES CREATING AN UPWARD FLOW.
CONVECTIONAL PRECIPITATION RESULTS FROM
THE HEATING OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE.

AS THE AIR WARMS THE AIR BECOMES


"LIGHTER AND RISES RAPIDLY INTO THE
ATMOSPHERE.
(2) OROGRAPHIC : OROGRAPHIC PRECIPITATION
RESULTS WHEN WARM MOIST AIR MOVING ACROSS
THE OCEAN IS FORCED TO RISE BY LARGE MOUNTAINS.
AS THE AIR RISES, IT COOLS AT HIGHER ELEVATION
RESULTS IN COOLER TEMPERATURES AND DEEPER
CLOUDS.
CYCLONIC OR FRONTAL PRECIPITATION
CYCLONIC OR FRONTAL PRECIPITATION RESULTS
WHEN THE LEADING EDGE OF A WARM, MOIST
AIR MASS(WARM FRONT) MEETS A COOL
THE WARMER AIR MASS IS FORCED UP OVER
THE COOL AIR. AS IT RISES, THE WARM AIR
COOLS, THE WATER VAPOUR IN THE AIR
CONDENSES, AND CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATION
RESULT.
THIS TYPE OF SYSTEM IS CALLED FRONTAL
PRECIPITATION BECAUSE THE MOISTURE TENDS
TO OCCUR ALONG THE FRONT OF THE AIR
MASS.
MEASUREMENT OF PRECIPITATION
AMOUNT OF PRECIPITATION:-
THE AMOUNT OF PRECIPITATION MEANS THE VERTICAL DEPTH OF WATER THAT
WOULD ACCUMULATE ON A LEVEL SURFACE, IF THE PRECIPITATION REMAINS
WHERE IT FALLS. THE AMOUNT OF PRECIPITATION IS MEASURED IN LENGTH UNITS
(INCHES, FT., CM, ETC.).
INTENSITY OF PRECIPITATION:-
AMOUNT OF PRECIPITATION PER UNIT TIME IS CALLED THE INTENSITY OF
PRECIPITATION.
BOTH THE AMOUNT AND RATE OR INTENSITY OF PRECIPITATION ARE IMPORTANT
IN HYDROLOGIC STUDIES.
THE PRECIPITATION IS MEASURED BY RAIN GAUGES.
TYPES OF RAIN GAUGES:-
i. NON-RECORDING RAIN GAUGE. (STANDARD RAIN GAUGE)
ii. RECORDING RAIN GAUGE
MEASUREMENT OF PRECIPITATION
NON-RECORDING RAIN GAUGE
IN NON RECORDING OR STANDARD RAIN GAUGES
OBSERVER HAS TO TAKE READINGS AND HE HAS TO
RECORD THE TIME ALSO FOR CALCULATION OF
INTENSITY OF RAIN FALL.
THE STANDARD GAUGE OF U.S. WEATHER BUREAU HAS
A COLLECTOR OF 8 INCH DIAMETER.
RAIN PASSES FROM A COLLECTOR INTO A CYLINDRICAL
MEASURING TUBE INSIDE THE OVERFLOW CAN.

Its cross sectional area is 1/10th of the collector, so that 0.1 inch rain fall will fill the tube to
1 inch depth.
A measuring stick is inside it, which measures up to 0.001 inch.
When snow is expected the collector and tube are removed. The snow collected in the outer
container or over flow can is melted, poured into the measuring tube and then measured.
MEASUREMENT OF PRECIPITATION

RECORDING RAIN GAUGE

RECORDING RAIN GAUGES GIVES THE RAIN RECORDED


AUTOMATICALLY WITH RESPECT TO TIME, SO INTENSITY OF RAIN
FALL IS ALSO KNOWN. NOW THESE RAIN GAUGES ARE ALSO
USED IT IS OF SEVERAL TYPES

TYPES OF RECORDING RAIN GAUGES.

i. FLOAT TYPE

ii. WEIGHING TYPE


MEASUREMENT OF PRECIPITATION

FLOAT TYPE
THIS TYPE OF RAIN GAUGE HAS A RECEIVER AND A FLOAT CHAMBER ALONG
WITH SOME RECORDING ARRANGEMENT.
IN THIS TYPE THE RAIN IS LED INTO A FLOAT CHAMBER CONTAINING A LIGHT.
THE VERTICAL MOVEMENT OF THE FLOAT AS THE LEVEL OF WATER RISES IS
RECORDED ON A CHART WITH THE HELP OF A PEN CONNECTED TO FLOAT. T
HE CHART IS WRAPPED AROUND A ROTATING CLOCK DRIVEN DRUM.
TO PROVIDE A CONTINUOUS RECORD FOR 24 HOURS SOME AUTOMATIC
MEANS ARE PROVIDED FOR EMPTYING THE FLOAT CHAMBER QUICKLY WHEN IT
BECOMES FULL, THE PEN THEN RETURNING TO THE BOTTOM OF THE CHART.
SIPHONING ARRANGEMENT ACTIVATES WHEN THE GAUGE RECORDS A
CERTAIN FIXED AMOUNT OF RAIN (MOSTLY O.4 INCHES OF RAINFALL.). SNOW
CAN NOT BE MEASURED BY THIS TYPE OF RAIN GAUGE.
MEASUREMENT OF PRECIPITATION

WEIGHING TYPE
THE WEIGHING TYPE RAIN GAUGE CONSISTS OF A RECEIVER, A BUCKET, A
SPRING BALANCE AND SOME RECORDING ARRANGEMENT.
THE WEIGHING TYPE GAUGE WEIGHS THE RAIN OR SNOW WHICH FALLS
INTO A BUCKET WHICH IS SET ON A LEVER BALANCE.
THE WEIGHT OF THE BUCKET AND CONTENT IS RECORDED ON A CHART BY
A CLOCK DRIVEN DRUM.
THE RECORD IS IN FORM OF A GRAPH ONE AXIS OF WHICH IS IN DEPTH
UNITS AND THE OTHER HAS TIME.
THE RECORDS SHOW THE ACCUMULATION OF PRECIPITATION. WEIGHING
TYPE GAUGES OPERATE FROM 1 TO 2 MONTHS WITH OUT STOP. BUT
NORMALLY ONE CHART IS ENOUGH ONLY FOR 24 HOURS. THE RECEIVER IS
REMOVED WHEN SNOW IS EXPECTED. SNOW CAN BE MEASURED BY THIS
TYPE OF RAIN GAUGE.
MEASUREMENT OF PRECIPITATION
TIPPING BUCKET TYPE
THIS TYPE OF GAUGE USED AT SOME WEATHER BUREAU FIRST ORDER
STATIONS IS EQUIPPED WITH A REMOTE RECORDER LOCATED INSIDE THE
OFFICE WHICH IS AWAY FROM THE ACTUAL SITE.
THE GAUGE HAS TWO COMPARTMENTS PIVOTED IN SUCH A WAY THAT
ONE COMPARTMENT RECEIVES RAIN AT ONE TIME.
THIS TYPE OF GAUGE IS NOT SUITABLE FOR MEASURING SNOW WITHOUT
HEATING THE COLLECTOR. PLOTTING IS SIMILAR TO THAT OF OTHER
RECORDING RAIN GAUGES.

TIPPING BUCKET TYPE RAIN GUAGE

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