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Job Analysis, Description and Evaluation

Why Are Job Analyses Important?


CHANGE

Work Practices Legislation Globalisation Technology Culture & Diversity

JOB ANALYSIS

Research indicates that workers have three prime needs:


Interesting work, recognition for doing a good job, and being let in on things that are going on in the company.
Zig Ziglar

Defining Job Analysis?


Is it simply obtaining information about jobs?  Have jobs become extinct?  Are jobs now behavioural contracts between an employee and an organization?


What is Job Analysis?


Job analysis is an essential and pervasive human resource technique and the starting point for other human resource activities.
Nature of job analysis

Job Tasks

Job Analysis

Job Duties

Job Responsibilities

Job Analysis
Job analysis is the process of gathering information about the job and evaluating such information in terms of what is necessary and relevant. Essentially, job analysis involves three questions: 1. What is a job? 2. What should be analyzed? 3. What methods of analysis should be used?

What Should be Analyzed?


        

Fundamental purpose General importance Work elements Approximate time Scope Inherent authority Working relationships Specific methods, equipments, and techniques Job conditions

Important benefits of Job Analysis


Multif t N tur f l i
Recr it ent Human Resource Planning electi n

Job

aluation

Pl cement

Job esign and Redesign

Tr ining

Performance Appraisal mployee afety

Counselling

Types of Information Collected


Work activities

Human requirements

Job context

Information Collected Via Job Analysis

Human behaviors

Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids

Performance standards

Classic Case

Steps in Job Analysis


Steps in doing a job analysis:
1

Decide how youll use the information. Review relevant background information. Select representative positions. Actually analyze the job. Verify the job analysis information. Develop a job description and job specification.

2 3 4 5 6

Job Description and Job Specification in Job Analysis

Job Description
Job descriptions are written records of job duties and responsibilities and they provide a factual basis for job evaluation. Job descriptions are recorded on a standard form in a uniform manner.

Cont.

Writing Job Descriptions


Job Identification

Job Specifications

Job Summary

Working Conditions

Sections of a Typical Job Description

Responsibilities and Duties

Standards of Performance

Authority of the Incumbent

The Job Description




Job Identification
Job title Preparation date Preparer

Responsibilities and Duties


Major responsibilities and duties (essential functions) Decision-making authority Direct supervision Budgetary limitations

Job Summary
General nature of the job Major functions/activities

Relationships
Reports to: Supervises: Works with: Outside the company:

Standards of Performance and Working Conditions


What it takes to do the job successfully

Writing Job Descriptions (contd)


Step 1. Decide on a Plan Step 2. Develop an Organization Chart Step 3. Use a Job Analysis/Description Questionnaire Step 4. Obtain Lists of Job Duties from O*NET Step 5. Compile the Jobs Human Requirements from O*NET Step 6. Complete Your Job Description

Job Specifications
In addition to providing information about duties associated with job assignments, job descriptions also outline basic specifications of the job. Such specifications include  education or experience  special knowledge  skill sets  inter-personal skills  analytical ability  problem solving skills or decision making skill

Writing Job Specifications


What traits and experience are required to do this job well?

Specifications for Trained Versus Untrained Personnel

Specifications Based on Judgment

Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis

Writing Job Specifications




Steps in the Statistical Approach


Analyze the job and decide how to measure job performance. Select personal traits that you believe should predict successful performance. Test candidates for these traits. Measure the candidates subsequent job performance. Statistically analyze the relationship between the human traits and job performance.

Who Should Conduct the Job Analysis?

Part of the planning process involves choosing who will conduct the analysis
Hire a temporary analyst from outside Employ a full-time job analyst Use supervisors, job incumbents, or a combination

Who Should Conduct the Job Analysis?




Each choice has strengths and weaknesses:


Job incumbents know what work is actually being done, rather than what is supposed to be done Involving incumbents might increase their acceptance of any work changes resulting from the analysis Incumbents tend to exaggerate the responsibilities and importance of their work

Who Should Conduct the Job Analysis?




The choice of an analyst depends on such factors as:


The location and complexity of the jobs How receptive incumbents are to an external analyst The ultimate intended purpose of the analysis

Regardless of who collects the information, the individuals should:


Thoroughly understand people, jobs, and the total organizational system Understand how work should flow within the organization

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: The Interview




Information Sources
Individual employees Groups of employees Supervisors with knowledge of the job

Interview Formats
Structured (Checklist) Unstructured

Advantages
Quick, direct way to find overlooked information

Disadvantages
Distorted information

Job Analysis: Interviewing Guidelines


   

Identify the workers who know the job best. Quickly establish rapport Follow a structured guide or checklist Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence. Review and verify the data.

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Questionnaires




Information Source
Have employees fill out questionnaires to describe their jobrelated duties and responsibilities

Advantages
Quick and efficient way to gather information from large numbers of employees

Disadvantages
Expense and time consumed in preparing and testing the questionnaire

Questionnaire Formats
Structured checklists Open-ended questions

Questionnaires

To make a questionnaire easier to use:


Keep it as short as possible Explain what the questionnaire is being used for Keep it simple Test the questionnaire before using it

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Observation




Information Source
Observing and noting the physical activities of employees as they go about their jobs

Advantages
Provides first-hand information Reduces distortion of information

Disadvantages
Time consuming Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity

Observation


used for jobs that require manual, standardized, and short-job-cycle activities Job analysts must be trained to:
Observe relevant job behaviors Be as unobtrusive as possible

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Participant Diary/Logs




Information Source
Workers keep a chronological diary/ log of what they do and the time spent on each activity

Advantages
Produces a more complete picture of the job Employee participation

Disadvantages
Distortion of information Depends upon employees to accurately recall their activities

Which Method to Use?




There is no agreement about which methods of job analysis yield the best information
Interviews should not be the sole data collection method Certain methods may be better for a given situation

Most organizations base their choice on:


The purpose of the analysis Time and budget constraints

Which Method to Use?




Many organizations use a multi-methods job analysis approach


The analyst interviews incumbents and supervisors in conjunction with on-site observation A task survey based on expert judgments is constructed and administered A statistical analysis of the responses is conducted

Using a comprehensive process is relatively expensive and time-consuming


The quality of information derived from a comprehensive approach is strongly endorsed by courts

Specific Quantitative Techniques




Three of the more popular quantitative techniques:


Functional job analysis Position analysis questionnaire Management position description questionnaire

Functional Job Analysis




Functional job analysis (FJA) is the result of 60 years of research on analyzing and describing jobs
Conceived in the late 1940s Developed to improve job classifications in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)

DOT descriptions helped job analysts learn what was involved in a particular job
FJA could then be used to elaborate and more thoroughly describe the content of a job The goal was creating a common language for accurately describing jobs

Functional Job Analysis




FJA assumes jobs can be described in terms of three basic relationships the worker has with the work:
Physically relating to things Using mental resources to process data Interacting with people

Using behavioral terms, each relationship can be organized along a continuum of complexity
Lowest to highest

Each job has a quantitative score


Jobs with similar ratings can be assumed to be similar

Functional Job Analysis




The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) is replacing the DOT


An internet accessible database It describes occupations, worker KSAOs, and workplace requirements Is more user-friendly than the DOT Reduced 12,000 occupations to just over 1,000 Categorizes data into six groups known as the O*NET Content Model

Functional Job Analysis


E xperience R equirem ents Training xperience icensing

Wo rker R equirem ents as ic s kills ro ss -functional s kills en eral know le dge d u cation O* NET

O ccupational R equirem ents eneralized w ork activities Work co n text rgan iz atio n al co ntex t

Wo rker C haracteristics b ilities In terests and w ork values Wo rk s tyles

O ccupational Spe cific R equirem ents ccupatio n al sk ills , tas k s, and know led g e M achines , to o ls, an d e qu ip m ent

O ccupational C harac teristics abor m arket inform ation ccupational outlook Wages

Functional Job Analysis




Typical users of O*NET:


Human resource professionals Career counselors Recruiters Trainers and educators

Position Analysis Questionnaire




The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ):


Was developed by researchers at Purdue University Contains 195 items Requires considerable experience and a high level of reading comprehension to complete properly Is often filled out by a trained job analyst, who must decide whether each item applies to a particular job

Position Analysis Questionnaire




PAQ items are divided into six major sections:


Information input Mental processes Work output Job context Other job characteristics

Position Analysis Questionnaire




Computerized scoring of the PAQ is based on seven dimensions:


Decision making Communication Social responsibilities Performing skilled activities Being physically active Operating vehicles or equipment Processing information

The scores permit development of job profiles and job comparisons

Position Analysis Questionnaire




PAQ advantages:
Has been widely used and researched Is an effective tool for a variety of purposes Is reliable, with little variance among job analysts ratings of the same jobs Is an effective way to establish differences in the abilities required for jobs Is valid; jobs rated higher with the PAQ prove to be those compensated at higher rates

Position Analysis Questionnaire




PAQ disadvantages:
Requires time and patience to complete No specific work activities are described, so behavioral activities performed in jobs may distort actual work task differences


Example: A typist and a ballet dancer may have similar profiles because both require fine motor skills

Ratings might represent the job analysts stereotype about the work, rather than actual differences among jobs

Management Position Description Questionnaire




Conducting a job analysis for managerial jobs is challenging because of:


The disparity across positions Levels in the hierarchy The type of industry

An attempt to systematically analyze managerial jobs was conducted at Control Data Corporation
The result is the management position description questionnaire (MPDQ)

Management Position Description Questionnaire




The MPDQ is:


A checklist of 208 items related to the concerns and responsibilities of managers A comprehensive description of managerial work Intended for use across most industrial settings

Management Position Description Questionnaire




The latest version of the MPDQ has 15 sections:

General information Planning, organizing Controlling Consulting, innovating Coordinating Monitoring business indicators Knowledge, skills, abilities Comments, reactions

Decision making Administering Supervising Contacts Representing Overall ratings Organization chart

Management Position Description Questionnaire




The common metric questionnaire (CMQ) is another method of quantitative job analysis
It is completed by a job incumbent Questionnaire items require a lower reading level It is more behaviorally concrete, making it easier for incumbents to rate their jobs It is applicable to exempt and nonexempt positions

Much research on job analysis is being conducted in Europe, focusing on alternative quantitative methods

Job Analysis in a Jobless World


Job Design: Specialization and Efficiency?

Job Enlargement

Job Rotation

Job Enrichment

Job Analysis in a Jobless World (contd)


Dejobbing the Organization

Flattening the Organization

Using SelfManaged Work Teams

Reengineering Business Processes

Competency-Based Job Analysis




Competencies
Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job.

Reasons for Competency-Based Job Analysis


To support a high-performance work system. To create strategically-focused job descriptions. To support the performance management process in fostering, measuring, and rewarding:
  

General competencies Leadership competencies Technical competencies

Competency-Based Job Analysis (contd)




How to Write Job Competencies-Based Job Descriptions


Interview job incumbents and their supervisors
 Ask

open-ended questions about job responsibilities and activities.

 Identify

critical incidents that pinpoint success on the job.

Use off-the-shelf competencies databanks

A central peripheral relational model of job analysis is given below:

Skills and Competency Mapping Industrial Relations Human Resource Planning

Setting Safety and Health Standards Job Analysis Compensation Designing Job Descriptions Job Specifications

Recruitment

Selection

Training & Development

Performance Appraisal

Management Development and Succession Setting Performance Standards (KRA/KPAs) Career Planning and Development

The Vocabulary of Job Analysis




Definitions provided by the federal government:


Job analysis: a purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job Job description: the principal product of a job analysis. It represents a written summary of the job as an identifiable organizational unit

The Vocabulary of Job Analysis




Job specification: a written explanation of the knowledge, skills, abilities, traits, and other characteristics (KSAOs) necessary for effective performance on a given job Tasks: Coordinated and aggregated series of work elements used to produce an output Position: the responsibilities and duties performed by an individual. There are as many positions in an organization as there are employees Job: group of positions that are similar in their duties, such as computer programmer Job family: group of two or more jobs that have similar duties