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Dissemination Workshop on the Environmental Research Findings

MultiMulti-Purpose Hal, CJCC, Royal University of Phnom Penh

A Preliminary Study on the Aerosol Emission in Phnom Penh Capital


A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Environmental Science

Presented by: Kong Sopheak Tuesday, 12 July, 2011


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Contents
1 2 3 4

Introduction Methodology Results and Discussions Conclusions and Recommendations

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1. Introduction

Flood and Drought is more frequently occurred

Respiratory, tuberculosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Emission Inventory

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Problems Description
 Aerosol is a collection of solid or liquid airborne particles, typically of a size between 0.01 and 10 m, that resides in the atmosphere for at least several hours (UNEP, 2010)  People who died due to air pollution exposure o o Number of death Worldwide: 1.5 people/year (WHO, 2000) Cambodia: 1800 people/year (WHO, 2007) 1000

500

0 1997 1998 Year 1999 2000 2001

Number of death people due to respiratory disease (MoH, 2002)


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Rational of the Research


trend of Aerosol Emission in Phnom Penh Capital are being unqualified
Detail Emission Inventory Data is significant for Absence Data on:  Emission Inventory  Activities Data  Air Pollution Control  Source of Emissions
 Population Growth  Vehicle Growth  Energy

 Monitoring Air Quality  Air Quality Management

Research Consumption

Demand

Suspended Particulate Matter are exceeded the Cambodian National Air Quality Standard (Kashima et al., 2002)
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Objective of Research
Specific Objectives:

(i) To develop aerosol emission database for PPC, (ii) To determine aerosol emission contribution by sources, (iii) To calculate spatial emission variation among districts in PPC (iv) To propose the aerosol emission reduction options.

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Limitation of Research
Phnom Penh Capital Top-down Approach and Rapid Assessment Approach

Domestic Cooking

Vehicle

Solid Waste Burning

Duration, February to June, 2011

BC

CO

SO2

OC

PM2.5

NO2

Reduction Options, Vehicle Source

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2. Methodology
Study Area Selection Data Collection Mobile Source Data Analysis Validation Based Year Emission Inventory Yes Propose Reduction Options No Point/Area Source

Pointed Major Source of Emission

Results and Discussions Conclusions and Recommendations


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Study Area
Phnom Penh Capital:  Total land 376.95 km2  Total Population: 150,1825 people  Population Growth: 2,83%  GDP= 820$/person/year  8 Districts, 76 Sangkat  Urban Area (Chamkar Mon, Doun Penh, Prampir Makkakra, Tuol Kouk)  Sub-Urban Area (Dangkao, Mean Chey, Ruessei Keav, Sen Sokh)  Total Vehicle: 938970 (Motorcycle : 733735 Vehicles (78%)
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Data Collection
Source Mobile Source   Point/ Area Source       Activities Data Type and amount of fuel consumption Number of Registry Vehicle Vehicle Kilometer Transport Type and amount of fuel consumption Solid waste generation data Recycling solid waste Solid waste collection efficiency Number of Population Low Best Estimate High Low Best Estimate High Emission Factor Data Sources Geres, MIME, NIS, MoP, MoE, Library, and Research Studies

Atmospheric Brown Cloud Emission Inventory Database (UNEP, 2010)


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Emission Factors
Emission Factor

Type of fuel (Vehicle)

Pollutants BC OC

Low 0.54 0.3 4.96 0.3 1.3 0.17 0.005 0.021 9.8 0.01 0.059 0.14

Best Estimate 2 0.47 5.2 1 2.2 0.17 0.025 0.04 30 0.28 0.07 0.14

High 2.6 1 5.5 1.8 3.3 0.17 0.05 0.4 46 0.56 0.59 0.14

Diesel

CO SO 2 PM 2.5 NO 2 BC OC

Gasoline

CO SO 2 PM 2.5 NO 2

Source: UNEP, 2010


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Emission Factors
Type of fuel Cooking) (g/Kg) (Domestic Emission Factor Pollutants
BC OC

Low
0.3 0.17 19 0.008 2 1 1.3 35 0.3 3.9 0.01 0.03 3.72 0.33 0.26

Best Estimate
0.85 4.75 77.5 0.008 5 1 1.3 198 0.49 5.7 0.2 0.03 3.72 0.33 0.26

High
2 7.8 136 0.008 8.2 1 1.3 275 0.69 7.5 0.2 0.05 3.72 0.33 0.33 12/27

Woodfuel

CO SO 2 PM 2.5 BC OC

Charcoal

CO SO 2 PM 2.5 BC OC

LPG Source: UNEP, 2010

CO SO 2 PM 2.5

Emission Factors
Source of Solid Waste Burning (Kg/tonne) Emission Factors Pollutants Low Best Estimate 5.5 5.5 42 0.5 High

BC Solid Waste Burning OC CO SO Source: UNEP, 2010

5.5 5.5 42 2 0.5

5.5 5.5 42 0.5

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Emission Calculation
 Vehicle Source

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Emission Calculation
 Domestic Cooking Source

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Emission Calculation
 Solid Waste Burning Source

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Emission Reduction Options

Assumption Population Reduction Options for Vehicle Source No change means the same as BAU option BAU Growth rate 2,83% Emission Factor VKT Same as base year Same as base year Motorcycle Increase 10% Increase 14% Increase 12% Increase 7% All will use BD All Only diesel engines Only will use BD All will use BD minibus All No change No change No change No change VKT of motorcycle and car will decrease to 15Km/day when VKT of bus increase 60km/day Motorcycle reduces 20% 25% 30% in the respective year according to population use buses Passenger Cars Light Duty Vehicle Heavy Duty Vehicle Cars reduce 20% 25% 30% for the respective year according to population use buses Increase 17%, 12%, and 11% for the respective year in 2015, 2020, and 2025 compared to BAU No Change No change No change BD No change CNG No change BS 20% 25% 30% will use buses for the respective year 2015, 2020 and 2025 Same as base year

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3. Result and Discussion


 Emission Inventory
4500 4000 3500 Ton per year 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 BC OC CO Pollutant Emission inventory in Phnom Penh Capital for 2010
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CO multiply 100 tons

130,781. 130,781.73 tons

54, 54,79 tons

SO2

PM2.5

NO2

Emission Contribution from Sources


8000 7000 6000 Ton per year 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 PM2.5 PM2.5 PM2.5 NO2 NO2 NO2 SO2 SO2 SO2 CO CO CO OC OC OC BC BC BC

Low

Best Estimate

High

CO multiply 100 tons

120,749. 120,749.94 tons 45. 45.91 tons 5.43 tons

4,713.9 tons 713. 9,089.01 tons 089. 56. 56.12 tons

Vehicle 89%

Domestic Cooking 9%

Solid Waste Burning 2%

Aerosol emission contribution from sources in Phnom Penh Capital for 2010
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Spatial Emission Variation


 Vehicle Source
25000 19,690, 19,690,46 tons 20000 Ton per year Ton per year 15000 8,814.13 tons 814. 10000 5000 0 Chamkar Mon Doun Penh Tuol Kouk Mean Chey Prampir Makakra Ruessei Kaev Saen Sokh Dangkao CO 548. 548.33 tons 600 500 400 300 3.35 tons 200 100 0 Doun Penh Tuol Kouk Chamkar Mon Mean Chey Prampir Makakra Ruessei Kaev Sen Sokh
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BC

OC

SO2

PM2.5

NO2

Emission of pollutants in each districts in Phnom Pehn Capital in 2010

Urban

Sub-Urban

Urban

Dangkao

Sub-Urban

Spatial Emission Variation (Cont) (Cont)


 Domestic Cooking Source
2500 2000 Ton per year 1500 1000 500 0 Tuol Kouk Ruessei Kaev Doun Penh Dangkao Chamkar Mon Mean Chey Prampir Makakra Sen Sokh 556.08 tons Ton per year CO 1,983.91 tons 983. 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 BC 164. 164.19 tons OC SO2 PM2.5

1.18 tons

Doun Penh

Tuol Kouk

Dangkao

Mean Chey

Ruessei Kaev

Chamkar Mon

Urban

Sub-Urban

Urban

Prampir Makakra

Sub-Urban

Emission of pollutants in each districts in Phnom Pehn Capital in 2010


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Sen Sokh

Spatial Emission Variation (Cont) (Cont)


 Solid Waste Burning
350 300 Ton per year 250 200 150 100 50 0 Chamkar Mon Doun Penh Tuol Kouk Mean Chey Ruessei Kaev Prampir Makakra Sen Sokh Dangkao
Non of Solid Waste are burned

318. 318.4 tons

CO Ton per year

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

BC

OC

SO2

1.56 tons

Doun Penh

Tuol Kouk

Dangkao

Ruessei Kaev

Chamkar Mon

Urban

Sub-Urban

Urban

Prampir Makakra

Sub-Urban
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Emission of pollutants in each districts in Phnom Pehn Capital in 2010

Mean Chey

Sen Sokh

Emission Reduction Options


CO is not reduced under BAU, BD, CNG options 180000 160000 140000 Ton per year 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 2010 (Base Year) 2015 (Vehicle) 2020 (Vehicle) 2025 (Vehicle) All Source Vehicle BAU BD CNG BS CO is reduced 78.32% (2020) and 75.32% (2025) CO is reduced 70% (2020) (KoK, 2007)

CO under each reduction options (2010-2025)


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Emission Reduction Options


60000 All source 50000 Vehicle BAU BD CNG BS

Ton per year

40000

Continue increase Decrease in 2015. Then increase from 2020-2025

30000

20000

10000

0 PM2.5 PM2.5 PM2.5 PM2.5 SO2 SO2 SO2 NO2 NO2 NO2 SO2 BC BC BC BC NO2 24/27 OC OC OC OC

2010 (Base Year)

2015 (Vehicle)

2020 (Vehicle)

2025 (Vehicle)

Pollutants under each reduction options (2010-2025)

4. Recommendation and Conclusion


 Conclusion
o The annual emission in Phnom Penh Capital in 2010: BC (868.31 tons) OC (2,916.33 tons) CO (130,781.73 tons) SO2 (3,361.75 tons) PM2.5 (4,114.77 tons) and NO2 (54.79tons) o The major source of aerosol emission in Phnom Penh Capital is Vehicle source (89%), which followed by Domestic Cooking source (9%) and Solid Waste Burning source (2%), respectively. o Chamkarmon emit the highest aerosol emission from vehicle and solid waste burning sources, and Prampir Makakra is the lowest. o BAU, BD, and CNG options in the period 2010 to 2025 could not reduce aerosol pollutants. In contrast, BS has potential reduced CO (75.32%) in 2025. o Vehicle is still the main source of air pollution in the PPC future
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4. Recommendation and Conclusion


 Recommendations
o Future emission inventory additional sources should be considered include Agriculture Activities, Power Plant, Small and Medium Enterprise, and Industry sources. o Emission Inventory should be regularly updated o Apply Dispersion Model for assessing sources of emission and air quality

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For more information: 017 477 930 or sopheak.kong54@yahoo.com

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