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Human Resource Planning & Human Resource Development

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Introduction
"Every

time I have prepared a battle, I've been forced to admit that the plan is useless..but planning is crucial" (Dwight D. Eisenhower)
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Introduction 2 Human Resource Planning (HRP) is a complex subject, particularly at the time of increasingly turbulent business, environments delivering far more discontinuities, which increases the tensions between the greater need for planning and the greater difficulties of prediction.
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Definition Human resources planning (HRP) is the process of anticipating and making provision for the movement of people into, within, and out of an organization (Belcourt 2007)
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Definition HRP is the process by which management determines how an organisation should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position.(Bhatia 2006)

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Some confusion as to the meaning of HRP According to Taylor (1998), the main distinction is between those who see the term 'human resource planning' as having broadly the same meaning as the longer established terms 'workforce planning' and 'manpower planning,' and those who believe 'human resource planning' to represent something rather different.
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Some confusion as to the meaning of HRP 2

Bramham (1994), argues that: 'manpower planning' is essentially quantitative in nature and is concerned with forecasting the demand and supply of labour
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while Human resource planning has a far wider meaning including plans made across the whole range of personnel and development activity. These activities include soft issues such as motivation, employee attitudes and organisational culture
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Some confusion as to the meaning of HRP 3

Another opinion is that, the term 'human resource planning' is simply a more modern and gender neutral term with essentially the same meaning as 'manpower planning
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Some confusion as to the meaning of HRP 4

Although a complex subject, the underlying purpose is straightforward, HRP is concerned with having the right people, with the right skills in the right places at the right time.
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The Contemporary Purpose of HRP

The first objective and a major purpose behind the use of HRP is to give an organisation a broad, forward looking insight into not Just the number of employees, but also the type, skills, and attributes of the people that will be needed in the future
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The Contemporary Purpose of HRP 2

The second objective aims to reveal what training and development activities need to be undertaken to ensure that existing employees and new recruits possess the required skills at the right time.
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Manpower costing is listed as the third objective and explains how HRP assists in cost reduction by aiming to work out in advance how organisational operations can be staffed most efficiently
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The Contemporary Purpose of HRP 3

The fourth objective presented by Bramham (1987).is redundancy. HRP is an important tool in the anticipation of future redundancies and therefore allows remedial action to be taken, such as recruitment freezes, retraining, and early retirements so as to reduce the numbers involved.
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The Contemporary Purpose of HRP 4

Fifth objective is collective bargaining. In organisations, with a strong trade union presence, HRP provides important information for use in the bargaining process. It is particularly significant when longterm deals are being negotiated to improve productivity and efficiency
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The Contemporary Purpose of HRP 5

The Contemporary Purpose of HRP 6

The sixth and last objective presented as a purpose of ' HRP deals with the planning of accommodations, such as future need for office space, car parking, and other workplace facilities.
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Reasons for current interest in HRP

Technological changescause problems of surplus, retaining and redeployment. Skill shortage in certain areas continues, for example, software developers, etc
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Reasons for current interest in HRP 2

Organization change and company policies, such as structuring, flat set-up, mergers and acquisitions. Legal control Labour laws lay down that there cannot be closure or retrenchment at will. Proper procedure has to be followed this is long one.
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Reasons for current interest in HRP 3

Skill shortage in reserved categories in government departments Today more than one-third of the workforce is composed of parttimers, temporary workers, and the self-employed, and this number is expected to increase
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Reasons for current interest in HRP 4

Increase in number of immigrants will joining the labour force. Entry level age group reducing 22-27 .

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Reasons for current interest in HRP 4

Reduction of percent of functionally illiterate, workforce and shift to toward a more highly educated workforce. Increasing percentage of women in the workforce
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Human resource planning process

Managers follow a systematic process or model, when undertaking HRP. The three key element of the process are:

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Human resource planning process 2

forecasting the demand for labour, performing supply analysis, and Balancing supply and demand considerations.

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Human resource planning process 3 HRP process involves the following four steps
Forecasting Manpower Requirements

Forecasting Manpower Requirements

Preparing manpower inventory Identifying manpower gaps Formulating manpower plans

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Forecasting Manpower Requirements


This is the first step in manpower planning. The step calls for anticipating the requirements of manpower for a particular future period of time. Future personnel needs are assessed in terms of number, type and quality of people.

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The requirement for new persons may be because of retirement of existing persons, increase in capacity and activity due to which persons are required or due to retrenchment of existing employees on technical ground.
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Forecasting Manpower Requirements 2

Forecasting Manpower Requirements 3

This step also takes into consideration the abilities or skill required for the efficient performance of various jobs. Job analysis is done. Job descriptions and job specifications are prepared to determine job requirements and the quality of needed personnel
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Forecasting Manpower Requirements 4 Major factors which are taken into consideration for HRP are expected changes in methods, processes, automation, technology, diversification of product range, inter-HRM comparison, introduction of job redesign, multi-skills, improvement in productivity by introduction of incentive scheme, etc.
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Preparing Manpower Inventory Manpower inventory or manpower audit refers to the analysis and assessment of current human resources. The purpose is to know the size and quality of personnel available within the organisation to man various positions.
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Preparing Manpower Inventory 2

Manpower audit will indicate the unutilisation of talent and the gaps that exist in the present manpower. The inventory of various skills (skill inventory) may be indexed to ensure that all available talent has been included.
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Preparing Manpower Inventory 3

Forecasting wastages due to retirement, death, resignations, termination, voluntary retirement, promotions and transfers are taken into consideration while assessing the existing human resources

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Identifying Manpower Gaps

The existing number of personnel and their skills are composed with the forecasted manpower requirements, to identify quantitative and qualitative gaps in the work force.
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If in case the requirement personnel are more than available, it has to be decided how such shortages are to be met. If the available manpower exceeds the required one then it is to be decided how to get rid of the excess.
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Identifying Manpower Gaps 2

The manpower plan provides adequate lead time recruitment, selection and training of personnel. In this step appropriate and detailed policies, programmes and strategies for recruitment, selection, training, promotion, retirement, replacement, etc. of existing and new employees to meet the forecasted needs are made.
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Formulating Manpower Plans

Formulating Manpower Plans 2

Such plans are designed to ensure a continuing supply of trained manpower to take over jobs as they fall vacant. Efficient manpower plans are required to meet effectively the manpower needs of enterprise. Such action plans can include:
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Formulating Manpower Plans 3 Redeployment plan. Retraining plan. Recruitment plan Productivity plan. (incentive scheme, job redesign, introduction of new technology, etc.) Retention plan. (such as review of compensation system, working environment)
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Types of Planning
Succession Planning:

According to Taylor (1998), succession planners are mainly interested in ensuring that their employer has enough individuals with the right abilities, skills and experience to promote into key senior jobs, as they become vacant
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Types of Planning 2 Succession Planning 2:

According to Jackson and Schuler (1990), succession planning differs from traditional H RP in the sense that , the succession planning process covers a narrower group of employees but does so with a higher degree of intensity.
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Types of Planning 3 Career Planning:

According to Taylor (1999), career planning emphasizes much more on the individual 's responsibility for his/her own career development . 'Mentoring' and 'coaching' systems whether formal or informal, may be introduced to assist in this.
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Types of Planning 4 Contingency Planning: Contingency planning involves planning possible responses to a variety of potential environmental scenarios, and the result is that HRP effectively switches from being a reactive process to a proactive process undertaken in order to assist the organisation in achieving its aims.
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Types of Planning 5 Competency Planning

The basic principle of this method is to shift away from a focus on planning of people and instead concentrate mainly on skills

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Conclusions

Regardless of the organisational size and industry, the underlying motive behind HRP is to have the right people, with the right skills, in the right places, at the right time. However, the ways to realise this motive do differ from one organisation to another depending on the individual prerequisites.
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Conclusions 2 This could be illustrated by breaking down the motive, where finding the right people, with the right skills is the essential condition for having them at the right place, at the right time In times of organisational growth or downsizing organisations naturally focus on hiring or retaining the right people with the right skills
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Conclusions 3 However, organisations with a modest employee turnover can focus more on having the people in the right place i.e. concentrating more on making sure that the existing workforce is utilised in the optimal way.

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HRD is the process of increasing the capacities of human resources through development. It is a process of adding value to individuals, teams, organisation as human system. It includes development of people, organisation and society.
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HRD

HRD concept is concerned in developing:

HRD 2

Knowledge-technical, management Skills (abilities) Attitudes Build values/beliefs


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Concept of man in HRD


CONCEPT Rational man concept of man (F.W. Taylor) Human relation concept of man (Elton Mayo, Likert) Human resource concept of mand (maslow, Herzberg, McGregor) HRD CONCEPT OF MAN MAN Economic man MOTIVE Fulfilling material and economic needs Fulfilling social and psychological needs Fulfilling ego/achievementself actualising needs Enhancing /improving skills ACHIEVEMENT Increase productivity Job satisfaction

Social man

Self-actualization of man

Improve productivity and job satisfaction

Developmental man

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Attainment of organizational and personal goals

HRD philosophy

HRD philosophy represents those basic beliefs, ideals, principles and views which are held by the management with respect to the development and growth of its employees.
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A well-established HRD philosophy plays two important functions. First, it gives rise to what one may call 'style of management'.

HRD philosophy 2

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HRD philosophy 3

Second, it makes organisational goals more explicit.

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For example, in organizations that have unshakable belief in the development of human potential, though profit may still be the most important goal, investment in human resources also becomes a powerful sub-goal
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HRD philosophy 4

HRD philosophy 5 Following beliefs are essential for the success of any HRD programme:

Human beings are the most important assets in the organisation.

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Human beings can be developed to an unlimited extent. Employees feel committed to their work and the organisation if the organisation develops a feeling of 'belonging' in them.
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HRD philosophy 6

Employees are likely to have a feeling of 'belonging' in them if the organisation adequately cares for the satisfaction of their basic and high-order needs. Employees' commitment to' their work increases when they get opportunity to discover and use their full potential.
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HRD philosophy 7

It is every manager's responsibility to ensure the development and utilisation of the capabilities of his subordinates, to create a healthy and motivating work climate, and to set examples for subordinates to follow.
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HRD philosophy 8

HRD philosophy 9

The higher the level of a manager the more attention he should pay to the HRD function in order to ensure its effectiveness.

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Factors contributing to the growth of HRD in organizations

These factors stem from changing organisation environment and organisational necessities to adapt and innovate in response to these changes. Factors contributing to growth of HRD are:
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Factors contributing to the growth of HRD 2

Increasing competition-requires higher efficiencies in people and focus on core competencies. Explanation and growthrequires managers' higher level of competencies to handle complex operations and restructuring of organizations.
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Factors contributing to the growth of HRD 3

Rapid technological changesdemand changes in systems, structures, skills and these changes create conflict, stress and obsolescence and need innovative solutions. Lack of suitable manpowerrequires to train own employees.
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Changing needs of people-to develop their competencies for achieving organisational objectives and by empowering of employees. HRD interventions can establish new work ethics and values to build greater employee commitment
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Factors contributing to the growth of HRD 4

Objectives of HRD

To maximise the utilisation of human resources for the achievement of individual and organisation goals; HRD involves integration of both individual and organisation needs. To provide opportunity for development of human resources for full expression of their talent and potentials.
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Objectives of HRD 2 To develop constructive mind and overall personality of the employees. To develop the sense of team work and inter-team collaboration. (v) To develop organizational health, culture and effectiveness. To generate information about HRs. HRD is concern of all managers in the organization
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Mechanism of HRD Some mostly used methods or techniques or sub-systems of HRD for developing the competencies and motivation of individuals in an organisation and building the organisation's climate are listed and explained below:
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1.

Training, Education and Development


Focus Learning of present job Purpose Improve performance of the employee Learning of related Preparation of the jobs employee for related jobs in not too distant future Learning not General growth of the employee related to any specific present or future job
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Activity Training

Education

Development

2.Performance Appraisal and Feedback It is very critical HRD mechanism under which the performance of an employee is periodically appraised by the employee himself in collaboration with his boss. They jointly set the goals. The mechanism emphasises the development of the employees (by indentifying their growth needs) rather than their evaluation.
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2.Performance Appraisal and Feedback II

Open, objective and participative appraisal and feedback develop better superior-subordinate relations. During the appraisal interview the superior shares the concerns of the subordinate and even guides him to achieve his targets
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3. Potential Appraisal and Promotion It is another important HRD mechanism which is concerned with identifying the potential of an employee for future development and promotion in the company. This focuses on finding out which given individual's critical attributes are required to handle higher level responsibilities
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4. Career Planning and Development

Employees should be aware of the various phases of development in the company, and plan with senior employees their specific career path.

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5. OD (Organisation Development) Many organisations make use of several OD techniques for the development of their human resource. These include teambuilding to learn how to work in collaboration with each other. Certain interventions are designed to improve the relationships between groups and increase the inter-group effectiveness.
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6. Compensation and Reward

They should be clearly related to the performance and behaviour of employees. These serve as positive reinforcement.

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Conclusion
In a nutshell HRD practices can be summarised as under:
Open communication. Participative involvement processes. Performance appraisal system based on mutual goal-setting, feedback, potential areas of improvement, development relationship building.
Top management involvement and commitment as a change agent for t'~newal of organisation effectiveness
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